Abstract

We present a compact sensor head for a multi-channel terahertz (THz) spectroscopy system. A THz pulse generated by a photoconductive antenna is split into spatially separated sub-pulses, which have different transit times. The time-dependent order of the sub-pulses can be translated into a spatial resolution. By using only one pair of antennas the developed sensor head provides up to 20 individual measurement zones with full amplitude and phase information. The sensor head can be integrated into two boxes with a small footprint so that the system is well suited for industrial applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  6. L.-L. Zhang, N. Karpowicz, C.-L. Zhang, Y.-J. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1473–1475 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Banerjee, W. von Spiegel, M. D. Thomson, S. Schabel, and H. G. Roskos, “Diagnosing water content in paper by terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9060–9066 (2008).
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  8. I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz Imaging: Revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Probst, A. Rehn, S. F. Busch, S. Chatterjee, M. Koch, and M. Scheller, “Cost-efficient delay generator for fast terahertz imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4863–4866 (2014).
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  17. H. Guerboukha, A. Markov, H. Qu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Time Resolved Dynamic Measurements at THz Frequencies Using a Rotary Optical Delay Line,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 564–572 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Yasui, K. Sawanaka, A. Ihara, E. Abraham, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Real-time terahertz color scanner for moving objects,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1208–1221 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23042–23053 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. Shrekenhamer, C. M. Watts, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz single pixel imaging with an optically controlled dynamic spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12507–12518 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Schwerdtfeger, S. Busch, O. Peters, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Spectrum to space transformed fast terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19200–19205 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Sommer, T. Raidt, B. M. Fischer, F. Katzenberg, J. C. Tiller, and M. Koch, “THz-Spectroscopy on High Density Polyethylene with Different Crystallinity,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 37(2), 189–197 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. Bartels, A. Thoma, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, “High-resolution THz spectrometer with kHz scan rates,” Opt. Express 14(1), 430–437 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. R. J. B. Dietz, M. Gerhard, D. Stanze, M. Koch, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, “THz generation at 1.55 µm excitation: six-fold increase in THz conversion efficiency by separated photoconductive and trapping regions,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25911–25917 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

S. Sommer, T. Raidt, B. M. Fischer, F. Katzenberg, J. C. Tiller, and M. Koch, “THz-Spectroscopy on High Density Polyethylene with Different Crystallinity,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 37(2), 189–197 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

T. Hochrein, “Markets, Availability, Notice, and Technical Performance of Terahertz Systems: Historic Development, Present, and Trends,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36(3), 235–254 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Yee, K. H. Jin, J. S. Yahng, H.-S. Yang, C. Y. Kim, and J. C. Ye, “High-speed terahertz reflection three-dimensional imaging using beam steering,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5027–5034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guerboukha, A. Markov, H. Qu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Time Resolved Dynamic Measurements at THz Frequencies Using a Rotary Optical Delay Line,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 564–572 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

D. Shrekenhamer, C. M. Watts, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz single pixel imaging with an optically controlled dynamic spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12507–12518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Laman, B. Schulkin, and T. Tongue, “Review of Terahertz Technology Readiness Assessment and Applications,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(9), 500–518 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5, 1–43 (2010).

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Imaging: Applications And Perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz Imaging: Revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

L.-L. Zhang, N. Karpowicz, C.-L. Zhang, Y.-J. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1473–1475 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Banerjee, W. von Spiegel, M. D. Thomson, S. Schabel, and H. G. Roskos, “Diagnosing water content in paper by terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9060–9066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, K. Sawanaka, A. Ihara, E. Abraham, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Real-time terahertz color scanner for moving objects,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1208–1221 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

B. Pradarutti, R. Müller, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Multichannel balanced electro-optic detection for Terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17652–17660 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wietzker, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, A. Thoma, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, “High-resolution THz spectrometer with kHz scan rates,” Opt. Express 14(1), 430–437 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, T. Yasuda, K. Sawanaka, and T. Araki, “Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6849–6856 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. Hauptmann, N. Hoppe, and A. Püttmer, “Applications of ultrasonic sensors in the process industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(8), R73–R83 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Graves, A. Smith, and B. Batchelor, “Approaches to foreign body detection in foods,” Trends Foods Sci. 9(1), 21–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Abraham, E.

