Abstract

We demonstrate a thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) process for LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates. LEDs are transferred from a bulk GaN substrate to a sapphire submount via a photoelectrochemical (PEC) undercut etch. This PEC liftoff method allows for substrate reuse and exposes the N-face of the LEDs for additional roughening. The LEDs emitted at a wavelength of 432 nm with a turn on voltage of ~3 V. Etching the LEDs in heated KOH after transferring them to a sapphire submount increased the peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) by 42.5% from 9.9% (unintentionally roughened) to 14.1% (intentionally roughened).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  4. M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

B. P. Yonkee, B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Flip-chip blue LEDs grown on $(20\bar{2}1)$ bulk GaN substrates utilizing photoelectrochemical etching for substrate removal,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 056502 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium–nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proc. IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. David, “Surface-roughened light-emitting diodes: An accurate model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: A review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-Face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Yang and P. Fay, “Etch rate and surface morphology control in photoelectrochemical etching of GaN,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(4), 1750–1754 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. R. Tavernier and D. R. Clarke, “Mechanics of laser-assisted debonding of films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1527–1536 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. R. Stonas, P. Kozodoy, H. Marchand, P. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. L. Hu, “Backside-illuminated photoelectrochemical etching for the fabrication of deeply undercut GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2610–2612 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Gorgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, R. Dimitrov, R. Handschuh, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical Process for Liftoff of Group III-Nitride Films,” Phys. Status Solidi 159(1), R3–R4 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Akouala, C.

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Gorgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, R. Dimitrov, R. Handschuh, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical Process for Liftoff of Group III-Nitride Films,” Phys. Status Solidi 159(1), R3–R4 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aoshima, H.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ballesteros, C.

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bryan, I.

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Calle, F.

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Calleja, E.

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clarke, D. R.

P. R. Tavernier and D. R. Clarke, “Mechanics of laser-assisted debonding of films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1527–1536 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cohen, D. A.

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

David, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, “Surface-roughened light-emitting diodes: An accurate model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Delille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

B. P. Yonkee, B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Flip-chip blue LEDs grown on $(20\bar{2}1)$ bulk GaN substrates utilizing photoelectrochemical etching for substrate removal,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 056502 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-Face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. R. Stonas, P. Kozodoy, H. Marchand, P. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. L. Hu, “Backside-illuminated photoelectrochemical etching for the fabrication of deeply undercut GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2610–2612 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dimitrov, R.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, R. Dimitrov, R. Handschuh, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical Process for Liftoff of Group III-Nitride Films,” Phys. Status Solidi 159(1), R3–R4 (1997).
[Crossref]

Edgar, J. H.

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: A review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fay, P.

B. Yang and P. Fay, “Etch rate and surface morphology control in photoelectrochemical etching of GaN,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(4), 1750–1754 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fini, P.

A. R. Stonas, P. Kozodoy, H. Marchand, P. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. L. Hu, “Backside-illuminated photoelectrochemical etching for the fabrication of deeply undercut GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2610–2612 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-Face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fujimura, I.

K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujito, K.

K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-Face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-Face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gorgens, L.

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Gorgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M. J.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Handschuh, R.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, R. Dimitrov, R. Handschuh, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical Process for Liftoff of Group III-Nitride Films,” Phys. Status Solidi 159(1), R3–R4 (1997).
[Crossref]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Holder, C. O.

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-Face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. R. Stonas, P. Kozodoy, H. Marchand, P. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. L. Hu, “Backside-illuminated photoelectrochemical etching for the fabrication of deeply undercut GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2610–2612 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ito, S.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kelly, M. K.

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Gorgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, R. Dimitrov, R. Handschuh, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical Process for Liftoff of Group III-Nitride Films,” Phys. Status Solidi 159(1), R3–R4 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kozodoy, P.

A. R. Stonas, P. Kozodoy, H. Marchand, P. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. L. Hu, “Backside-illuminated photoelectrochemical etching for the fabrication of deeply undercut GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2610–2612 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium–nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proc. IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kubo, S.

K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuritzky, L. Y.

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leonard, J. T.

B. P. Yonkee, B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Flip-chip blue LEDs grown on $(20\bar{2}1)$ bulk GaN substrates utilizing photoelectrochemical etching for substrate removal,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 056502 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marchand, H.

A. R. Stonas, P. Kozodoy, H. Marchand, P. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. L. Hu, “Backside-illuminated photoelectrochemical etching for the fabrication of deeply undercut GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2610–2612 (2000).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Megalini, L.

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Minsky, M. S.

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

A. R. Stonas, P. Kozodoy, H. Marchand, P. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. L. Hu, “Backside-illuminated photoelectrochemical etching for the fabrication of deeply undercut GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2610–2612 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mita, S.

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Monroy, E.

