Abstract

Thin glass foils are nowadays considered good substrates for lightweight focusing optics, especially for X-ray telescopes. The desired shape can be imparted to the foils by hot slumping, a process that replicates the shape of a slumping mould. During thermal slumping, when the glass and the mould come into contact, ripples in the glass surface appear spontaneously if the thermal expansions are mismatched. In our hot slumping setup, pressure is applied to ease the mould shape replication and to enhance the ripple relaxation. Starting from an existing model developed to explain the ripple formation in hot-slumped glass foils without pressure, we have developed a model that includes the pressure to support our experimental results.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Winter, M. Vongehr, and P. Friedrich, “Light weight optics made by glass thermal forming for future x-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320B (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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  13. Y. Chen, “Thermal forming process for precision freeform optical mirrors and micro glass optics,” PhD thesis, The Ohio State University (2010).
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  15. M. A. Jiménez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, W. W. Craig, and F. E. Christensen, “Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments,” Appl. Optics 42, 4 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. S. Fulcher, “Analysis of recent measurements of the viscosity of glasses,” J. Am. Cer. Soc. 8 (6), 339 (1925).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Winter, M. Vongehr, and P. Friedrich, “Light weight optics made by glass thermal forming for future x-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320B (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. A. Jiménez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, W. W. Craig, and F. E. Christensen, “Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments,” Appl. Optics 42, 4 (2003).
[Crossref]

1925 (1)

G. S. Fulcher, “Analysis of recent measurements of the viscosity of glasses,” J. Am. Cer. Soc. 8 (6), 339 (1925).
[Crossref]

Aldcroft, T. L.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allured, R.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

An, H. J.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Atanassova, M.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Basso, S.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

Bavdaz, M.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Biskach, M.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blaedel, K. L.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Blake, P. N.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brizzolari, C.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

Burwitz, V.

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Byron, G.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Caldwell, D.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chan, K -W.

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chan, K. W.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, “Thermal forming process for precision freeform optical mirrors and micro glass optics,” PhD thesis, The Ohio State University (2010).

Chonko, J.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Christensen, F. E.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Jiménez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, W. W. Craig, and F. E. Christensen, “Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments,” Appl. Optics 42, 4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Citterio, O.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Civitani, M.

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

Civitani, M. M.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Conconi, P.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Cotroneo, V.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Craig, W. W.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Jiménez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, W. W. Craig, and F. E. Christensen, “Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments,” Appl. Optics 42, 4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Davis, W.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Decker, T. A.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Decker, T. R.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Evans, T.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fabricant, A.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Fleetwood, C.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Freeman, F.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, P.

A. Winter, M. Vongehr, and P. Friedrich, “Light weight optics made by glass thermal forming for future x-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320B (2010).
[Crossref]

Fulcher, G. S.

G. S. Fulcher, “Analysis of recent measurements of the viscosity of glasses,” J. Am. Cer. Soc. 8 (6), 339 (1925).
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Gallieni, D.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Ghigo, M.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ghigo and L. Proserpio, “A process for manufacturing an optical element by hot forming a glass sheet using pressure difference,” International Patent Publication Number WO2015/022643.

B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

Gubarev, M.

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gubarev, M. V.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gum, J.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Gunderson, K. S.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hailey, C. J.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Jiménez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, W. W. Craig, and F. E. Christensen, “Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments,” Appl. Optics 42, 4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hajimichael, T.

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hale, L.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Harrison, F. A.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hartner, G. D.

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hill, M.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Holyszko, J.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hong, M.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

HubertChen, C. M.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jalota, L.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jensen, C. B.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Jensen, C. P.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jiménez-Garate, M. A.

M. A. Jiménez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, W. W. Craig, and F. E. Christensen, “Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments,” Appl. Optics 42, 4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Johnson-Wilke, R. L.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jones, W. D.

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kester, T.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koglin, J. E.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kolos, L.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lehan, J. P.

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Madsen, K. K.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marquez, V.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martelli, D.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Mazzarella, J. M.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

McClelland, R.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

McMuldroch, S.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Menz, B.

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mori, K.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Nynka, M.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

O’Dell, S. L.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Olsen, L.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Owens, S.

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pareschi, G.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

Parodi, G.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Petre, R.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pivovaroff, M. J.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Podgorski, W.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proserpio, L.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ghigo and L. Proserpio, “A process for manufacturing an optical element by hot forming a glass sheet using pressure difference,” International Patent Publication Number WO2015/022643.

Ramsey, B. D.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reid, P. B.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Robinson, R.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Romaine, S.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Saha, T. T.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salmaso, B.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

Schwartz, D. A.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, M.

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, M. V.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Sironi, G.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Spiga, D.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

Stern, M.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stokes, Y. M.

Y. M. Stokes, “Very viscous flows driven by gravity, with particular application of slumping of molten glass,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Adelaide (1998).

Tagliaferri, G.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

Tajiri, G.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

Tintori, M.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Trolier-McKinstry, S. E.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vecchi, G.

