Abstract

We review the effect of doping on the optical properties of luminescent colloidal carbon dots. They are considered as a hybrid material featuring both molecular and semiconductor-like characteristics, where doping plays an important role. Starting from the short overview of synthetic strategies, we consider the evolution of carbon dots from molecular precursors to fluorescent nanoparticles, and the relevant structural properties of carbon dots. Choice of the reactant materials, dopant atoms and reaction parameters provide carbon dots with varying optical properties. High chemical stability, bright luminescence and customizable surface functionalization of carbon dots open their use in a broad range of applications, which are exemplary presented at the end of this review.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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V. Georgakilas, J. A. Perman, J. Tucek, and R. Zboril, “Broad family of carbon nanoallotropes: classification, chemistry, and applications of fullerenes, carbon dots, nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, and combined superstructures,” Chem. Rev. 115(11), 4744–4822 (2015).
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C. Sun, Y. Zhang, K. Sun, C. Reckmeier, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Wu, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Combination of carbon dot and polymer dot phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(28), 12045–12050 (2015).
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V. Nguyen, L. H. Yan, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Femtosecond laser-induced size reduction of carbon nanodots in solution: Effect of laser fluence, spot size, and irradiation time,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(8), 084304 (2015).
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A. M. Schwenke, S. Hoeppener, and U. S. Schubert, “Synthesis and modification of carbon nanomaterials utilizing microwave heating,” Adv. Mater. 27(28), 4113–4141 (2015).
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P. Yang, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, L. Li, and Z. Zhu, “Intramolecular hydrogen bonds quench photoluminescence and enhance photocatalytic activity of carbon nanodots,” Chemistry 21(23), 8561–8568 (2015).
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H. Ding and H.-M. Xiong, “Exploring the blue luminescence origin of nitrogen-doped carbon dots by controlling the water amount in synthesis,” RSC Advances 5(82), 66528–66533 (2015).
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K. Jiang, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Lu, A. Wu, C. Cai, and H. Lin, “Red, green, and blue luminescence by carbon dots: full-color emission tuning and multicolor cellular imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(18), 5360–5363 (2015).
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X. Han, S. Zhong, W. Pan, and W. Shen, “A simple strategy for synthesizing highly luminescent carbon nanodots and application as effective down-shifting layers,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065402 (2015).
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H. K. Sadhanala and K. K. Nanda, “Boron and nitrogen co-doped carbon nanoparticles as photoluminescent probes for selective and sensitive detection of picric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(23), 13138–13143 (2015).
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Y. Song, S. Zhu, S. Zhang, Y. Fu, L. Wang, X. Zhao, and B. Yang, “Investigation from chemical structure to photoluminescent mechanism: a type of carbon dots from the pyrolysis of citric acid and an amine,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(23), 5976–5984 (2015).
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J. Wang, P. Zhang, C. Huang, G. Liu, K. C. Leung, and Y. X. Wáng, “High performance photoluminescent carbon dots for in vitro and in vivo bioimaging: effect of nitrogen doping ratios,” Langmuir 31(29), 8063–8073 (2015).
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C. Yu, T. Xuan, Y. Chen, Z. Zhao, Z. Sun, and H. Li, “A facile, green synthesis of highly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from oatmeal for cell imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(37), 9514–9518 (2015).
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A. Barati, M. Shamsipur, E. Arkan, L. Hosseinzadeh, and H. Abdollahi, “Synthesis of biocompatible and highly photoluminescent nitrogen doped carbon dots from lime: analytical applications and optimization using response surface methodology,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 47, 325–332 (2015).
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W. Kasprzyk, S. Bednarz, P. Zmudzki, M. Galica, and D. Bogdal, “Novel efficient fluorophores synthesized from citric acid,” RSC Advances 5(44), 34795–34799 (2015).
