Abstract

We conceive an improved procedure to determine the laser intensity with the momentum distributions from nonadiabatic tunneling ionization of atoms in the close-to-circularly polarized laser fields. The measurements for several noble gas atoms are in accordance with the semiclassical calculations, where the nonadiabatic effect and the influence of Coulomb potential are included. Furthermore, the high-order above-threshold ionization spectrum in linearly polarized laser fields for Ar is measured and compared with the numerical calculation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the single-active-electron approximation to test the accuracy of the calibrated laser intensity.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Bellini, C. Corsi, and M. C. Gambino, “Neutral depletion and beam defocusing in harmonic generation fromstrongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 023411 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon:Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Wang, and D. S. Guo, “Direct theoretical method for the determinationof peak laser intensities from Freeman resonances in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053417 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. F. J. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Coulomb effect in multiphoton ionization of rare-gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 31(6), 1215–1224 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Smeenk, J. Z. Salvail, L. Arissian, P. B. Corkum, C. T. Hebeisen, and A. Staudte, “Precise in-situ measurement of laser pulse intensity using strong field ionization,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9336–9344 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307–1314 (1965).
  16. J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(8), 083001 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, X.-R. Xiao, L.-Y. Peng, and Q. Gong, “Nonadiabatic electron dynamics in orthogonaltwo-color laser fields with comparable intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193001 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Döner, L. P. H Schmidt, and H Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion andelectron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. Hu, J. Liu, and S.-G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescatteringprocesses,” Phys. Lett. A 236(5), 533–542 (2003).
  22. M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013431 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).
  24. A. S. Landsman and U. Keller, “Attosecond science and the tunnelling time problem,” Phys. Rep. 547(1), 1–24 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. D. I. Bondar, “Instantaneous multiphoton ionization rate and initial distribution of electron momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 015405 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  27. I. Barth and O. Smirnova, “Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields: Physical picture and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063415 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field, III,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25(2), 336–343 (1967).
  29. V. S. Popov, “Imaginary-Time Method in Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory,” Phys. At. Nucl. 68(4), 686–708 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  30. R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, “Channel-closing effects in high-order above-thresholdionization and high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 35(2), 217–232 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. H. Yuan and T. S. Chu, “Solution to a 3D atom-laser interaction problem by sine-DVR and split-operatorpropagator,” Chem. Phys. 435(1), 9–13 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. Yuan, R. Lü, L. Feng, and T. Chu, “Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 140(7), 074108 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  34. G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(8), 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, X.-R. Xiao, L.-Y. Peng, and Q. Gong, “Nonadiabatic electron dynamics in orthogonaltwo-color laser fields with comparable intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Landsman and U. Keller, “Attosecond science and the tunnelling time problem,” Phys. Rep. 547(1), 1–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. H. Yuan and T. S. Chu, “Solution to a 3D atom-laser interaction problem by sine-DVR and split-operatorpropagator,” Chem. Phys. 435(1), 9–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yuan, R. Lü, L. Feng, and T. Chu, “Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 140(7), 074108 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

2013 (3)

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

I. Barth and O. Smirnova, “Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields: Physical picture and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063415 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Smeenk, J. Z. Salvail, L. Arissian, P. B. Corkum, C. T. Hebeisen, and A. Staudte, “Precise in-situ measurement of laser pulse intensity using strong field ionization,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9336–9344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Wang, and D. S. Guo, “Direct theoretical method for the determinationof peak laser intensities from Freeman resonances in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053417 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. Bondar, “Instantaneous multiphoton ionization rate and initial distribution of electron momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 015405 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. S. Popov, “Imaginary-Time Method in Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory,” Phys. At. Nucl. 68(4), 686–708 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (6)

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon:Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Döner, L. P. H Schmidt, and H Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion andelectron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Hu, J. Liu, and S.-G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescatteringprocesses,” Phys. Lett. A 236(5), 533–542 (2003).

2002 (1)

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, “Channel-closing effects in high-order above-thresholdionization and high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 35(2), 217–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. Bellini, C. Corsi, and M. C. Gambino, “Neutral depletion and beam defocusing in harmonic generation fromstrongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 023411 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. F. J. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Coulomb effect in multiphoton ionization of rare-gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 31(6), 1215–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field, III,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25(2), 336–343 (1967).

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307–1314 (1965).

Afaneh, F.

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alnaser, A. S.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arissian, L.

Aseyev, S. A.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barth, I.

I. Barth and O. Smirnova, “Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields: Physical picture and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bartschat, K.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Becker, W.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, “Channel-closing effects in high-order above-thresholdionization and high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 35(2), 217–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bellini, M.

M. Bellini, C. Corsi, and M. C. Gambino, “Neutral depletion and beam defocusing in harmonic generation fromstrongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 023411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boge, R.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bondar, D. I.

