Abstract

A new route to efficient generation of THz pulses with high-energy was demonstrated using semiconductor materials pumped at an infrared wavelength sufficiently long to suppress both two- and three-photon absorption and associated free-carrier absorption at THz frequencies. For pumping beyond the three-photon absorption edge, the THz generation efficiency for optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses with tilted intensity front in ZnTe was shown to increase 3.5 times, as compared to pumping below the absorption edge. The four-photon absorption coefficient of ZnTe was estimated to be β4=(4±1)×105 cm5/GW3. THz pulses with 14 μJ energy were generated with as high as 0.7% efficiency in ZnTe pumped at 1.7 µm. It is shown that scaling the THz pulse energy to the mJ level by increasing the pump spot size and pump pulse energy is feasible.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (5)

2014 (8)

F. D. J. Brunner, S.-H. Lee, O.-P. Kwon, and T. Feurer, “THz generation by optical rectification of near-infrared laser pulses in the organic nonlinear optical crystal HMQ-TMS,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(8), 1586–1592 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, W. R. Huang, S. Carbajo, X. Wu, and F. Kärtner, “Limitations to THz generation by optical rectification using tilted pulse fronts,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20239–20251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tsubouchi, K. Nagashima, F. Yoshida, Y. Ochi, and M. Maruyama, “Contact grating device with Fabry-Perot resonator for effective terahertz light generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5439–5442 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Bakunov and S. B. Bodrov, “Terahertz generation with tilted-front laser pulses in a contact-grating scheme,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(11), 2549–2557 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Tóth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Ollmann, J. A. Fülöp, J. Hebling, and G. Almási, “Design of a high-energy terahertz pulse source based on ZnTe contact grating,” Opt. Commun. 315, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2011 (1)

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Terahertz-wave generation with periodically inverted gallium arsenide,” Laser Phys. 19(2), 305–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256(4-6), 400–413 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64(9), 094301 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(8), 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13(1), 103–150 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

Almási, G.

Z. Ollmann, J. A. Fülöp, J. Hebling, and G. Almási, “Design of a high-energy terahertz pulse source based on ZnTe contact grating,” Opt. Commun. 315, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171107 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriukaitis, G.

P. Malevich, G. Andriukaitis, T. Flöry, A. J. Verhoef, A. Fernández, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. H. Tan, C. F. Chua, and P. B. Phua, “High energy and average power femtosecond laser for driving mid-infrared optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2746–2749 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

Arthur, G.

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

Bakunov, M. I.

Balciunas, T.

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

Baltuska, A.

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

Baltuška, A.

Bandulet, H.-C.

Bartal, B.

Biegert, J.

Blanchard, F.

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 microJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bock, M.

Bodrov, S. B.

Brunner, F. D. J.

Calendron, A. L.

Cankaya, H.

Carbajo, S.

Carey, J. J.

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256(4-6), 400–413 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chatterjee, G.

Chi, C. C.

Chu, W.-C.

Chua, C. F.

Cirloganu, C. M.

Cooke, D. G.

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

DeSalvo, R.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(8), 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

Doi, A.

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

Elsaesser, T.

Fallahi, A.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández, A.

Feurer, T.

Flöry, T.

Fülöp, J. A.

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Tóth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ollmann, J. A. Fülöp, J. Hebling, and G. Almási, “Design of a high-energy terahertz pulse source based on ZnTe contact grating,” Opt. Commun. 315, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171107 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

Granados, E.

Griebner, U.

Guenther, A. H.

Hagan, D. J.

Hartl, I.

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Tóth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Ollmann, J. A. Fülöp, J. Hebling, and G. Almási, “Design of a high-energy terahertz pulse source based on ZnTe contact grating,” Opt. Commun. 315, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171107 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11706–11713 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

Hegmann, F. A.

Hemmer, M.

Hirori, H.

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M. C.

Hong, K.-H.

Huang, S.-W.

Huang, W. R.

Jahnke, T.

Jelínek, M.

Jelinkova, H.

Ji, W.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karsch, S.

Kärtner, F.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kieffer, J.-C.

Klingebiel, S.

Kobayashi, T.

Kozma, I.

Krausz, F.

Kroetz, P.

Ku, S. A.

Kubecek, V.

Kuhl, J.

Kunitski, M.

Kwon, O.-P.

Lee, S.-H.

Légaré, F.

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13(1), 103–150 (1984).
[Crossref]

Li, H. P.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

Lombosi, C.

Luo, C. W.

Malevich, P.