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W. Wu, L. Zhan, W. Fan, J. Song, X. Li, Z. Li, R. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Zheng, M. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Cu-N dopants boost electron transfer and photooxidation reactions of carbon dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(22), 6540–6544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, and L. Qu, “Graphitic carbon nitride/graphene hybrids as new active materials for energy conversion and storage,” ChemNanoMat 1(5), 298–318 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Fu, F. Ehrat, Y. Wang, K. Z. Milowska, C. Reckmeier, A. L. Rogach, J. K. Stolarczyk, A. S. Urban, and J. Feldmann, “Carbon dots: a unique fluorescent cocktail of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6030–6035 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kwon, S. Do, J. H. Kim, M. Seok Jeong, and S. W. Rhee, “Control of photoluminescence of carbon nanodots via surface functionalization using para-substituted anilines,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, L. Wang, O. Zhovtiuk, K. Cepe, R. Zboril, and A. L. Rogach, “Carbon dot hybrids with oligomeric silsesquioxane: solid-state luminophores with high photoluminescence quantum yield and applicability in white light emitting devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(14), 2950–2953 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sudolska, M. Dubecky, S. Sarkar, C. J. Reckmeier, R. Zboril, A. L. Rogach, and M. Otyepka, “Nature of absorption bands in oxygen-functionalized graphitic carbon dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(23), 13369–13373 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bhattacharya, S. Chatterjee, R. Prajapati, and T. K. Mukherjee, “Size-dependent penetration of carbon dots inside the ferritin nanocages: evidence for the quantum confinement effect in carbon dots,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(19), 12833–12840 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, P. Pu, J. G. Zhao, C. B. Dong, C. Gao, Y. S. Chen, J. R. Chen, Y. Liu, and H. J. Zhou, “Preparation of highly photoluminescent sulfur-doped carbon dots for Fe(III) detection,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(2), 542–546 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, Y. Liu, C. Gao, J. Wei, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Dong, T. S. Sreeprasad, N. Li, and Z. Xia, “Synthesis, mechanistic investigation, and application of photoluminescent sulfur and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(38), 9885–9893 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. C. M. Martindale, G. A. M. Hutton, C. A. Caputo, and E. Reisner, “Solar hydrogen production using carbon quantum dots and a molecular nickel catalyst,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(18), 6018–6025 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Strauss, J. T. Margraf, K. Dirian, Z. Syrgiannis, M. Prato, C. Wessendorf, A. Hirsch, T. Clark, and D. M. Guldi, “Carbon nanodots: supramolecular electron donor-acceptor hybrids featuring perylenediimides,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(28), 8292–8297 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Hao, Z. X. Gan, X. B. Zhu, T. H. Li, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Emission from trions in carbon quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(6), 2956–2962 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Lim, W. Shen, and Z. Gao, “Carbon quantum dots and their applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(1), 362–381 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mohapatra, S. Sahu, N. Sinha, and S. K. Bhutia, “Synthesis of a carbon-dot-based photoluminescent probe for selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ in water and living cells,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1221–1228 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Huang, L. M. Wang, F. W. Zhu, W. Su, J. R. Sheng, C. S. Huang, and Q. Xiao, “A ratiometric nanosensor based on fluorescent carbon dots for label-free and highly selective recognition of DNA,” RSC Advances 5(55), 44587–44597 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Z. Xu, and C. Zhang, “Polyethyleneimine-functionalized fluorescent carbon dots: water stability, pH sensing, and cellular imaging,” ChemNanoMat 1(2), 122–127 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Liu, L. Cao, G. E. LeCroy, P. Wang, M. J. Meziani, Y. Dong, Y. Liu, P. G. Luo, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon “quantum” dots for Fluorescence labeling of cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19439–19445 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mukherjee, S. K. Misra, M. C. Gryka, H. H. Chang, S. Tiwari, W. L. Wilson, J. W. Scott, R. Bhargava, and D. Pan, “Tunable luminescent carbon nanospheres with well-defined nanoscale chemistry for synchronized imaging and therapy,” Small 11(36), 4691–4703 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (31)

