Abstract

Ni/Au electrodes with single, twined and triplet hole array patterns light-emitting diodes have been fabricated by multiple-exposure colloidal lithography. It is found that 45.6%, 83.6% and 15.5% improvement in light output at 350 mA has been achieved by patterning Ni/Au electrodes with single, twined, triplet hole arrays. In addition, patterned Ni/Au LEDs possess much larger view angles than non-patterned ones due to scattering effects of light around the holes, especially for triplet hole array patterned Ni/Au LEDs. Our proposed method for fabricating multiple holes structure would be very promising to improve light output power of LEDs when using advanced electrodes.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

L. C. Wang, W. Liu, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, X. Y. Yi, G. H. Wang, X. W. Sun, H. W. Zhu, and H. V. Demir, “Graphene-based transparent conductive electrodes for GaN-based light emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Nano Energy 12, 419–436 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. H. Seo, G. H. Lee, S. Park, S. Chandramohan, A. H. Park, H. Cho, M. Park, M. J. Kim, and E.-K. Suh, “Hybrid electrode based on carbon nanotube and graphene for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102101 (2015).
[Crossref]

X.-B. Shi, M. Qian, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 223301 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. Geng, T. Wei, X. Wang, D. Shen, Z. Hao, and Q. Yan, “Enhancement of Light Output Power from LEDs Based on Monolayer Colloidal Crystal,” Small 10(9), 1668–1686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Geng, L. Zheng, H. Fang, Q. Yan, T. Wei, Z. Hao, X. Wang, and D. Shen, “Fabrication of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates using colloidal self-assembly and wet chemical etching,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oh, P.-C. Su, Y.-J. Yoon, S. Cho, J.-H. Oh, T.-Y. Seong, and K.-K. Kim, “Nano-patterned dual-layer ITO electrode of high brightness blue light emitting diodes using maskless wet etching,” Opt. Express 21(S6Suppl 6), A970–A976 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guo, N. Lin, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, Q. Xie, T. Zheng, N. Gao, S. Li, J. Kang, D. Cai, and D. L. Peng, “Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Du, T. Wei, H. Zheng, L. Wang, C. Geng, Q. Yan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Size-controllable nanopyramids photonic crystal selectively grown on p-GaN for enhanced light-extraction of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25373–25380 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. T. Chen, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Chang, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Sen, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with micro- and nano-patterned structures by femtosecond laser nonlinear decomposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131103 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, R. Wang, M. Wen, D. Weng, X. Cui, J. Sun, H. Li, and Y. Lu, “Synthesis of Ultralong Copper Nanowires for High-Performance Transparent Electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(35), 14283–14286 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. Kang, J. Deng, C. Xiong, T. Dai, X. Jiang, T. Yu, Z. Chen, and G. Y. Zhang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals structures fabricated by porous anodic alumina template,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1104–A1108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Liu, G. W. Xu, C. Rochford, R. T. Lu, J. Wu, C. M. Edwards, C. L. Berrie, Z. J. Chen, and V. A. Maroni, “Doped graphene nanohole arrays for flexible transparent conductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023111 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging Transparent Electrodes Based on Thin Films of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Metallic Nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. Kumar and C. Zhou, “The race to replace tin-doped indium oxide: which material will win?” ACS Nano 4(1), 11–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 13504 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

Babichev, A. V.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berrie, C. L.

J. W. Liu, G. W. Xu, C. Rochford, R. T. Lu, J. Wu, C. M. Edwards, C. L. Berrie, Z. J. Chen, and V. A. Maroni, “Doped graphene nanohole arrays for flexible transparent conductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cai, D.

H. Guo, N. Lin, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, Q. Xie, T. Zheng, N. Gao, S. Li, J. Kang, D. Cai, and D. L. Peng, “Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandramohan, S.

T. H. Seo, G. H. Lee, S. Park, S. Chandramohan, A. H. Park, H. Cho, M. Park, M. J. Kim, and E.-K. Suh, “Hybrid electrode based on carbon nanotube and graphene for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 13504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. C.

J. T. Chen, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Chang, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Sen, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with micro- and nano-patterned structures by femtosecond laser nonlinear decomposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. T.

J. T. Chen, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Chang, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Sen, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with micro- and nano-patterned structures by femtosecond laser nonlinear decomposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. S.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 13504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

H. Guo, N. Lin, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, Q. Xie, T. Zheng, N. Gao, S. Li, J. Kang, D. Cai, and D. L. Peng, “Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. J.

