Abstract

We present a 32 channel indium phosphide integrated pulse shaper with 25 GHz channel spacing, where each channel is equipped with a semiconductor optical amplifier allowing for programmable line-by-line gain control with submicrosecond reconfigurability. We critically test the integrated pulse shaper by using it in comb-based RF-photonic filtering experiments where the precise gain control is leveraged to synthesize high-fidelity RF filters which we reconfigure on a microsecond time scale. Our on-chip pulse shaping demonstration is unmatched in its combination of speed, fidelity, and flexibility, and will likely open new avenues in the field of advanced broadband signal generation and processing.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. G. Nguyen, M. Shoeiby, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, R. Morandotti, A. Mitchell, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated frequency comb source based Hilbert transformer for wideband microwave photonic phase analysis,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22087–22097 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

A. J. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “High-power broadly tunable electrooptic frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 231–236 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Tahvili, S. Latkowski, B. Smalbrugge, X. J. M. Leijtens, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, M. K. Smit, and E. A. J. M. Bente, “InP-based integrated optical pulse shaper: Demonstration of chirp compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 450–453 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, G. Li, C. Lim, and J. Yao, “Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22862–22867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

M. Song, V. Torres-Company, A. J. Metcalf, and A. M. Weiner, “Multitap microwave photonic filters with programmable phase response via optical frequency comb shaping,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 845–847 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. T. Nguyen, F. Villain, and Y. Le Guillou, “Cognitive Radio RF: Overview and Challenges,” VLSI Des. 2012, 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Comb-based radiofrequency photonic filters with rapid tunability and high selectivity,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 186–194 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1075 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Torres-Company, A. J. Metcalf, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Multichannel radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation based on multiwavelength comb switching and 2-D line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 891–893 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Reconfigurable Integrated Optoelectronics,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2011, 1–15 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 053833 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, “Ultrafast optical pulse shaping: A tutorial review,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3669–3692 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “Tunable programmable microwave photonic filters based on an optical frequency comb,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3269–3278 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. H. Baek, F. M. Soares, S. W. Seo, W. Jiang, N. K. Fontaine, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, and S. J. B. Yoo, “10-GHz and 20-GHz channel spacing high-resolution AWGs on InP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 298–300 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, P. Muñoz, B. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, fabrication and characterization of an InP-based tunable integrated optical pulse shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-multiplexed photonically enabled radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation with 100 ps transitions,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3242–3244 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1557–1559 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 100-channel WDM channel selector employing low-crosstalk AWG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2481–2483 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

E. J. Thrush, J. P. Stagg, M. A. Gibbon, R. E. Mallard, B. Hamilton, J. M. Jowett, and E. M. Allen, “Selective and non-planar epitaxy of InP/GaInAs (P) by MOCVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 21(2), 130–146 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

T. L. Koch and U. Koren, “Semiconductor photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(3), 641–653 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, “Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometre resolution,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 87 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. K. Smit, “New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array,” Electron. Lett. 24(7), 385 (1988).
[Crossref]

Allen, E. M.

E. J. Thrush, J. P. Stagg, M. A. Gibbon, R. E. Mallard, B. Hamilton, J. M. Jowett, and E. M. Allen, “Selective and non-planar epitaxy of InP/GaInAs (P) by MOCVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 21(2), 130–146 (1993).
[Crossref]

Andres, M.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, J. H.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Baek, F. M. Soares, S. W. Seo, W. Jiang, N. K. Fontaine, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, and S. J. B. Yoo, “10-GHz and 20-GHz channel spacing high-resolution AWGs on InP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 298–300 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barbarin, Y.

M. J. R. Heck, P. Muñoz, B. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, fabrication and characterization of an InP-based tunable integrated optical pulse shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bente, E. A. J. M.