M. Zheng, S. Liu, J. Li, D. Qu, H. Zhao, X. Guan, X. Hu, Z. Xie, X. Jing, and Z. Sun, “Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: an unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3554–3560 (2014).
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X. Li, S. Zhang, S. A. Kulinich, Y. Liu, and H. Zeng, “Engineering surface states of carbon dots to achieve controllable luminescence for solid-luminescent composites and sensitive Be2+ detection,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4976 (2014).

Y. Q. Dong, R. X. Wang, W. R. Tian, Y. W. Chi, and G. N. Chen, ““Turn-on” fluorescent detection of cyanide based on polyamine-functionalized carbon quantum dots,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3701–3705 (2014).
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X. Chen, Q. Jin, L. Wu, C. Tung, and X. Tang, “Synthesis and unique photoluminescence properties of nitrogen-rich quantum dots and their applications,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(46), 12542–12547 (2014).
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F. Y. Yan, Y. Zou, M. Wang, X. L. Mu, N. Yang, and L. Chen, “Highly photoluminescent carbon dots-based fluorescent chemosensors for sensitive and selective detection of mercury ions and application of imaging in living cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 192, 192488 (2014).

S. Ghosh, A. M. Chizhik, N. Karedla, M. O. Dekaliuk, I. Gregor, H. Schuhmann, M. Seibt, K. Bodensiek, I. A. Schaap, O. Schulz, A. P. Demchenko, J. Enderlein, and A. I. Chizhik, “Photoluminescence of carbon nanodots: dipole emission centers and electron-phonon coupling,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5656–5661 (2014).
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S. W. Yang, J. Sun, X. B. Li, W. Zhou, Z. Y. Wang, P. He, G. Q. Ding, X. M. Xie, Z. H. Kang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large-scale fabrication of heavy doped carbon quantum dots with tunable-photoluminescence and sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 2(23), 8660–8667 (2014).
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Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, Y. Zhang, H. Shi, S. V. Kershaw, and A. L. Rogach, “Thickness-dependent full-color emission tunability in a flexible carbon dot ionogel,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1412–1420 (2014).
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C. Ding, A. Zhu, and Y. Tian, “Functional surface engineering of C-dots for fluorescent biosensing and in vivo bioimaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47(1), 20–30 (2014).
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S. K. Bhunia, N. Pradhan, and N. R. Jana, “Vitamin B1 derived blue and green fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for cell-imaging application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(10), 7672–7679 (2014).
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S. J. Zhu, L. Wang, B. Li, Y. B. Song, X. H. Zhao, G. Y. Zhang, S. T. Zhang, S. Lu, J. H. Zhang, H. Y. Wang, H. B. Sun, and B. Yang, “Investigation of photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots and evaluation of their assembly into polymer dots,” Carbon 77, 462–472 (2014).
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C. L. Li, C. M. Ou, C. C. Huang, W. C. Wu, Y. P. Chen, T. E. Lin, L. C. Ho, C. W. Wang, C. C. Shih, H. C. Zhou, Y. C. Lee, W. F. Tzeng, T. J. Chiou, S. T. Chu, J. Cang, and H. T. Chang, “Carbon dots prepared from ginger exhibiting efficient inhibition of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 2(28), 4564–4571 (2014).
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Q. Hu, M. C. Paau, Y. Zhang, X. Gong, L. Zhang, D. Lu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, J. Yao, and M. M. F. Choi, “Green synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen/sulfur-doped carbon dots and investigation of their properties by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry,” RSC Advances 4(35), 18065–18073 (2014).
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J. M. Wei, X. Zhang, Y. Z. Sheng, J. M. Shen, P. Huang, S. K. Guo, J. Q. Pan, B. T. Liu, and B. X. Feng, “Simple one-step synthesis of water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots from waste paper,” New J. Chem. 38(3), 906–909 (2014).