D. I. Bondar, “Instantaneous multiphoton ionization rate and initial distribution of electron momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 015405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Büttiker, M.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-G.

B. Hu, J. Liu, and S.-G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescatteringprocesses,” Phys. Lett. A 236(5), 533–542 (2003).

Chen, Y.

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

Chin, S. L.

S. F. J. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Coulomb effect in multiphoton ionization of rare-gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 31(6), 1215–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

M. Yuan, R. Lü, L. Feng, and T. Chu, “Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 140(7), 074108 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, T. S.

M. H. Yuan and T. S. Chu, “Solution to a 3D atom-laser interaction problem by sine-DVR and split-operatorpropagator,” Chem. Phys. 435(1), 9–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cirelli, C.

C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cocke, C. L.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

C. Smeenk, J. Z. Salvail, L. Arissian, P. B. Corkum, C. T. Hebeisen, and A. Staudte, “Precise in-situ measurement of laser pulse intensity using strong field ionization,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9336–9344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon:Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Corsi, C.

M. Bellini, C. Corsi, and M. C. Gambino, “Neutral depletion and beam defocusing in harmonic generation fromstrongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 023411 (2001).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Döner, R.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Döner, L. P. H Schmidt, and H Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion andelectron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dooley, P. W.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Döner, L. P. H Schmidt, and H Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion andelectron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckle, P.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

M. Yuan, R. Lü, L. Feng, and T. Chu, “Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 140(7), 074108 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, B.

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fischer, D.

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gallmann, L.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gambino, M. C.

M. Bellini, C. Corsi, and M. C. Gambino, “Neutral depletion and beam defocusing in harmonic generation fromstrongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 023411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.-W.

J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, X.-R. Xiao, L.-Y. Peng, and Q. Gong, “Nonadiabatic electron dynamics in orthogonaltwo-color laser fields with comparable intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, C.

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

Gong, Q.

J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, X.-R. Xiao, L.-Y. Peng, and Q. Gong, “Nonadiabatic electron dynamics in orthogonaltwo-color laser fields with comparable intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Goulielmakis, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, D. S.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Wang, and D. S. Guo, “Direct theoretical method for the determinationof peak laser intensities from Freeman resonances in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hanne, G. F.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hao, X.

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(8), 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hebeisen, C. T.

Helm, H.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon:Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Heuser, S.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann, C.

C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, B.

B. Hu, J. Liu, and S.-G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescatteringprocesses,” Phys. Lett. A 236(5), 533–542 (2003).

Hu, Z.

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

Ivanov, I.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jesus, V. L. B. D.

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

Keitel, C. H.

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(8), 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307–1314 (1965).

Keller, U.

A. S. Landsman and U. Keller, “Attosecond science and the tunnelling time problem,” Phys. Rep. 547(1), 1–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kheifets, A.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kielpinski, D.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Klaiber, M.

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(8), 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleber, M.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, “Channel-closing effects in high-order above-thresholdionization and high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 35(2), 217–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kopold, R.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, “Channel-closing effects in high-order above-thresholdionization and high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 35(2), 217–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laban, D. E.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lai, X.

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

Lambropoulos, P.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landsman, A. S.

A. S. Landsman and U. Keller, “Attosecond science and the tunnelling time problem,” Phys. Rep. 547(1), 1–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larochelle, S. F. J.

S. F. J. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Coulomb effect in multiphoton ionization of rare-gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 31(6), 1215–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. F.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. D.

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lindner, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

B. Hu, J. Liu, and S.-G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescatteringprocesses,” Phys. Lett. A 236(5), 533–542 (2003).

Liu, X.

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lü, R.

M. Yuan, R. Lü, L. Feng, and T. Chu, “Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 140(7), 074108 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ludwig, A.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maharjan, C. M.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maurer, J.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehendale, M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Döner, L. P. H Schmidt, and H Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion andelectron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Muller, H. G.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicklich, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osipov, T.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Palmer, A. J.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paulus, G. G.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, “Channel-closing effects in high-order above-thresholdionization and high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 35(2), 217–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, L.-Y.

J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, X.-R. Xiao, L.-Y. Peng, and Q. Gong, “Nonadiabatic electron dynamics in orthogonaltwo-color laser fields with comparable intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Perelomov, A. M.

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field, III,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25(2), 336–343 (1967).

Pfeiffer, A. N.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, V. S.

V. S. Popov, “Imaginary-Time Method in Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory,” Phys. At. Nucl. 68(4), 686–708 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field, III,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25(2), 336–343 (1967).

Pullen, M. G.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qin, L.

J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Quan, W.

