Abstract

We present a variant of spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry for measuring two-dimensional spatio-temporal slices of few-cycle pulses centered around 2 μm. We demonstrate experimentally that the device accurately retrieves the pulse-front tilt caused by angular dispersion of two-cycle pulses. We then use the technique to characterize 500–650 μJ pulses from a hollow fiber pulse compressor, with durations as short as 7.1 fs (1.3 optical cycles).

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2016 (2)

2014 (2)

F. Böhle, M. Kretschmar, A. Jullien, M. Kovacs, M. Miranda, R. Romero, H. Crespo, U. Morgner, P. Simon, R. Lopez-Martens, and T. Nagy, “Compression of CEP-stable multi-mJ laser pulses down to 4 fs in long hollow fibers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 095401 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Tani, J. C. Travers, and P. S. Russell, “Multimode ultrafast nonlinear optics in optical waveguides: numerical modeling and experiments in kagomé photonic-crystal fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 311–320 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

W. A. Okell, T. Witting, D. Fabris, D. Austin, M. Bocoum, F. Frank, A. Ricci, A. Jullien, D. Walke, J. P. Marangos, R. Lopez-Martens, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Carrier-envelope phase stability of hollow fibers used for high-energy few-cycle pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3918–3921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, R. Torres, M. Negro, L. Brugnera, T. Siegel, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and J. P. Marangos, “High harmonic generation spectroscopy of hydrocarbons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241103 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, Éric Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

2008 (4)

JR Birge and FX Kärtner, “Analysis and mitigation of systematic errors in spectral shearing interferometry of pulses approaching the single-cycle limit [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 25–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. FieÃß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, “Intense self-compressed and self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2 μm from an optical filament,” Opt. Lett. 32, 868–870 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dromey, M. Zepf, M. Landreman, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phasematching of harmonic generation via multi-mode beating in waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 7894–7900 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1914–1916 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilă, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (3)

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, “Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 74, s225–s229 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Dorrer, E. Kosik, and I. Walmsley, “Spatio-temporal characterization of the electric field of ultrashort optical pulses using two-dimensional shearing interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 74, 209–217 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, “Launch conditions and mode coupling in hollow-glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2454–2458 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. KrumbÃijgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 28, 1759–1763 (1996).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Akturk, S.

Alonso, B.

Altucci, C.

C. Vozzi, R. Torres, M. Negro, L. Brugnera, T. Siegel, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and J. P. Marangos, “High harmonic generation spectroscopy of hydrocarbons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Apalkov, V.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. FieÃß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arrell, C. A.

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austin, D.

Austin, D. R.

Azzeer, A. M.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babzien, M.

I. V. Pogorelsky, I. Ben-Zvi, J. Skaritka, M. Babzien, M. N. Polyanskiy, Z. Najmudin, N. Dover, and W. Lu, “New opportunities for strong-field LPI research in the mid-IR,” Proc. SPIE9509 (2015).

Baker, S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilă, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balciunas, T.

Baltuška, A.

Barillot, T.

Bates, P. K.

Béjot, P.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, Éric Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benabid, F.

Ben-Zvi, I.

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (2)

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, “Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 74, s225–s229 (2002).
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M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
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C. Vozzi, R. Torres, M. Negro, L. Brugnera, T. Siegel, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and J. P. Marangos, “High harmonic generation spectroscopy of hydrocarbons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241103 (2010).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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T. Witting, S. J. Weber, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Spatio-temporal characterization of mid-infrared laser pulses with spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 27974–27980 (2012).
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G. Fan, T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, S. Haessler, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gérôme, F. Benabid, A. Baltuška, and T. Witting, “X-sea-f-spider characterization of over octave spanning pulses in the infrared range,” Opt. Express 24, 12713–12729 (2016).
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Opt. Lett. (10)