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Z. Qian, J. Ma, X. Shan, H. Feng, L. Shao, and J. Chen, “Highly luminescent N-doped carbon quantum dots as an effective multifunctional fluorescence sensing platform,” Chemistry 20(8), 2254–2263 (2014).
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L. Wang and H. S. Zhou, “Green synthesis of luminescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots from milk and its imaging application,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 8902–8905 (2014).
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W. Zhang, D. Dai, X. Chen, X. Guo, and J. Fan, “Red shift in the photoluminescence of colloidal carbon quantum dots induced by photon reabsorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091902 (2014).
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X. Shan, L. Chai, J. Ma, Z. Qian, J. Chen, and H. Feng, “B-doped carbon quantum dots as a sensitive fluorescence probe for hydrogen peroxide and glucose detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(10), 2322–2325 (2014).
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J. Zhou, X. Shan, J. Ma, Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, and H. Feng, “Facile synthesis of P-doped carbon quantum dots with highly efficient photoluminescence,” RSC Advances 4(11), 5465–5468 (2014).
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M. K. Barman, B. Jana, S. Bhattacharyya, and A. Patra, “Photophysical properties of doped carbon dots (N, P, and B) and their influence on electron/hole transfer in carbon dots–nickel (II) phthalocyanine conjugates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(34), 20034–20041 (2014).
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K. Wei, J. J. Li, Z. S. Ge, Y. Z. You, and H. X. Xu, “Sonochemical synthesis of highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots,” RSC Advances 4(94), 52230–52234 (2014).
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V. Strauss, J. T. Margraf, C. Dolle, B. Butz, T. J. Nacken, J. Walter, W. Bauer, W. Peukert, E. Spiecker, T. Clark, and D. M. Guldi, “Carbon nanodots: toward a comprehensive understanding of their photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(49), 17308–17316 (2014).
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D. Z. Tan, Y. Yamada, S. F. Zhou, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Carbon nanodots with strong nonlinear optical response,” Carbon 69, 638–640 (2014).
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C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
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K. Hola, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, E. P. Giannelis, R. Zboril, and A. L. Rogach, “Carbon dots—emerging light emitters for bioimaging, cancer therapy and optoelectronics,” Nano Today 9(5), 590–603 (2014).
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Y. Wang and A. Hu, “Carbon quantum dots: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(34), 6921–6939 (2014).
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O. Kargbo, Y. Jin, and S.-N. Ding, “Recent advances in luminescent carbon dots,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 11(1), 4–21 (2014).
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D. Qu, M. Zheng, L. Zhang, H. Zhao, Z. Xie, X. Jing, R. E. Haddad, H. Fan, and Z. Sun, “Formation mechanism and optimization of highly luminescent N-doped graphene quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5294 (2014).
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L. Wang, S.-J. Zhu, H.-Y. Wang, S.-N. Qu, Y.-L. Zhang, J.-H. Zhang, Q.-D. Chen, H.-L. Xu, W. Han, B. Yang, and H.-B. Sun, “Common origin of green luminescence in carbon nanodots and graphene quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2541–2547 (2014).
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K. Chang, Z. Liu, H. Chen, L. Sheng, S. X. A. Zhang, D. T. Chiu, S. Yin, C. Wu, and W. Qin, “Conjugated polymer dots for ultra-stable full-color fluorescence patterning,” Small 10(21), 4270–4275 (2014).
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W. Chung, H. Jung, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “Extremely high color rendering white light from surface passivated carbon dots and Zn-doped AgInS2 nanocrystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(21), 4227–4232 (2014).
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2013 (17)