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mori, M.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, E.

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

B. P. Yonkee, B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Flip-chip blue LEDs grown on $(20\bar{2}1)$ bulk GaN substrates utilizing photoelectrochemical etching for substrate removal,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 056502 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium–nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proc. IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-Face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Naranjo, F. B.

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Palacios, T.

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phanse, V. M.

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Gorgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rice, A.

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rose, K.

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

SaifAddin, B.

B. P. Yonkee, B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Flip-chip blue LEDs grown on $(20\bar{2}1)$ bulk GaN substrates utilizing photoelectrochemical etching for substrate removal,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 056502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-García, M. A.

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-Face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shenoy, R.

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sitar, Z.

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stonas, A. R.

A. R. Stonas, P. Kozodoy, H. Marchand, P. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. L. Hu, “Backside-illuminated photoelectrochemical etching for the fabrication of deeply undercut GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2610–2612 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Gorgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, R. Dimitrov, R. Handschuh, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical Process for Liftoff of Group III-Nitride Films,” Phys. Status Solidi 159(1), R3–R4 (1997).
[Crossref]

Takeda, K.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takehara, K.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tavernier, P. R.

P. R. Tavernier and D. R. Clarke, “Mechanics of laser-assisted debonding of films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1527–1536 (2001).
[Crossref]

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tweedie, J.

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Varela, M.

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vaudo, R. P.

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Gorgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[Crossref]

White, M.

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

B. Yang and P. Fay, “Etch rate and surface morphology control in photoelectrochemical etching of GaN,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(4), 1750–1754 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yonkee, B.

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yonkee, B. P.

B. P. Yonkee, B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Flip-chip blue LEDs grown on $(20\bar{2}1)$ bulk GaN substrates utilizing photoelectrochemical etching for substrate removal,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 056502 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, D.

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: A review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

L. Megalini, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. T. Leonard, R. Shenoy, K. Rose, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, D. A. Cohen, and S. P. DenBaars, “Selective and controllable lateral photoelectrochemical etching of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active regions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 066502 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “B. SaifAddin, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Flip-chip blue LEDs grown on $(20\bar{2}1)$ bulk GaN substrates utilizing photoelectrochemical etching for substrate removal,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 056502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. R. Stonas, P. Kozodoy, H. Marchand, P. Fini, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. L. Hu, “Backside-illuminated photoelectrochemical etching for the fabrication of deeply undercut GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2610–2612 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 226–229 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. R. Tavernier and D. R. Clarke, “Mechanics of laser-assisted debonding of films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1527–1536 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

W. Guo, J. Xie, C. Akouala, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, I. Bryan, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Comparative study of etching high crystalline quality AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 366, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

A. David, “Surface-roughened light-emitting diodes: An accurate model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

B. Yang and P. Fay, “Etch rate and surface morphology control in photoelectrochemical etching of GaN,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(4), 1750–1754 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. K. Kelly, R. P. Vaudo, V. M. Phanse, L. Gorgens, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Large free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and laser-induced liftoff,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 3A), L217–L219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-Face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: A review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, R. Dimitrov, R. Handschuh, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical Process for Liftoff of Group III-Nitride Films,” Phys. Status Solidi 159(1), R3–R4 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. (1)

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3-4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium–nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proc. IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Palacios, F. Calle, M. Varela, C. Ballesteros, E. Monroy, F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, and E. Muñoz, “Wet etching of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(10), 996–1000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. L. Keraly, L. Kuritzky, M. Cochet, and C. Weisbuch, “Light extraction efficiency part A. ray tracing for Light Extraction Efficiency (LEE) modeling in nitride LEDs,” in III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, H. Amano, and H. Morkoc, eds. (Springer, 2013), Vol. 126, pp. 231–269.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional schematic of (a) the as-grown epitaxial structure, (b) a partially processed sample after wafer-bonding and before PEC etching, and (c) a completely processed sample with p-GaN down and the N-face of n-GaN up.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a-c) Bright-field optical and (d-f) fluorescence images of mesa structures after 1 minute (a, d), 10 minutes (b, e), and 45 minutes (c, f) of PEC undercut etching in 1 M KOH with a 405 nm LED array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a-c) SEM and (d-f) optical microscope images of the surfaces of LED 1 after 0 minutes of thermal roughening (a, d), LED 2 after 10 minutes of thermal roughening (b, e), and LED 2 after 25 minutes of thermal roughening (c, f).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) I-V curve for LEDs 1 and 2 after flip-chip processing. 1 mA of current corresponds to a current density of 1 A/cm2. (b) Electroluminescence spectra showing a peak wavelength around 432 nm with a FWHM of 15 nm. (c) Dependence of light output power on current. (d) Dependence of EQE on current. An improvement of 42.5% is seen in output power and EQE with roughening.

Metrics