Maruyama, M.

Mechler, M.

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. J. D.

Mitra, S. S.

Monoszlai, B.

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

Morandotti, R.

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 microJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moriena, G.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murari, K.

Nagashima, K.

Nanni, E. A.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nathan, V.

Nelson, K. A.

Ochi, Y.

Ollmann, Z.

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ollmann, J. A. Fülöp, J. Hebling, and G. Almási, “Design of a high-energy terahertz pulse source based on ZnTe contact grating,” Opt. Commun. 315, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Olszak, P. D.

Ozaki, T.

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 microJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilha, L. A.

Pálfalvi, L.

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Tóth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phua, P. B.

Polónyi, G.

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

Pugzlys, A.

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

Pugžlys, A.

Ravi, K.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, W. R. Huang, S. Carbajo, X. Wu, and F. Kärtner, “Limitations to THz generation by optical rectification using tilted pulse fronts,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20239–20251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Razzari, L.

Reid, M.

Richter, M.

Ropagnol, X.

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

Ruehl, A.

Said, A. A.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(8), 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sánchez, D.

Schall, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64(9), 094301 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. E.

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

Schöffler, M.

Sharma, G.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(8), 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[Crossref]

Skrobol, C.

Smirnov, V.

Tan, L. H.

Tanaka, K.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, S. H.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thiré, N.

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomson, M. D.

Tiedje, H. F.

Tóth, G.

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Tóth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsubouchi, M.

Tu, C. M.

Ueberschaer, D.

Uhd Jepsen, P.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64(9), 094301 (2001).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Verhoef, A. J.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Terahertz-wave generation with periodically inverted gallium arsenide,” Laser Phys. 19(2), 305–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

von Grafenstein, L.

Vredenborg, A.

Walther, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64(9), 094301 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Webster, S.

Wei, T.

Wu, J.

Wu, K. H.

Wu, X.

Wynne, K.

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256(4-6), 400–413 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yabushita, A.

Yeh, K.-L.

Yin, M.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, F.

Young, J.

Zapata, L. E.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171107 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, B. E. Schmidt, X. Ropagnol, N. Thiré, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, D. G. Cooke, and F. Légaré, “Terahertz pulse generation from bulk GaAs by a tilted-pulse-front excitation at 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241106 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(8), 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13(1), 103–150 (1984).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Terahertz-wave generation with periodically inverted gallium arsenide,” Laser Phys. 19(2), 305–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

C. Lombosi, G. Polónyi, M. Mechler, Z. Ollmann, J. Hebling, and J. A. Fülöp, “Nonlinear distortion of intense THz beams,” New J. Phys. 17(8), 083041 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Z. Ollmann, J. A. Fülöp, J. Hebling, and G. Almási, “Design of a high-energy terahertz pulse source based on ZnTe contact grating,” Opt. Commun. 315, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256(4-6), 400–413 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

S. A. Ku, C. M. Tu, W.-C. Chu, C. W. Luo, K. H. Wu, A. Yabushita, C. C. Chi, and T. Kobayashi, “Saturation of the free carrier absorption in ZnTe crystals,” Opt. Express 21(12), 13930–13937 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kunitski, M. Richter, M. D. Thomson, A. Vredenborg, J. Wu, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, H. Schmidt-Böcking, H. G. Roskos, and R. Dörner, “Optimization of single-cycle terahertz generation in LiNbO3 for sub-50 femtosecond pump pulses,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6826–6836 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11706–11713 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 microJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12311–12327 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, W. R. Huang, S. Carbajo, X. Wu, and F. Kärtner, “Limitations to THz generation by optical rectification using tilted pulse fronts,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20239–20251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. von Grafenstein, M. Bock, D. Ueberschaer, U. Griebner, and T. Elsaesser, “Picosecond 34 mJ pulses at kHz repetition rates from a Ho:YLF amplifier at 2 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33142–33149 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Cirloganu, P. D. Olszak, L. A. Padilha, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Three-photon absorption spectra of zinc blende semiconductors: theory and experiment,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2626–2628 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tsubouchi, K. Nagashima, F. Yoshida, Y. Ochi, and M. Maruyama, “Contact grating device with Fabry-Perot resonator for effective terahertz light generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5439–5442 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Malevich, G. Andriukaitis, T. Flöry, A. J. Verhoef, A. Fernández, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. H. Tan, C. F. Chua, and P. B. Phua, “High energy and average power femtosecond laser for driving mid-infrared optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2746–2749 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hemmer, D. Sánchez, M. Jelínek, V. Smirnov, H. Jelinkova, V. Kubeček, and J. Biegert, “2-μm wavelength, high-energy Ho:YLF chirped-pulse amplifier for mid-infrared OPCPA,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 451–454 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kroetz, A. Ruehl, G. Chatterjee, A. L. Calendron, K. Murari, H. Cankaya, P. Li, F. X. Kärtner, I. Hartl, and R. J. D. Miller, “Overcoming bifurcation instability in high-repetition-rate Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 40(23), 5427–5430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64(9), 094301 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams (1)