W. K. Bae, S. Brovelli, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectroscopic insights into the performance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” MRS Bull. 38(9), 721–730 (2013).
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S. Zhu, Q. Meng, L. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Song, H. Jin, K. Zhang, H. Sun, H. Wang, and B. Yang, “Highly photoluminescent carbon dots for multicolor patterning, sensors, and bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(14), 3953–3957 (2013).
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P. G. Luo, S. Sahu, S.-T. Yang, S. K. Sonkar, J. Wang, H. Wang, G. E. LeCroy, L. Cao, and Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon “quantum” dots for optical bioimaging,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(16), 2116–2127 (2013).
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X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, Y. Wang, P. Wang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Color-switchable electroluminescence of carbon dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11234–11241 (2013).
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Y. Dong, H. Pang, H. B. Yang, C. Guo, J. Shao, Y. Chi, C. M. Li, and T. Yu, “Carbon-based dots co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur for high quantum yield and excitation-independent emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(30), 7800–7804 (2013).
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Y. Guo, Z. Wang, H. Shao, and X. Jiang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of highly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from sodium citrate and their use for the detection of mercury ions,” Carbon 52, 583–589 (2013).
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X. Y. Qin, W. B. Lu, A. M. Asiri, A. O. Al-Youbi, and X. P. Sun, “Microwave-assisted rapid green synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanodots from flour and their applications for sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II) ions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 184, 156–162 (2013).
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C. H. Lee, R. Rajendran, M. S. Jeong, H. Y. Ko, J. Y. Joo, S. Cho, Y. W. Chang, and S. Kim, “Bioimaging of targeting cancers using aptamer-conjugated carbon nanodots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(58), 6543–6545 (2013).
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S. Chandra, P. Patra, S. H. Pathan, S. Roy, S. Mitra, A. Layek, R. Bhar, P. Pramanik, and A. Goswami, “Luminescent S-doped carbon dots: an emergent architecture for multimodal applications,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(18), 2375–2382 (2013).
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Y. Xu, M. Wu, Y. Liu, X. Z. Feng, X. B. Yin, X. W. He, and Y. K. Zhang, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots: a facile and general preparation method, photoluminescence investigation, and imaging applications,” Chemistry 19(7), 2276–2283 (2013).
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S. Hu, R. Tian, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, and Q. Chang, “Modulation and effects of surface groups on photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity of carbon dots,” Nanoscale 5(23), 11665–11671 (2013).
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W. Kasprzyk, S. Bednarz, and D. Bogdał, “Luminescence phenomena of biodegradable photoluminescent poly(diol citrates),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(57), 6445–6447 (2013).
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X. Chen, C. Han, H. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Liu, Z. Xu, and L. Hu, “Rapid speciation analysis of mercury in seawater and marine fish by cation exchange chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr. A 1314, 86–93 (2013).
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C. Yu, X. Li, F. Zeng, F. Zheng, and S. Wu, “Carbon-dot-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor for detecting hydrogen sulfide in aqueous media and inside live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(4), 403–405 (2013).
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H. Ding, L. W. Cheng, Y. Y. Ma, J. L. Kong, and H. M. Xiong, “Luminescent carbon quantum dots and their application in cell imaging,” New J. Chem. 37(8), 2515–2520 (2013).
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J. Tang, B. Kong, H. Wu, M. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, D. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Carbon nanodots featuring efficient FRET for real-time monitoring of drug delivery and two-photon imaging,” Adv. Mater. 25(45), 6569–6574 (2013).
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K. Wang, Z. Gao, G. Gao, Y. Wo, Y. Wang, G. Shen, and D. Cui, “Systematic safety evaluation on photoluminescent carbon dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 8(1), 122 (2013).
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2012 (23)