E. Rubino, D. Faccio, L. Tartara, P. K. Bates, O. Chalus, M. Clerici, F. Bonaretti, J. Biegert, and P. D. Trapani, “Spatiotemporal amplitude and phase retrieval of space-time coupled ultrashort pulses using the Shackled-FROG technique,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3854–3856 (2009).
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T. Witting, D. R. Austin, T. Barillot, D. Greening, P. Matia-Hernando, D. Walke, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Self-referenced characterization of space–time couplings in near-single-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2382–2385 (2016).
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T. Witting, D. R. Austin, and I. A. Walmsley, “Improved ancilla preparation in spectral shearing interferometry for accurate ultrafast pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 34, 881–883 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Kosik, A. Radunsky, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Dorrer, “Interferometric technique for measuring broadband ultra-short pulses at the sampling limit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 326–328 (2005).
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A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1914–1916 (2006).
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Y. Deng, A. Schwarz, H. Fattahi, M. Ueffing, X. Gu, M. Ossiander, T. Metzger, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, G. Marcus, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and N. Karpowicz, “Carrier-envelope-phase-stable, 1.2 mJ, 1.5 cycle laser pulses at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4973–4975 (2012).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) entire setup for generation and characterization of few-cycle 2 μm pulses, and (b) SEA-F-SPIDER. Symbols are glass plate (GP), interferometric band-pass filter (IBPF), and measurement plane (MP). Dashed lines indicate beams used for auxiliary or calibration measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)Setup for preparing near transform limited pulses with a tilted front in the focus. (b) Reconstructed spatio-temporal intensity (color scale) with theoretical pulse front tilt superimposed (red). (c) Same as (b), but with the wedge orientations reversed. The y-axis in (b) and (c) corresponds to the crystal plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectrum reconstructed with SEA-F-SPIDER (blue) and fundamental measured on commercial InGaAs spectrometer (red), with maximum wavelength 2100 nm. (b) Measured (blue) and calculated (red) spectral phase introduced by 2.4 mm fused silica (left-hand y-axis); spectrum of pulse used for measurement (grey, right-hand y-axis).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectral and temporal profiles produced by compressing 1800 nm (a,b) and 2060 nm (c,d) pulses. (a) & (c): spectral intensity (blue, left y-axis), and phase (red, right y-axis). (b) & (d): temporal intensity with FWHM duration and equivalent number of optical cycles (OC) indicated. The shaded areas show the extremes (minimum and maximum) of 10 consecutive measurements; the lines show the average. Parameters are given in Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured spectral and temporal profiles of pulses produced by broadening 2060 nm pulses for different HCF exit pressures (rows). Left column: spectral intensity (blue, left y-axis) and phase (red, right y-axis). Right column: temporal intensity, with FWHM duration and number of optical cycles indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatio-temporal reconstructions with input wavelength 2060 nm and HCF exit pressure 1.4 bar; (a) & (d) show spectral intensity, (b) & (e) show spectral phase, and (c) & (f) show temporal intensity. In panels (a)–(c), the HCF input coupling is optimized, whereas in panels (d)–(f), the input beam is misaligned by 6 mrad. Note that the intensity color scale is nonlinear to improve the visibility of low amplitude features.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spatio-spectral distribution with a smaller-than optical input focus FWHM of 135 μm and input wavelength 1800 nm; other parameters in Table 1, (a) measured (b) simulated. (c) Amplitude profiles of the fundamental (blue) and HE12 (green) modes. (d) Simulated spectral density of input pulse (red), output fundamental mode (blue), and output HE12 mode (green).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters for tunable few-cycle pulse generation in Fig. 4.

Equations (5)

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Γ ( ω + ω A , y ; Ω ) = [ ϕ T ( ω + Ω , y ) + ψ ( ω B , y ) + θ ω B y c ] [ ϕ T ( ω , y ) + ψ ( ω A , y ) θ ω A y c ]
Γ ( ω + ω A , y ; 0 ) = 2 θ ω A y c .
Γ c ( ω + ω A , y ; Ω ) = Γ ( ω + ω A , y ; Ω ) Γ ( ω + ω A , y ; 0 )
= [ ψ ( ω B , y ) ψ ( ω A , y ) ] θ Ω y c + Γ i ( ω , y ; Ω ) .
Γ i ( ω , y ; Ω ) = ϕ T ( ω + Ω , y ) ϕ T ( ω , y ) ,

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