S. Tahvili, S. Latkowski, B. Smalbrugge, X. J. M. Leijtens, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, M. K. Smit, and E. A. J. M. Bente, “InP-based integrated optical pulse shaper: Demonstration of chirp compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 450–453 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck, P. Muñoz, B. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, fabrication and characterization of an InP-based tunable integrated optical pulse shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bostak, J. S.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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Bourderionnet, J.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1075 (2012).
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J. H. Baek, F. M. Soares, S. W. Seo, W. Jiang, N. K. Fontaine, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, and S. J. B. Yoo, “10-GHz and 20-GHz channel spacing high-resolution AWGs on InP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 298–300 (2009).
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Butrie, T.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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J. H. Baek, F. M. Soares, S. W. Seo, W. Jiang, N. K. Fontaine, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, and S. J. B. Yoo, “10-GHz and 20-GHz channel spacing high-resolution AWGs on InP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 298–300 (2009).
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Capmany, J.

Castelló-Lurbe, D.

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
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F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
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Colman, P.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1075 (2012).
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J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1075 (2012).
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R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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Cruz, J.

De Rossi, A.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1075 (2012).
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Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
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Dentai, A.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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Dentai, A. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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Diddams, S. A.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
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S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 053833 (2011).
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Dolfi, D.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1075 (2012).
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Dominic, V. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
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F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
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J. H. Baek, F. M. Soares, S. W. Seo, W. Jiang, N. K. Fontaine, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, and S. J. B. Yoo, “10-GHz and 20-GHz channel spacing high-resolution AWGs on InP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 298–300 (2009).
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N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
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Gibbon, M. A.

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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
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F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
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F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
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N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
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Holzwarth, R.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
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Huang, C.-B.

Huan-Shang, T.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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Hurtt, S.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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J. H. Baek, F. M. Soares, S. W. Seo, W. Jiang, N. K. Fontaine, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, and S. J. B. Yoo, “10-GHz and 20-GHz channel spacing high-resolution AWGs on InP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 298–300 (2009).
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Jiang, Z.

Jowett, J. M.

E. J. Thrush, J. P. Stagg, M. A. Gibbon, R. E. Mallard, B. Hamilton, J. M. Jowett, and E. M. Allen, “Selective and non-planar epitaxy of InP/GaInAs (P) by MOCVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 21(2), 130–146 (1993).
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R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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Kim, H.-J.

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
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S. Tahvili, S. Latkowski, B. Smalbrugge, X. J. M. Leijtens, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, M. K. Smit, and E. A. J. M. Bente, “InP-based integrated optical pulse shaper: Demonstration of chirp compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 450–453 (2013).
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J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, H.-J. Kim, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Programmable single-bandpass photonic RF filter based on Kerr comb from a microring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3557–3565 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

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F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
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Wang, X.

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “Tunable programmable microwave photonic filters based on an optical frequency comb,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3269–3278 (2010).
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J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5957 (2015).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, H.-J. Kim, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Programmable single-bandpass photonic RF filter based on Kerr comb from a microring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3557–3565 (2014).
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A. J. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “High-power broadly tunable electrooptic frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 231–236 (2013).
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V. Torres-Company, A. J. Metcalf, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Multichannel radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation based on multiwavelength comb switching and 2-D line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 891–893 (2012).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. J. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5957 (2015).
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E. Hamid, R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Tunable radio frequency photonic filter based on intensity modulation of optical combs,” in 2010 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2010), pp. 393–396.
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (316 KB)      Dynamic shaping process