J. M. Liu, L. P. Lin, X. X. Wang, S. Q. Lin, W. L. Cai, L. H. Zhang, and Z. Y. Zheng, “Highly selective and sensitive detection of Cu2+ with lysine enhancing bovine serum albumin modified-carbon dots fluorescent probe,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(11), 2637–2642 (2012).
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P. Yu, X. Wen, Y.-R. Toh, and J. Tang, “Temperature-dependent fluorescence in carbon dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(48), 25552–25557 (2012).
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Y. Liu, C. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Zhang, “Synthesis of highly luminescent graphitized carbon dots and the application in the Hg2+ detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 263, 263481 (2012).

R. Shen, K. Song, H. Liu, Y. Li, and H. Liu, “Dramatic fluorescence enhancement of bare carbon dots through facile reduction chemistry,” ChemPhysChem 13(15), 3549–3555 (2012).
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H. Wang, T. Maiyalagan, and X. Wang, “Review on recent progress in nitrogen-doped graphene: synthesis, characterization, and its potential applications,” ACS Catal. 2(5), 781–794 (2012).
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J. Liang, Y. Jiao, M. Jaroniec, and S. Z. Qiao, “Sulfur and nitrogen dual-doped mesoporous graphene electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with synergistically enhanced performance,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(46), 11496–11500 (2012).
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A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, K. Polakova, K. Safarova, K. Hola, and R. Zboril, “Gd(III)-doped carbon dots as a dual fluorescent-MRI probe,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23327–23330 (2012).
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P. C. Hsu and H. T. Chang, “Synthesis of high-quality carbon nanodots from hydrophilic compounds: role of functional groups,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(33), 3984–3986 (2012).
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P. C. Hsu, Z. Y. Shih, C. H. Lee, and H. T. Chang, “Synthesis and analytical applications of photoluminescent carbon nanodots,” Green Chem. 14(4), 917–920 (2012).
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C. Zhu, J. Zhai, and S. Dong, “Bifunctional fluorescent carbon nanodots: green synthesis via soy milk and application as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(75), 9367–9369 (2012).
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Y. Yang, J. Cui, M. Zheng, C. Hu, S. Tan, Y. Xiao, Q. Yang, and Y. Liu, “One-step synthesis of amino-functionalized fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by hydrothermal carbonization of chitosan,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(3), 380–382 (2012).
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S. Sahu, B. Behera, T. K. Maiti, and S. Mohapatra, “Simple one-step synthesis of highly luminescent carbon dots from orange juice: application as excellent bio-imaging agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(70), 8835–8837 (2012).
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M. J. Krysmann, A. Kelarakis, P. Dallas, and E. P. Giannelis, “Formation mechanism of carbogenic nanoparticles with dual photoluminescence emission,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(2), 747–750 (2012).
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S. Mitra, S. Chandra, T. Kundu, R. Banerjee, P. Pramanik, and A. Goswami, “Rapid microwave synthesis of fluorescent hydrophobic carbon dots,” RSC Advances 2(32), 12129–12131 (2012).
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X. Zhai, P. Zhang, C. Liu, T. Bai, W. Li, L. Dai, and W. Liu, “Highly luminescent carbon nanodots by microwave-assisted pyrolysis,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(64), 7955–7957 (2012).
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Y.-Q. Zhang, D.-K. Ma, Y. Zhuang, X. Zhang, W. Chen, L.-L. Hong, Q.-X. Yan, K. Yu, and S.-M. Huang, “One-pot synthesis of N-doped carbon dots with tunable luminescence properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 16714–16718 (2012).
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Z. Ma, H. Ming, H. Huang, Y. Liu, and Z. Kang, “One-step ultrasonic synthesis of fluorescent N-doped carbon dots from glucose and their visible-light sensitive photocatalytic ability,” New J. Chem. 36(4), 861–864 (2012).
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S. Qu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Liu, and L. Wang, “A biocompatible fluorescent ink based on water-soluble luminescent carbon nanodots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(49), 12215–12218 (2012).
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H. Li, Z. Kang, Y. Liu, and S.-T. Lee, “Carbon nanodots: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(46), 24230–24253 (2012).
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S. Liu, J. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Zhang, X. Qin, Y. Luo, A. M. Asiri, A. O. Al-Youbi, and X. Sun, “Hydrothermal treatment of grass: a low-cost, green route to nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, photoluminescent polymer nanodots as an effective fluorescent sensing platform for label-free detection of Cu(II) ions,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 2037–2041 (2012).
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Z. A. Qiao, Q. Huo, M. Chi, G. M. Veith, A. J. Binder, and S. Dai, “A “ship-in-a-bottle” approach to synthesis of polymer dots@silica or polymer dots@carbon core-shell nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 24(45), 6017–6021 (2012).
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X. Guo, C. F. Wang, Z. Y. Yu, L. Chen, and S. Chen, “Facile access to versatile fluorescent carbon dots toward light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(21), 2692–2694 (2012).
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Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
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2011 (9)

X. Wang, K. Qu, B. Xu, J. Ren, and X. Qu, “Microwave assisted one-step green synthesis of cell-permeable multicolor photoluminescent carbon dots without surface passivation reagents,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(8), 2445–2450 (2011).
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S. L. Hu, J. Liu, J. L. Yang, Y. Z. Wang, and S. R. Cao, “Laser synthesis and size tailor of carbon quantum dots,” J. Nanopart. Res. 13(12), 7247–7252 (2011).
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X. Li, H. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(3), 932–934 (2011).
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J. Zong, Y. Zhu, X. Yang, J. Shen, and C. Li, “Synthesis of photoluminescent carbogenic dots using mesoporous silica spheres as nanoreactors,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(2), 764–766 (2011).
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H. Li, X. He, Y. Liu, H. Huang, S. Lian, S.-T. Lee, and Z. Kang, “One-step ultrasonic synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles with excellent photoluminescent properties,” Carbon 49(2), 605–609 (2011).
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L. Bao, Z. L. Zhang, Z. Q. Tian, L. Zhang, C. Liu, Y. Lin, B. Qi, and D. W. Pang, “Electrochemical tuning of luminescent carbon nanodots: from preparation to luminescence mechanism,” Adv. Mater. 23(48), 5801–5806 (2011).
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H. Zheng, Q. Wang, Y. Long, H. Zhang, X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
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Y. J. Bao, J. J. Li, Y. T. Wang, L. Yu, L. Lou, W. J. Du, Z. Q. Zhu, H. Peng, and J. Z. Zhu, “Probing cytotoxicity of CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 22(7), 843–846 (2011).
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F. Wang, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and D. G. Ma, “White light-emitting devices based on carbon dots’ electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(12), 3502–3504 (2011).
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2010 (7)