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

Quiney, H. M.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rayner, D. M.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salvail, J. Z.

Sang, R. T.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sansone, G.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, L. P. H

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Döner, L. P. H Schmidt, and H Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion andelectron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schmidt-Böcking, H

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Döner, L. P. H Schmidt, and H Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion andelectron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schröter, C. D.

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Scrinzi, A.

C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shan, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smeenk, C.

Smirnova, O.

I. Barth and O. Smirnova, “Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields: Physical picture and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

C. Smeenk, J. Z. Salvail, L. Arissian, P. B. Corkum, C. T. Hebeisen, and A. Staudte, “Precise in-situ measurement of laser pulse intensity using strong field ionization,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9336–9344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talebpour, A.

S. F. J. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Coulomb effect in multiphoton ionization of rare-gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 31(6), 1215–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tong, X. M.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ullrich, J.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Döner, L. P. H Schmidt, and H Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion andelectron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ullrich, R. M. J.

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D. M.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voss, S.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wallance, W. C.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

Wang, J. T.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Wang, and D. S. Guo, “Direct theoretical method for the determinationof peak laser intensities from Freeman resonances in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Wang, and D. S. Guo, “Direct theoretical method for the determinationof peak laser intensities from Freeman resonances in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weger, M.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, D.

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wiehle, R.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon:Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Witzel, B.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon:Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. S.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Wang, and D. S. Guo, “Direct theoretical method for the determinationof peak laser intensities from Freeman resonances in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.-R.

J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, X.-R. Xiao, L.-Y. Peng, and Q. Gong, “Nonadiabatic electron dynamics in orthogonaltwo-color laser fields with comparable intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, W.-H.

J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, X.-R. Xiao, L.-Y. Peng, and Q. Gong, “Nonadiabatic electron dynamics in orthogonaltwo-color laser fields with comparable intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Wang, and D. S. Guo, “Direct theoretical method for the determinationof peak laser intensities from Freeman resonances in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, M.

M. Yuan, R. Lü, L. Feng, and T. Chu, “Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 140(7), 074108 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, M. H.

M. H. Yuan and T. S. Chu, “Solution to a 3D atom-laser interaction problem by sine-DVR and split-operatorpropagator,” Chem. Phys. 435(1), 9–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yudin, G. L.

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Wang, and D. S. Guo, “Direct theoretical method for the determinationof peak laser intensities from Freeman resonances in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zielinski, A.

C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, T.

C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zrost, K.

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. (1)

M. H. Yuan and T. S. Chu, “Solution to a 3D atom-laser interaction problem by sine-DVR and split-operatorpropagator,” Chem. Phys. 435(1), 9–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Yuan, R. Lü, L. Feng, and T. Chu, “Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 140(7), 074108 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. B (5)

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, “Channel-closing effects in high-order above-thresholdionization and high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 35(2), 217–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. L. B. D. Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schröter, and R. M. J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laserpulses,” J. Phys. B 37(8), L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. F. J. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Coulomb effect in multiphoton ionization of rare-gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 31(6), 1215–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Geng, L. Qin, M. Li, W.-H. Xiong, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and L.-Y. Peng, “Nonadiabatic tunneling ionization ofatoms in elliptically polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. At. Nucl. (1)

V. S. Popov, “Imaginary-Time Method in Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory,” Phys. At. Nucl. 68(4), 686–708 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

B. Hu, J. Liu, and S.-G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescatteringprocesses,” Phys. Lett. A 236(5), 533–542 (2003).

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. S. Landsman and U. Keller, “Attosecond science and the tunnelling time problem,” Phys. Rep. 547(1), 1–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (9)

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser-peak-intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70(2), 023413 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. I. Bondar, “Instantaneous multiphoton ionization rate and initial distribution of electron momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 015405 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Barth and O. Smirnova, “Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields: Physical picture and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063415 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Hofmann, A. S. Landsman, A. Zielinski, C. Cirelli, T. Zimmermann, A. Scrinzi, and U. Keller, “Interpretingelectron-momentum distributions and nonadiabaticity in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043406 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. G. Pullen, W. C. Wallance, D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, G. F. Hanne, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, K. Bartschat, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, D. Wells, H. M. Quiney, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, R. T. Sang, and D. Kielpinski, “Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1%,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053411 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, C. Corsi, and M. C. Gambino, “Neutral depletion and beam defocusing in harmonic generation fromstrongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 023411 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon:Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Wang, and D. S. Guo, “Direct theoretical method for the determinationof peak laser intensities from Freeman resonances in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, “Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, S. A. Aseyev, M. Mehendale, G. L. Yudin, D. M. Villeneuve, D. M. Rayner, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Few cycle dynamics of multiphoton double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3522–3525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(8), 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, X.-R. Xiao, L.-Y. Peng, and Q. Gong, “Nonadiabatic electron dynamics in orthogonaltwo-color laser fields with comparable intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, X. Lai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, W. Quan, H. Kang, C. Gong, and X. Liu, “Strong-field atomic ionization inelliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013422 (2014).