T. Yasui, K. Sawanaka, A. Ihara, E. Abraham, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Real-time terahertz color scanner for moving objects,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1208–1221 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[Crossref]

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, K. Sawanaka, A. Ihara, E. Abraham, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Real-time terahertz color scanner for moving objects,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1208–1221 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, T. Yasuda, K. Sawanaka, and T. Araki, “Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6849–6856 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, D.

Baraniuk, R. G.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bartels, A.

Bastian, M.

S. Wietzker, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).
[Crossref]

Batchelor, B.

M. Graves, A. Smith, and B. Batchelor, “Approaches to foreign body detection in foods,” Trends Foods Sci. 9(1), 21–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Baudrit, B.

S. Wietzker, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brückner, C.

Busch, S.

Busch, S. F.

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Charan, K.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chatterjee, S.

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5, 1–43 (2010).

Dekorsy, T.

Dietz, R. J. B.

Dreyhaupt, A.

Duling, I.

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz Imaging: Revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Duquette, J.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fichter, G.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fischer, B. M.

S. Sommer, T. Raidt, B. M. Fischer, F. Katzenberg, J. C. Tiller, and M. Koch, “THz-Spectroscopy on High Density Polyethylene with Different Crystallinity,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 37(2), 189–197 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gerhard, M.

Graves, M.

M. Graves, A. Smith, and B. Batchelor, “Approaches to foreign body detection in foods,” Trends Foods Sci. 9(1), 21–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Guerboukha, H.

H. Guerboukha, A. Markov, H. Qu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Time Resolved Dynamic Measurements at THz Frequencies Using a Rotary Optical Delay Line,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 564–572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, M.

Hauptmann, P.

P. Hauptmann, N. Hoppe, and A. Püttmer, “Applications of ultrasonic sensors in the process industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(8), R73–R83 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heinen, B.

Helm, M.

Hochrein, T.

T. Hochrein, “Markets, Availability, Notice, and Technical Performance of Terahertz Systems: Historic Development, Present, and Trends,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36(3), 235–254 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Imaging: Applications And Perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoppe, N.

P. Hauptmann, N. Hoppe, and A. Püttmer, “Applications of ultrasonic sensors in the process industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(8), R73–R83 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ihara, A.

Janke, C.

Jansen, C.

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5, 1–43 (2010).

Jin, K. H.

Jördens, C.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Imaging: Applications And Perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Wietzker, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

L.-L. Zhang, N. Karpowicz, C.-L. Zhang, Y.-J. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1473–1475 (2008).
[Crossref]

Katletz, S.

Katzenberg, F.

S. Sommer, T. Raidt, B. M. Fischer, F. Katzenberg, J. C. Tiller, and M. Koch, “THz-Spectroscopy on High Density Polyethylene with Different Crystallinity,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 37(2), 189–197 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. F.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. Y.

Koch, M.

S. Sommer, T. Raidt, B. M. Fischer, F. Katzenberg, J. C. Tiller, and M. Koch, “THz-Spectroscopy on High Density Polyethylene with Different Crystallinity,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 37(2), 189–197 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Probst, A. Rehn, S. F. Busch, S. Chatterjee, M. Koch, and M. Scheller, “Cost-efficient delay generator for fast terahertz imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4863–4866 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Schwerdtfeger, S. Busch, O. Peters, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Spectrum to space transformed fast terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19200–19205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23042–23053 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. B. Dietz, M. Gerhard, D. Stanze, M. Koch, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, “THz generation at 1.55 µm excitation: six-fold increase in THz conversion efficiency by separated photoconductive and trapping regions,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25911–25917 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Imaging: Applications And Perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5, 1–43 (2010).

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Wietzker, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krumbholz, N.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Imaging: Applications And Perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wietzker, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laman, N.

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Laman, B. Schulkin, and T. Tongue, “Review of Terahertz Technology Readiness Assessment and Applications,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(9), 500–518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Markov, A.

H. Guerboukha, A. Markov, H. Qu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Time Resolved Dynamic Measurements at THz Frequencies Using a Rotary Optical Delay Line,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 564–572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matthäus, G.