X. Wang, L. Cao, S. T. Yang, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, L. Tian, K. W. Sun, M. A. Bloodgood, and Y. P. Sun, “Bandgap-like strong fluorescence in functionalized carbon nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(31), 5310–5314 (2010).
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F. Wang, S. Pang, L. Wang, Q. Li, M. Kreiter, and C.-y. Liu, “One-step synthesis of highly luminescent carbon dots in noncoordinating solvents,” Chem. Mater. 22(16), 4528–4530 (2010).
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H. Li, X. He, Z. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
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B. Zhang, C.-y. Liu, and Y. Liu, “A novel one-step approach to synthesize fluorescent carbon nanoparticles,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2010(28), 4411–4414 (2010).
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S. N. Baker and G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(38), 6726–6744 (2010).
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A. Hirsch, “The era of carbon allotropes,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 868–871 (2010).
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L. Li and X. Yan, “Colloidal graphene quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(17), 2572–2576 (2010).
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2009 (6)

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 25, 3774–3776 (2009).
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S.-T. Yang, L. Cao, P. G. Luo, F. Lu, X. Wang, H. Wang, M. J. Meziani, Y. Liu, G. Qi, and Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots for optical imaging in vivo,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(32), 11308–11309 (2009).
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S.-L. Hu, K.-Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N.-Q. Zhao, and X.-W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(4), 484–488 (2009).
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H. Zhu, X. Wang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, F. Yang, and X. Yang, “Microwave synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with electrochemiluminescence properties,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 34, 5118–5120 (2009).
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L. Tian, D. Ghosh, W. Chen, S. Pradhan, X. Chang, and S. Chen, “Nanosized carbon particles from natural gas soot,” Chem. Mater. 21(13), 2803–2809 (2009).
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S. C. Ray, A. Saha, N. R. Jana, and R. Sarkar, “Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and bioimaging application,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(43), 18546–18551 (2009).
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2008 (6)

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, V. Georgakilas, and E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008).
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A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, and E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008).
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C. Wu, B. Bull, C. Szymanski, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Multicolor conjugated polymer dots for biological fluorescence imaging,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2415–2423 (2008).
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Q. L. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, B. H. Huang, J. Peng, M. Zhang, and D. W. Pang, “Facile preparation of low cytotoxicity fluorescent carbon nanocrystals by electrooxidation of graphite,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 41, 5116–5118 (2008).
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B. K. Jena and C. R. Raj, “Gold nanoelectrode ensembles for the simultaneous electrochemical detection of ultratrace arsenic, mercury, and copper,” Anal. Chem. 80(13), 4836–4844 (2008).
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A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-emitting diodes with semiconductor nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
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2007 (5)

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J. Wang, P. Zhang, C. Huang, G. Liu, K. C. Leung, and Y. X. Wáng, “High performance photoluminescent carbon dots for in vitro and in vivo bioimaging: effect of nitrogen doping ratios,” Langmuir 31(29), 8063–8073 (2015).
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S. J. Zhu, L. Wang, B. Li, Y. B. Song, X. H. Zhao, G. Y. Zhang, S. T. Zhang, S. Lu, J. H. Zhang, H. Y. Wang, H. B. Sun, and B. Yang, “Investigation of photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots and evaluation of their assembly into polymer dots,” Carbon 77, 462–472 (2014).
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Li, C.