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Döner, L. P. H Schmidt, and H Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion andelectron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (2)

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field, III,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25(2), 336–343 (1967).

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307–1314 (1965).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the procedure to determine the directions of “u” and “v”. (a) The calculated 2 dimensional momentum distribution of Kr subject to linearly polarized laser field with intensity of 1.9 × 1014 W/cm2 and wavelength of 800 nm in the plane of ( p z , p x ); (b) The same data in the plane of ( p u , p v ). The solid red line is drawn according to the condition of p z = 0 . The dashed blue line, which goes through the centers of the two yield maximums of 2 dimensional momentum distribution, is defined as p u = 0 in (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured and calculated photoelectron momentum distributions for noble gas atoms subject to close-to-circularly polarized laser fields with ellipticity of 0.98. (a) Kr subject to the laser field with peak intensity of 1.9 × 1014W/cm2 in the direction of v; (b) same as (a), but in the direction of u. (c) Xe subject to the laser field with peak intensity of 6.5 × 1013 W/cm2 in the direction of v; (d) same as (c), but in the direction of u. The blue open square dots indicate the measured data, the red thick lines illustrate the calculation results with the nonadiabatic model employed in the paper.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated momentum distributions in the direction of v for Kr subject to close-to-circularly polarized laser fields with ellipticity of 0.98 at 1.9 × 1014 W/cm2 and 800 nm with the numerical model employed all the influences induced by the nonadiabatic effect and Coulomb potential (a), all but the Coulomb potential (b), all but the offset of the initial transverse momentum induced by nonadiabtic effect (c), all but the offset of the initial transverse momentum and the broadened initial transverse momentum distribution induced by nonadiabtic effect (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The calibrated intensity versus laser power. (a) Laser intensity calibration performed with the nonadiabatic model employed in this work; (b) Linear fit of (a); (c) Intensity calibration performed with the adiabatic model from the pioneer work [12]; (d) Linear fit of (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The measured and calculated HATI photoelectron spectra for Ar subject to linearly polarized laser field. According to the nonadiabatic fit function of laser intensity versus power, the calibrated laser intensity for the measurement is (a) 1.0 × 1014 W/cm2. In the meantime, the intensities employed in the TDSE calculations are (b) 1.0 × 1014W/cm2 and (c) 1.2 × 1014W/cm2.

Equations (13)

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I ( p ) = 1 + ε 2 ε 2 ( p ω ) 2
E ( t ) = F ( t ) ( cos ( ω t + ϕ ) z + ε sin ( ω t + ϕ ) x )
W ( γ ( t ) , p | | , p , t ) = exp ( 2 I p ω f ( γ ( t ) , p | | , p , t ) )
f ( γ ( t ) , p | | , p , t ) = ( 1 + 1 2 γ ( t ) 2 + p ( t ) 2 2 I p ) arc cos α α 2 1 ( β γ ( t ) 2 I p ( p | | A ( t ) ) + α [ 1 2 β 2 ] 2 γ ( t ) 2 )
α ( β ) = γ ( t ) 2 ( p ( t ) 2 2 I p + 2 γ ( t ) ( p | | A ( t ) ) 2 I p + 1 γ ( t ) 2 + 1 ) + ( ) p ( t ) 2 2 I p 2 γ ( t ) ( p | | A ( t ) ) 2 I p + 1 γ ( t ) 2 + 1 )
p ( t ) 2 = ( p | | A ( t ) ) 2 + p 2
R ( γ ( t ) , p | | , p , t ) = W ( γ ( t ) , p | | , p , t ) exp ( ( p p p 0 ) 2 ( C × p 0 ) 2 )
p 0 = ( 1 + ε 2 ) E 0 2 E ( t ) 2 ω ( sin h ( τ 0 ) τ 0 1 )
sin h 2 τ 0 ( 1 ε 2 ( coth τ 0 1 τ 0 ) 2 ) = γ 2
s 0 = E 0 ω 2 ( cos h τ 0 1 ) s
d N d I = ( 1 e R ( I ) d t ) π z 0 ω 0 2 3 1 I 5 / 2 ( I 0 F ( t ) + 2 I ) ( I 0 F ( t ) I ) 1 / 2 d t
d N d I = π τ p Δ z ω 0 2 R ( I ) I ln ( I 0 I )
i t ψ ( r , t ) = ( 2 2 + V ( a ) ( r ) + V ( F ) ( r , t ) ) ψ ( r , t )

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