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Tóth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

D. Peceli, P. D. Olszak, C. M. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, T. Ensley, H. Hu, G. Nootz, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Three-photon absorption of GaAs and other semiconductors,” in Nonlinear Optics Technical Digest (2013), paper NTu1B.6.

G. Andriukaitis, E. Kaksis, G. Polónyi, J. A. Fülöp, A. Baltuska, and A. Pugzlys, “220-fs 110-mJ Yb:CaF2 cryogenic multipass amplifier,” in CLEO:2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America), (2015), paper SM1P.7.

J. A. Fülöp, G. Polónyi, B. Monoszlai, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, A. Pugzlys, G. Arthur, A. Baltuska, and J. Hebling, “Highly efficient scalable monolithic semiconductor terahertz pulse source,” Optica. in press.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic band structure of ZnTe having a direct bandgap and scheme of various MPA processes of order n pumped at the respective absorption edges of wavelengths λ n P A = c / ν n P A , with c being the vacuum speed of light. (b) PFT angle versus pump wavelength for phase matching at 1 THz in LN and selected semiconductors. The symbols indicate the wavelengths of MPA edges of various orders. In case of GaP, the indirect bandgap is considered. The dashed vertical lines and the diamond symbols indicate the wavelengths and materials used in the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated THz generation efficiencies as function of pump intensity for ZnTe (red lines) and GaP (blue lines) for pump wavelengths set below (dashed lines) and above (solid and short-dashed lines) the 3PA edge. The order of MPA process taken into account is indicated in parentheses in the legend. 100 fs pump pulse duration and a crystal length of 2.9 mm was assumed. The phase matching frequency and the THz spectral peak were matched in each case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pump pulse duration as function of the pump propagation distance z for LN, ZnTe, and GaP crystals. For LN a pump wavelength of 1 µm, for ZnTe and GaP 1.7 µm were chosen. The position of minimum (Fourier limited) pulse duration was arbitrarily set by pre-chirp to 5 mm in all cases (indicated by the vertical dashed-dotted line). (b) THz generation efficiency as a function of THz propagation distance. Parameters used in the simulations: 100 fs Fourier limited pump pulse duration with a pre-chirp at z = 0 , pump intensity of 9 GW/cm2, and phase matching at 1 THz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup. BS: beam splitter, G: grating, λ/2: half-wave plate, L: lens, OAPs: off-axis parabolic mirrors, P: pellicle beam splitter, ZnTe: sandwiched ZnTe crystal for electro-optic sampling, λ/4: quarter-wave plate, WP: Wollaston prism, BPD: balanced photodiodes. The inset shows the orientation of crystal axes in the semiconductor prisms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

THz energy as function of pump energy (a) and THz generation efficiency as function of pump intensity (b) for ZnTe pumped at 1.45 µm and 1.7 µm wavelengths, and for GaP pumped at 1.7 µm. The pump pulse duration from the tunable OPA was about 100 fs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

THz energy as function of pump energy (a) and THz generation efficiency as function of pump intensity (b) for ZnTe pumped by the high-energy OPA at 1.7 µm. The pump pulse duration from the high-energy OPA was about 144 fs. The dashed curve in (b) is a result of simulation taking into account 4PA.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Temporal waveform of THz pulses generated in ZnTe, pumped at 1.7 µm by the high-energy OPA, and measured by EOS at maximum pump energy. (b) Field AC of THz pulses measured by a Michelson interferometer at maximum pump energy. (c) Spectral amplitude of THz pulses obtained by Fourier transformation of EOS data (black line) and field AC (red line), and from simulation (blue line).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of THz generation results. Data are classified according to the lowest-order effective MPA, determined by the pump photon energy compared to bandgap. λ p u m p : pump wavelength, γ : PFT angle. The efficiency and THz pulse energy values for this work refer to data measured with the high-energy OPA (144 fs pump pulse duration), while values in parentheses refer to those with the tunable OPA (100 fs pulse duration).

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