Megdanoff, C.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Müller, R.

Murdock, M.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

Notni, G.

Padilla, W. J.

Peters, O.

Pfleger, M.

Pradarutti, B.

Probst, T.

Pühringer, H.

Püttmer, A.

P. Hauptmann, N. Hoppe, and A. Püttmer, “Applications of ultrasonic sensors in the process industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(8), R73–R83 (2002).
[Crossref]

Qu, H.

H. Guerboukha, A. Markov, H. Qu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Time Resolved Dynamic Measurements at THz Frequencies Using a Rotary Optical Delay Line,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 564–572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Raidt, T.

S. Sommer, T. Raidt, B. M. Fischer, F. Katzenberg, J. C. Tiller, and M. Koch, “THz-Spectroscopy on High Density Polyethylene with Different Crystallinity,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 37(2), 189–197 (2016).
[Crossref]

Redo-Sanchez, A.

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Laman, B. Schulkin, and T. Tongue, “Review of Terahertz Technology Readiness Assessment and Applications,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(9), 500–518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rehn, A.

Riehemann, S.

Roskos, H. G.

Salhi, M.

Saneyoshi, E.

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sartorius, B.

Sawanaka, K.

Schabel, S.

Schell, M.

Scheller, M.

Scherger, B.

Schulkin, B.

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Laman, B. Schulkin, and T. Tongue, “Review of Terahertz Technology Readiness Assessment and Applications,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(9), 500–518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schumann, S.

Schwerdtfeger, M.

Shrekenhamer, D.

Skorobogatiy, M.

H. Guerboukha, A. Markov, H. Qu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Time Resolved Dynamic Measurements at THz Frequencies Using a Rotary Optical Delay Line,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 564–572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, A.

M. Graves, A. Smith, and B. Batchelor, “Approaches to foreign body detection in foods,” Trends Foods Sci. 9(1), 21–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sommer, S.

S. Sommer, T. Raidt, B. M. Fischer, F. Katzenberg, J. C. Tiller, and M. Koch, “THz-Spectroscopy on High Density Polyethylene with Different Crystallinity,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 37(2), 189–197 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stanze, D.

Takhar, D.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thoma, A.

Thomson, M. D.

Tiller, J. C.

S. Sommer, T. Raidt, B. M. Fischer, F. Katzenberg, J. C. Tiller, and M. Koch, “THz-Spectroscopy on High Density Polyethylene with Different Crystallinity,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 37(2), 189–197 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tongue, T.

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Laman, B. Schulkin, and T. Tongue, “Review of Terahertz Technology Readiness Assessment and Applications,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(9), 500–518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Vieweg, N.

von Spiegel, W.

Watts, C. M.

White, J.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wiesauer, K.

Wietzke, S.

Wietzker, S.

S. Wietzker, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williamson, S.

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Winnerl, S.

Yahng, J. S.

Yang, H.-S.

Yasuda, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, T. Yasuda, K. Sawanaka, and T. Araki, “Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6849–6856 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasui, T.

T. Yasui, K. Sawanaka, A. Ihara, E. Abraham, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Real-time terahertz color scanner for moving objects,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1208–1221 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, T. Yasuda, K. Sawanaka, and T. Araki, “Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6849–6856 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

Yee, D.-S.

Zhang, C.-L.

L.-L. Zhang, N. Karpowicz, C.-L. Zhang, Y.-J. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1473–1475 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.-L.

L.-L. Zhang, N. Karpowicz, C.-L. Zhang, Y.-J. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1473–1475 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

L.-L. Zhang, N. Karpowicz, C.-L. Zhang, Y.-J. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1473–1475 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.-J.

L.-L. Zhang, N. Karpowicz, C.-L. Zhang, Y.-J. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1473–1475 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zimdars, D.