J. W. Liu, G. W. Xu, C. Rochford, R. T. Lu, J. Wu, C. M. Edwards, C. L. Berrie, Z. J. Chen, and V. A. Maroni, “Doped graphene nanohole arrays for flexible transparent conductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

T. H. Seo, G. H. Lee, S. Park, S. Chandramohan, A. H. Park, H. Cho, M. Park, M. J. Kim, and E.-K. Suh, “Hybrid electrode based on carbon nanotube and graphene for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.

Ciechonski, R.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, X.

D. Zhang, R. Wang, M. Wen, D. Weng, X. Cui, J. Sun, H. Li, and Y. Lu, “Synthesis of Ultralong Copper Nanowires for High-Performance Transparent Electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(35), 14283–14286 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, T.

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

L. C. Wang, W. Liu, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, X. Y. Yi, G. H. Wang, X. W. Sun, H. W. Zhu, and H. V. Demir, “Graphene-based transparent conductive electrodes for GaN-based light emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Nano Energy 12, 419–436 (2015).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.

Du, C.

Du, C. X.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Edwards, C. M.

J. W. Liu, G. W. Xu, C. Rochford, R. T. Lu, J. Wu, C. M. Edwards, C. L. Berrie, Z. J. Chen, and V. A. Maroni, “Doped graphene nanohole arrays for flexible transparent conductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ellmer, K.

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, H.

C. Geng, L. Zheng, H. Fang, Q. Yan, T. Wei, Z. Hao, X. Wang, and D. Shen, “Fabrication of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates using colloidal self-assembly and wet chemical etching,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, X.

Gao, N.

H. Guo, N. Lin, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, Q. Xie, T. Zheng, N. Gao, S. Li, J. Kang, D. Cai, and D. L. Peng, “Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, C.

C. Geng, T. Wei, X. Wang, D. Shen, Z. Hao, and Q. Yan, “Enhancement of Light Output Power from LEDs Based on Monolayer Colloidal Crystal,” Small 10(9), 1668–1686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Du, T. Wei, H. Zheng, L. Wang, C. Geng, Q. Yan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Size-controllable nanopyramids photonic crystal selectively grown on p-GaN for enhanced light-extraction of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25373–25380 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Geng, L. Zheng, H. Fang, Q. Yan, T. Wei, Z. Hao, X. Wang, and D. Shen, “Fabrication of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates using colloidal self-assembly and wet chemical etching,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

H. Guo, N. Lin, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, Q. Xie, T. Zheng, N. Gao, S. Li, J. Kang, D. Cai, and D. L. Peng, “Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, Z.

C. Geng, T. Wei, X. Wang, D. Shen, Z. Hao, and Q. Yan, “Enhancement of Light Output Power from LEDs Based on Monolayer Colloidal Crystal,” Small 10(9), 1668–1686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Geng, L. Zheng, H. Fang, Q. Yan, T. Wei, Z. Hao, X. Wang, and D. Shen, “Fabrication of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates using colloidal self-assembly and wet chemical etching,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecht, D. S.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging Transparent Electrodes Based on Thin Films of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Metallic Nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging Transparent Electrodes Based on Thin Films of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Metallic Nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irvin, G.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging Transparent Electrodes Based on Thin Films of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Metallic Nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacopin, G.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

Julien, F. H.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

H. Guo, N. Lin, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, Q. Xie, T. Zheng, N. Gao, S. Li, J. Kang, D. Cai, and D. L. Peng, “Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, X.

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-K.

Kim, M. J.

T. H. Seo, G. H. Lee, S. Park, S. Chandramohan, A. H. Park, H. Cho, M. Park, M. J. Kim, and E.-K. Suh, “Hybrid electrode based on carbon nanotube and graphene for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ko, T. K.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 13504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kryliouk, O.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar and C. Zhou, “The race to replace tin-doped indium oxide: which material will win?” ACS Nano 4(1), 11–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, C. T.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 13504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

