Abstract

We report a regeneratively FM mode-locked erbium fiber laser operating at 9.2 GHz, in which a SESAM saturable absorber and a higher-order soliton effect are combined to generate a 440 fs pulse train. Higher-order solitons have a narrow center peak while accompanied by pedestals on the wing, but such components can be well suppressed by the saturable absorber, which enables very efficient pulse narrowing. As a result, 440 and 480 fs transform-limited sech pulses were successfully obtained at output powers of 15 and 45 mW, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1605 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling Iii, “10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening,” Opt. Lett. 21(23), 1927–1929 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, and K. Tsuzuki, “A 380 fs, 40 GHz mode-locked erbium fiber laser with an MQW nonlinear PM/AM modulator using the Pockels effect and the QCSE,” in CLEO 2014 (OSA, 2014), paper STu1N.6.
  4. K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1080–1082 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Chao, M. Sander, G. Chang, J. Morse, J. Cox, G. Petrich, L. Kolodziejski, F. Kaertner, and E. Ippen, “Self-referenced erbium fiber laser frequency comb at a GHz repetition rate,” in OFC 2012 (OSA, 2012), paper OW1C.2.
  6. M. L. Dennis, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Active-passive modelocking in a single-polarisation erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1051–1053 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. X. Yu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, and A. Sysoliatin, “Gigahertz-repetition-rate mode-locked fiber laser for continuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1418–1420 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. I. Hernandez-Romano, J. Davila-Rodriguez, D. Mandridis, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, D. A. May-Arrioja, and P. J. Delfyett, “Hybrid mode locked fiber laser using a PDMS/SWCNT composite operating at 4 GHz,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3237–3242 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Hirooka, K. Tokuhira, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, “A 440 fs, 9.2 GHz hybrid mode-locked erbium fiber laser with a combination of higher-order solitons and a SESAM saturable absorber,” in CLEO 2016 (OSA, 2016), paper STu1P.4.
  10. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarisation-maintaining erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1604 (1994).
    [Crossref]

2011 (1)

2000 (1)

1996 (2)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling Iii, “10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening,” Opt. Lett. 21(23), 1927–1929 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1605 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. L. Dennis, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Active-passive modelocking in a single-polarisation erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1051–1053 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarisation-maintaining erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1604 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Carruthers, T. F.

T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling Iii, “10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening,” Opt. Lett. 21(23), 1927–1929 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Dennis, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Active-passive modelocking in a single-polarisation erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1051–1053 (1994).
[Crossref]

Davila-Rodriguez, J.

Delfyett, P. J.

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Active-passive modelocking in a single-polarisation erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1051–1053 (1994).
[Crossref]

der Au, J. A.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Duling, I. N.

M. L. Dennis, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Active-passive modelocking in a single-polarisation erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1051–1053 (1994).
[Crossref]

Duling Iii, I. N.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

Hernandez-Romano, I.

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1605 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarisation-maintaining erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1604 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mandridis, D.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

May-Arrioja, D. A.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarisation-maintaining erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1604 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1605 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

Sysoliatin, A.

Tamura, K.

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wong, W. S.

Yoshida, E.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1605 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarisation-maintaining erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1604 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. X.

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1605 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. L. Dennis, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Active-passive modelocking in a single-polarisation erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1051–1053 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively modelocked polarisation-maintaining erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1603–1604 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (3)

D. Chao, M. Sander, G. Chang, J. Morse, J. Cox, G. Petrich, L. Kolodziejski, F. Kaertner, and E. Ippen, “Self-referenced erbium fiber laser frequency comb at a GHz repetition rate,” in OFC 2012 (OSA, 2012), paper OW1C.2.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, and K. Tsuzuki, “A 380 fs, 40 GHz mode-locked erbium fiber laser with an MQW nonlinear PM/AM modulator using the Pockels effect and the QCSE,” in CLEO 2014 (OSA, 2014), paper STu1N.6.

T. Hirooka, K. Tokuhira, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, “A 440 fs, 9.2 GHz hybrid mode-locked erbium fiber laser with a combination of higher-order solitons and a SESAM saturable absorber,” in CLEO 2016 (OSA, 2016), paper STu1P.4.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Configuration of a 9.2 GHz regeneratively FM mode-locked fiber laser with SESAM. The abbreviations are defined in the text.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Dispersion profile of laser cavity.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflectivity of SESAM.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Configuration of mode-locked laser cavity used for numerical simulations.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transient evolution of a laser pulse starting from the initial ASE noise seed (a) without SESAM and (b) with SESAM in the cavity. The figures on the right are an expanded view of those on the left.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Waveform (a) and spectrum (b) of an output pulse after chirp compensation from a 9.2 GHz mode-locked fiber laser, and the change in the pulse width inside the cavity in a steady state (c).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Relationship between pulse width and optical power in a cavity obtained by numerical simulation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Waveform and spectrum of an output pulse after chirp compensation from a 9.2 GHz hybrid mode-locked fiber laser obtained by a numerical simulation assuming a strong saturable absorption in the SESAM. (a) α0 = 0.1 × 106 m−1 and the optical power is 280 mW, (b) α0 = 0.2 × 106 m−1 and the optical power is 380 mW.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Minimum pulse width and corresponding soliton order for various α0 values.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Relationship between pulse width and optical power in a cavity obtained experimentally.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Laser output pulse characteristics for average powers of 150 mW (a) and 170 mW (b). (a-1), (b-1): Autocorrelation waveform, (a-2), (b-2): optical spectrum. (a-3), (b-3): RF spectrum of the output pulse train detected with a high-speed photodetector.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Laser output pulse characteristics when the HNLF and SESAM were moved to after the output coupler (a): Autocorrelation waveform, (b) optical spectrum.

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