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, J. Holyszko, D. Spiga, G. Vecchi, and G. Pareschi, “Slumped Glass Optics development with pressure assistance,” Proc. SPIE 9905, 990523 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, C. Brizzolari, S. Basso, M. M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Slumped Glass Optics for X-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96030O (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Civitani, S. Basso, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, G. Vecchi, V. Burwitz, G. D. Hartner, and B. Menz, “X-ray Optical Units made of glass: achievements and perspectives,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 914416 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

Vikhlinin, A. A.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vongehr, M.

A. Winter, M. Vongehr, and P. Friedrich, “Light weight optics made by glass thermal forming for future x-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320B (2010).
[Crossref]

Wilke, R. H. T.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wille, E.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Windt, D. L.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Winter, A.

A. Winter, M. Vongehr, and P. Friedrich, “Light weight optics made by glass thermal forming for future x-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320B (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zambra, A.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. W.

W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K -W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, and S. L. O’Dell, “Development of Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for the Constellation-X Mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, M. Biskach, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, K. W. Chan, T. Evans, C. Fleetwood, M. Hill, M. Hong, L. Jalota, L. Kolos, J. M. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, R. Robinson, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, T. Kester, S. L. O’Dell, D. Caldwell, W. Davis, F. Freeman, W. Podgorski, P. B. Reid, and S. Romaine, “Mirror Technology Development for the International X-ray Observatory Mission (IXO),” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R.

P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, E.

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
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Appl. Optics (1)

M. A. Jiménez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, W. W. Craig, and F. E. Christensen, “Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments,” Appl. Optics 42, 4 (2003).
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Proc. SPIE (10)

J. E. Koglin, C. M. HubertChen, J. Chonko, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, K. S. Gunderson, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, and E. Ziegler, “Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 100 (2004).
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W. W. Craig, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, F. E. Christensen, T. A. Decker, A. Fabricant, J. Gum, C. J. Hailey, L. Hale, C. B. Jensen, J. E. Koglin, K. Mori, M. Nynka, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. V. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of the NuSTAR Flight Optics,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470H (2011).
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G. Pareschi, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, O. Citterio, M. M. Civitani, P. Conconi, D. Gallieni, D. Martelli, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, G. Sironi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, M. Tintori, E. Wille, and A. Zambra, “IXO glass mirrors development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470L (2011).
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A. Winter, M. Vongehr, and P. Friedrich, “Light weight optics made by glass thermal forming for future x-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320B (2010).
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P. B. Reid, T. L. Aldcroft, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, V. Marquez, S. McMuldroch, S. L. O’Dell, B. D. Ramsey, D. A. Schwartz, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, A. A. Vikhlinin, R. H. T. Wilke, and R. Zhao, “Development status of adjustable grazing incidence optics for 0.5 arcsecond X-ray imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9208, 920807 (2014).
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B. Salmaso, S. Basso, C. Brizzolari, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, G. Pareschi, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, and G. Vecchi, “Direct hot slumping of thin glass foils for future generation X-ray telescopes: current state of the art and future outlooks,” Proc. ICSO 2014 (2015).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A glass sheet with ripples on the surface in contact with the mould. Dimensions not in scale.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Predicted relaxation time of surface ripples versus ripple wavelength, for Eagle glass: ripple heights of 200 nm are considered. The black line corresponds to the prediction without pressure. The red, orange and green lines correspond to the predictions for P = 20, 50, and 80 g/cm2, respectively. Left: η = 1011 Pa·s (Tsoak = 750°C), the blue line corresponds to a 4 h time. Right: η = 1012 Pa·s (Tann = 722°C), the blue line marks a 2 h time.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Left: PSD from LTP data for Eagle glass foils slumped at different pressure values. The experimental result is consistent with the prediction of the models (see Fig. 2), showing decreasing PSD values as the pressure is increased. Right: PSD from the central 100×100 mm2 LTP data for Eagle glass foils slumped with the same pressure (and therefore constant τ), but different cooling rates around the annealing temperature. The gradual relaxation of the PSD in time is apparent especially in the centimetre range.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Some key parameters of the Eagle glass used in our work.

Equations (12)

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u ( x ) = h 2 sin ( 2 π λ x ) .
F A = 64 a S λ 2 + 2 ρ g a .
U A ( x ) = 0 u ( 64 S λ 2 + 2 ρ g ) a d a = ( 64 S λ 2 + 2 ρ g ) u 2 ( x ) 2 ,
U A ( x ) = ( 8 S λ 2 + ρ g 4 ) h 2 sin 2 ( 2 π λ ) x = ( 8 S λ 2 + ρ g 4 ) h 2 2 .
F y x A = η d v y d x ,
d U A = F y x d y A = η d v y d x d y = η d v y d x v y d t = d d x ( 1 2 η v y 2 ) d t .
U A = η h 2 2 τ λ .
τ = η 8 S / λ + ρ g λ / 4 .
F A = 64 a S λ 2 + 2 ρ g a + P ,
U A = 8 S h 2 λ 2 + ρ g h 2 + 2 P h 4 .
τ = η 8 S / λ + ρ g λ / 4 + P λ / 2 h ,
log 10 η = A + B T T 0 ,

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