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Image of fabricated chip. (b) Loopback AWG design. (c) Single channel power measurements: (green) CW laser measured at input of pulse shaper, (red) output of pulse shaper with SOA at maximum bias of 1.8V, (blue) output of pulse shaper with SOA at 0V bias. (d) Output of pulse shaper (normalized) with broadband Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) source and each SOA individually biased.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical test setup. An optoelectronic comb generator made up of a continuous wave laser, 1 intensity modulator (IM), and 5 phase modulators (PM) is used to generate a 12.5 GHz frequency comb. A 25 DPSK is then used to cut every other line from the spectrum to create a 25 GHz test comb. The light is coupled to the pulse shaper PIC through PM lensed fiber and recovered off chip using standard lensed fiber. The components shown in green were utilized for the time domain measurements in Sections 2(b,d). Here, the external bulk pulse shaper after the comb generator was used to both compress the 25 GHz comb and correct for the phase differences arising from path length differences between channels in the integrated pulse shaper. OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier, DPSK: differential-phase-shift-keying demodulator, SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measurements for 50 GHz (red) and 25 GHz (blue) flat top comb masks. (a) OSA traces at output of integrated pulse shaper, (b) Autocorrelation traces, and (c) photodetected electrical waveforms taken with 50 GHz sampling scope.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 High fidelity comb shaping experiment. (a) input comb to integrated pulse shaper (blue) and output after shaping with iterative feedback control (red). The dynamic shaping process can be seen in Visualization 1. (b) zoom of the shaped spectral output (red) and target spectral profile programmed on the pulse shaper (black). The standard deviation of the input comb was 2.48 dB and improved to 0.099 dB after shaping.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Single channel switching speed measurement comparing SOA electrical drive signal (red) to the photodetected optical output (blue). (a) SOA switched from maximum bias to minimum, and (b) minimum bias to maximum bias. 90/10 rise fall time of optical signal is ~400-500 ns.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 32 channel switching experiments when shaper mask is changed from 50 GHz to 25 GHz (a), and 25 to 50 GHz (b). The optical waveforms were detected with a 50 GHz photodetector and measured with a 63 GHz realtime oscilloscope. The spectrograms were processed offline using a 40 ns Hamming window. The figure insets (i and ii) and (iii and iv) show the magnitude squared of the short-term Fourier Transforms which correspond to the highlighted windows in the temporal traces of (a) and (b), respectively. The highlighted sections occur roughly 1 microsecond before and after each switching event.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 RF–filtering setup. The spectral profile of the 25 GHz comb source is tailored in the integrated pulse shaper using feedback from an OSA to create different filter shapes. The tailored spectrum is then amplified in an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and split into an interferometric configuration. The top path of the interferometer has a variable delay line (VDL), which can be used to tune the center frequency of the passbands. The bottom path incorporates a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) which modulates the RF signal to be filtered onto each of the optical carriers. The two interferometer arms are then recombined in a polarization beam combiner and travel through a length of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) which imparts a differential delay between the filter taps. Finally, the optical signal is split using a polarization beam splitter and both copies are detected using a balanced photodetector (BPD). A vector network analyzer is used to measure the RF gain vs. frequency response.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Optical shaping and RF filtering results for Flat Top, Hamming, and Gaussian filters. (a-c) the shaping error between the target optical spectral profile and measured profile after spectral shaping, (d-f) the measured optical spectra-blue and target profile-red. Finally, (g-i) show the measured RF-gain vs frequency for each RF filter shape in green along with the expected result which was calculated using the recorded optical spectrum.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Filter response for different delay set points in the variable delay line (VDL). After setting each delay, we reload the saved spectral masks from Fig. 8, for Flat Top, Hamming, and Gaussian filter shapes, and measure the RF-gain vs frequency.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 RF filtering arrangement for rapid reconfiguration. (a) Test setup with two multiplexed RF signals at 3.08 GHz and 3.19 GHz. The driver board has two programmed shaping vectors which are rapidly cycled back-and-forth using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The filtered RF signal is recorded on a 20 GHz realtime oscilloscope. (b) RF-filter response for both Flat Top and Hamming comb apodizations.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Results from fast RF-switching experiment where the integrated pulse shaper rapidly switches between the Flat Top and Hamming spectral mask. (a) recorded oscilloscope trace of filtered signal and calculated spectrogram when single 3.19 GHz tone is sent through the RF-photonic filter. (b) recorded oscilloscope trace of filtered signal and calculated spectrogram when both 3.19 GHz and 3.08 GHz tone are multiplexed at the filter input. (c) zoom in oscilloscope trace in (b) showing beating between 3.08 and 3.19 signals when Hamming mask is active. (d) zoom in oscilloscope trace from (b) when Flat Top mask is active.

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Table 1 RF-Filtering Results

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