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C. Geng, T. Wei, X. Wang, D. Shen, Z. Hao, and Q. Yan, “Enhancement of Light Output Power from LEDs Based on Monolayer Colloidal Crystal,” Small 10(9), 1668–1686 (2014).
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C. Geng, T. Wei, X. Wang, D. Shen, Z. Hao, and Q. Yan, “Enhancement of Light Output Power from LEDs Based on Monolayer Colloidal Crystal,” Small 10(9), 1668–1686 (2014).
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J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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J. W. Liu, G. W. Xu, C. Rochford, R. T. Lu, J. Wu, C. M. Edwards, C. L. Berrie, Z. J. Chen, and V. A. Maroni, “Doped graphene nanohole arrays for flexible transparent conductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023111 (2011).
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T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
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H. Guo, N. Lin, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, Q. Xie, T. Zheng, N. Gao, S. Li, J. Kang, D. Cai, and D. L. Peng, “Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2323 (2013).
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C. Geng, T. Wei, X. Wang, D. Shen, Z. Hao, and Q. Yan, “Enhancement of Light Output Power from LEDs Based on Monolayer Colloidal Crystal,” Small 10(9), 1668–1686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Du, T. Wei, H. Zheng, L. Wang, C. Geng, Q. Yan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Size-controllable nanopyramids photonic crystal selectively grown on p-GaN for enhanced light-extraction of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25373–25380 (2013).
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C. Geng, L. Zheng, H. Fang, Q. Yan, T. Wei, Z. Hao, X. Wang, and D. Shen, “Fabrication of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates using colloidal self-assembly and wet chemical etching,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335301 (2013).
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T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
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Yu, T.

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Zhang, D.

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M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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L. C. Wang, W. Liu, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, X. Y. Yi, G. H. Wang, X. W. Sun, H. W. Zhu, and H. V. Demir, “Graphene-based transparent conductive electrodes for GaN-based light emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Nano Energy 12, 419–436 (2015).
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L. C. Wang, W. Liu, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, X. Y. Yi, G. H. Wang, X. W. Sun, H. W. Zhu, and H. V. Demir, “Graphene-based transparent conductive electrodes for GaN-based light emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Nano Energy 12, 419–436 (2015).
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H. Guo, N. Lin, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, Q. Xie, T. Zheng, N. Gao, S. Li, J. Kang, D. Cai, and D. L. Peng, “Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2323 (2013).
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L. C. Wang, W. Liu, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, X. Y. Yi, G. H. Wang, X. W. Sun, H. W. Zhu, and H. V. Demir, “Graphene-based transparent conductive electrodes for GaN-based light emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Nano Energy 12, 419–436 (2015).
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ACS Nano (1)

A. Kumar and C. Zhou, “The race to replace tin-doped indium oxide: which material will win?” ACS Nano 4(1), 11–14 (2010).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. H. Seo, G. H. Lee, S. Park, S. Chandramohan, A. H. Park, H. Cho, M. Park, M. J. Kim, and E.-K. Suh, “Hybrid electrode based on carbon nanotube and graphene for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. T. Chen, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Chang, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Sen, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with micro- and nano-patterned structures by femtosecond laser nonlinear decomposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131103 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 13504 (2007).
[Crossref]

X.-B. Shi, M. Qian, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 223301 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Liu, G. W. Xu, C. Rochford, R. T. Lu, J. Wu, C. M. Edwards, C. L. Berrie, Z. J. Chen, and V. A. Maroni, “Doped graphene nanohole arrays for flexible transparent conductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023111 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. Zhang, R. Wang, M. Wen, D. Weng, X. Cui, J. Sun, H. Li, and Y. Lu, “Synthesis of Ultralong Copper Nanowires for High-Performance Transparent Electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(35), 14283–14286 (2012).
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Nano Energy (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of the process for the fabrication of Ni/Au LEDs with different hole array patterns by multiple-exposure colloidal lithography. (b) Schematic illustration of the formation of single (α = 0°; φ = 0°) hole array patterns. (c) Schematic illustration of the formation of twined (α = 26.6°; φ = 0° and 180°) and triplet (α = 26.6°; φ = 0°, 120° and 240°) hole array patterns.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Top view SEM images of Ni/Au LEDs p-type semi-transparent conductive layer surface (a) without pattern, (b) with single hole array patterns, (c) with twined hole array patterns, (d) with triplet hole array patterns.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The normalized transmittance of Ni/Au LEDs without patterns and with single, twined, triplet hole array patterns.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The I-V characteristics of Ni/Au LEDs without patterns and with single, twined, triplet hole array patterns. (b) EL spectra of Ni/Au LEDs without patterns and with single, twined, triplet hole array patterns.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The light output performance of Ni/Au LEDs without and with different patterns.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Far-field emission patterns of Ni/Au LEDs without and with different patterns at a driving current of 200 mA.

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