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz Imaging: Revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

H. Guerboukha, A. Markov, H. Qu, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Time Resolved Dynamic Measurements at THz Frequencies Using a Rotary Optical Delay Line,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 564–572 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Europ. Opt. Soc. (1)

S. Wietzker, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (3)

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Laman, B. Schulkin, and T. Tongue, “Review of Terahertz Technology Readiness Assessment and Applications,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(9), 500–518 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Hochrein, “Markets, Availability, Notice, and Technical Performance of Terahertz Systems: Historic Development, Present, and Trends,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36(3), 235–254 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sommer, T. Raidt, B. M. Fischer, F. Katzenberg, J. C. Tiller, and M. Koch, “THz-Spectroscopy on High Density Polyethylene with Different Crystallinity,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 37(2), 189–197 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5, 1–43 (2010).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. Hauptmann, N. Hoppe, and A. Püttmer, “Applications of ultrasonic sensors in the process industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(8), R73–R83 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz Imaging: Revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

L.-L. Zhang, N. Karpowicz, C.-L. Zhang, Y.-J. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1473–1475 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

D. Banerjee, W. von Spiegel, M. D. Thomson, S. Schabel, and H. G. Roskos, “Diagnosing water content in paper by terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9060–9066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-S. Yee, K. H. Jin, J. S. Yahng, H.-S. Yang, C. Y. Kim, and J. C. Ye, “High-speed terahertz reflection three-dimensional imaging using beam steering,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5027–5034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Pradarutti, R. Müller, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Multichannel balanced electro-optic detection for Terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17652–17660 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, K. Sawanaka, A. Ihara, E. Abraham, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Real-time terahertz color scanner for moving objects,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1208–1221 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shrekenhamer, C. M. Watts, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz single pixel imaging with an optically controlled dynamic spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12507–12518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Schwerdtfeger, S. Busch, O. Peters, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Spectrum to space transformed fast terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19200–19205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23042–23053 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, A. Thoma, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, “High-resolution THz spectrometer with kHz scan rates,” Opt. Express 14(1), 430–437 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. B. Dietz, M. Gerhard, D. Stanze, M. Koch, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, “THz generation at 1.55 µm excitation: six-fold increase in THz conversion efficiency by separated photoconductive and trapping regions,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25911–25917 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Trends Foods Sci. (1)

M. Graves, A. Smith, and B. Batchelor, “Approaches to foreign body detection in foods,” Trends Foods Sci. 9(1), 21–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

B. Batchelor, D. Hill, and H. Hodgson, Automated Visual Inspection (Elsevier Science Pub., 1985).

S. F. Busch, T. Probst, L. Duschek, R. Wilk, M. Voitsch, F. Fender, S. Lübbecke, G. Gärtner, V. P. Wallace, and M. Koch, “Inline Monitoring of Paper Thickness in an Industrial Setting,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THZ), 2013 38th International Conference on, 1–2 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Zimdars, G. Fichter, C. Megdanoff, J. Duquette, M. Murdock, I. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High-Speed Hand-Held Wide Aperture Time-Domain Terahertz Imaging System,” in CLEO Proceedings, p. CWO1 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflection coefficient for an air/HDPE interface (red) and a HDPE/air interface (blue) for s-polarized radiation (solid lines) and for p-polarized radiation (dashed lines), inset: refraction and reflection at an interface between two media.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Concept of the beam splitter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Problems of a uniform beam splitter concept.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results of a system with 20 sub-pulses representing 20 channels (a) Angles for transmitted and reflected beam and for the beam splitter surface (b) Reflected power for s- and p-polarized light and deviation in the reflected power if the incident angle changes by 3° in case of s-polarized light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emitter part of the sensor head.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured temporal positions of the sub-pulses before runtime adjustment (grey) and after (purple line) (b) Schematic of the runtime adjustment mirror unit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Top view of the emitter unit of the sensor head, (b) detailed view of a single beam splitter prototype, (c) lateral view of the runtime adjustment unit with focusing lens, (d) total view of the sensor head, (e) back view of the runtime adjustment unit with emitter unit above.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Raster scan image 10 cm in front of the runtime adjustment unit without a focusing lens.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measurement of ten spatial separated THz pulses by using only one pair of antennas.

Equations (1)

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R s =  ( n 1 cosα n 2 cosβ n 1 cosα+ n 2 cosβ ) 2   and R p =  ( n 2 cosα n 1 cosβ n 2 cosα+ n 1 cosβ ) 2 with β= sin 1 ( n 2 n 1 sinα ).

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