Abstract

We present several fundamental photonic building blocks based on suspended silicon waveguides supported by a lateral cladding comprising subwavelength grating metamaterial. We discuss the design, fabrication, and characterization of waveguide bends, multimode interference devices and Mach-Zehnder interferometers for the 3715 - 3800 nm wavelength range, demonstrated for the first time in this platform. The waveguide propagation loss of 0.82 dB/cm is reported, some of the lowest loss yet achieved in silicon waveguides for this wavelength range. These results establish a direct path to ultimately extending the operational wavelength range of silicon wire waveguides to the entire transparency window of silicon.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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Corrections

3 October 2016: A correction was made to the author affiliations.


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  1. M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Monux, J. G. Wanguemert-Perez, and I. Molina-Fernandez, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “High-performance 90° hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 178–180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asher, W.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barkai, A.

Bock, P. J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boodhoo, L. A.

Bucio, T. D.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “A design procedure for high performance, rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(16), 2928–2936 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y. M.

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chong, H. M. H.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dominguez Bucio, T.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elek, N.

Fung, C. K. Y.

Gao, W.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “High-performance 90° hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 178–180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “A design procedure for high performance, rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(16), 2928–2936 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hall, T. J.

Hartmann, J.-M.

Herzig, H. P.

Hochberg, M.

Hosseini, A.

Hu, Y.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hvozdara, L.

Ilic, R.

Janz, S.

Jones, R.

Khokhar, A. Z.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. W.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Mu, R. Soref, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Silicon-on-nitride structures for mid-infrared gap-plasmon waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Littlejohns, C. G.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

Maese-Novo, A.

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Mu, R. Soref, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Silicon-on-nitride structures for mid-infrared gap-plasmon waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, C. J.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernandez, I.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Monux, J. G. Wanguemert-Perez, and I. Molina-Fernandez, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Molina-Fernández, Í.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mu, J.

J. Mu, R. Soref, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Silicon-on-nitride structures for mid-infrared gap-plasmon waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

Ortega-Monux, A.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Monux, J. G. Wanguemert-Perez, and I. Molina-Fernandez, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “High-performance 90° hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 178–180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “A design procedure for high performance, rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(16), 2928–2936 (2008).
[Crossref]

Paeder, V.

Passaro, V. M. N.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Penades, J. S.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Penkov, B.

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.

Reed, G. T.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, S. A.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Schmid, J. H.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, J.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Soler Penades, J.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soler Penadés, J.

Soref, R.

J. Mu, R. Soref, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Silicon-on-nitride structures for mid-infrared gap-plasmon waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031115 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spott, A.

Stankovic, S.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Topley, R.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Troia, B.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wanguemert-Perez, J. G.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Monux, J. G. Wanguemert-Perez, and I. Molina-Fernandez, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “High-performance 90° hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 178–180 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “A design procedure for high performance, rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(16), 2928–2936 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wilson, P. R.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

Xu, D. X.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Xu, X.

Zavargo-Peche, L.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Monux, J. G. Wanguemert-Perez, and I. Molina-Fernandez, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Mu, R. Soref, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Silicon-on-nitride structures for mid-infrared gap-plasmon waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031115 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (9)

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, C. Qiu, X. Zhang, W. Gao, J. Shu, and Q. Xu, “Suspended Si ring resonator for mid-IR application,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1122–1124 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (1)

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Monux, J. G. Wanguemert-Perez, and I. Molina-Fernandez, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Nedeljkovic, “Silicon photonic modulators for the mid-infrared,” University of Southampton, Physical Sciences and Engineering, Doctoral Thesis (2013).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of suspended waveguide with SWG lateral cladding: a) 3D view, b) 2D top view.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Refractive index contrast Δn = nSi - nswg as a function of the length of the sustentation Si stripes LSi. Wcore = 1.3 µm, Lhole = 450 nm and λ = 3.8 µm. Insets: the fundamental mode propagation in the suspended waveguide for LSi = 100 nm (left, high contrast) and LSi = 225 nm (right, low contrast). (b) Calculated electric field of the fundamental Floquet-Bloch mode (top) and the second-order Floquet-Bloch mode (bottom) for Wcore = 1.3 µm, Lhole = 450 nm, LSi = 100 nm and λ = 3.8 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematics of a suspended waveguide with a) an S-bend and b) a 90° bend.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 MMI schematics and calculated electric field in the multimode section. Nominal device dimensions are also shown.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM image of a) the 90° bend b) the s-bend c) waveguides converging towards the MMI input section and d) input section half of the MMI (top views). e) A cleaved facet of a 90° bend with the BOX locally removal, with a few destroyed silicon strips due to the cleaving. f) Under-etched multimode region of the MMI after FIB cut, with no appreciable deformation of the suspended structure.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a): Waveguide propagation loss measurement before and after HF etching. The results are normalized to the transmission measured for the shortest waveguide (0.1 cm). The blue line is a linear fit to the measured data (diamond symbols) before HF etching (1.2 dB/cm). The red line is a linear fit to the measured data (cross symbols) after HF etching (0.82 dB/cm). b): Linear fit (yellow line) to the 90° bend loss measurements (cross symbols) after HF etching (0.014 dB/cm).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) Measured MMI insertion loss (solid blue line) and imbalance (solid red line). The dashed lines show calculated excess loss and imbalance taking into account a fabrication error of −80 nm in Si waveguide core width and thickness. b) Measured MZI transmittance for both outputs, with an FSR of 9.6 nm and an extinction ratio exceeding 15 dB.

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