J. Zong, Y. Zhu, X. Yang, J. Shen, and C. Li, “Synthesis of photoluminescent carbogenic dots using mesoporous silica spheres as nanoreactors,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(2), 764–766 (2011).
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Li, C. L.

C. L. Li, C. M. Ou, C. C. Huang, W. C. Wu, Y. P. Chen, T. E. Lin, L. C. Ho, C. W. Wang, C. C. Shih, H. C. Zhou, Y. C. Lee, W. F. Tzeng, T. J. Chiou, S. T. Chu, J. Cang, and H. T. Chang, “Carbon dots prepared from ginger exhibiting efficient inhibition of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 2(28), 4564–4571 (2014).
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Li, C. M.

Y. Dong, H. Pang, H. B. Yang, C. Guo, J. Shao, Y. Chi, C. M. Li, and T. Yu, “Carbon-based dots co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur for high quantum yield and excitation-independent emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(30), 7800–7804 (2013).
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Li, H.

C. Yu, T. Xuan, Y. Chen, Z. Zhao, Z. Sun, and H. Li, “A facile, green synthesis of highly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from oatmeal for cell imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(37), 9514–9518 (2015).
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H. Li, Z. Kang, Y. Liu, and S.-T. Lee, “Carbon nanodots: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(46), 24230–24253 (2012).
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H. Li, X. He, Y. Liu, H. Huang, S. Lian, S.-T. Lee, and Z. Kang, “One-step ultrasonic synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles with excellent photoluminescent properties,” Carbon 49(2), 605–609 (2011).
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H. Li, X. He, Z. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
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X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 25, 3774–3776 (2009).
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Li, J.

M. Zheng, S. Liu, J. Li, D. Qu, H. Zhao, X. Guan, X. Hu, Z. Xie, X. Jing, and Z. Sun, “Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: an unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3554–3560 (2014).
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Li, J. J.

K. Wei, J. J. Li, Z. S. Ge, Y. Z. You, and H. X. Xu, “Sonochemical synthesis of highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots,” RSC Advances 4(94), 52230–52234 (2014).
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Y. J. Bao, J. J. Li, Y. T. Wang, L. Yu, L. Lou, W. J. Du, Z. Q. Zhu, H. Peng, and J. Z. Zhu, “Probing cytotoxicity of CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 22(7), 843–846 (2011).
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Li, L.

P. Yang, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, L. Li, and Z. Zhu, “Intramolecular hydrogen bonds quench photoluminescence and enhance photocatalytic activity of carbon nanodots,” Chemistry 21(23), 8561–8568 (2015).
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L. Li and X. Yan, “Colloidal graphene quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(17), 2572–2576 (2010).
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Li, N.

Q. Xu, Y. Liu, C. Gao, J. Wei, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Dong, T. S. Sreeprasad, N. Li, and Z. Xia, “Synthesis, mechanistic investigation, and application of photoluminescent sulfur and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(38), 9885–9893 (2015).
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Li, Q.

F. Wang, S. Pang, L. Wang, Q. Li, M. Kreiter, and C.-y. Liu, “One-step synthesis of highly luminescent carbon dots in noncoordinating solvents,” Chem. Mater. 22(16), 4528–4530 (2010).
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Li, R.

J. Zhou, C. Booker, R. Li, X. Zhou, T. K. Sham, X. Sun, and Z. Ding, “An electrochemical avenue to blue luminescent nanocrystals from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(4), 744–745 (2007).
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Li, T. H.

Y. L. Hao, Z. X. Gan, X. B. Zhu, T. H. Li, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Emission from trions in carbon quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(6), 2956–2962 (2015).
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Li, W.

X. Zhai, P. Zhang, C. Liu, T. Bai, W. Li, L. Dai, and W. Liu, “Highly luminescent carbon nanodots by microwave-assisted pyrolysis,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(64), 7955–7957 (2012).
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Li, X.

W. Wu, L. Zhan, W. Fan, J. Song, X. Li, Z. Li, R. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Zheng, M. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Cu-N dopants boost electron transfer and photooxidation reactions of carbon dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(22), 6540–6544 (2015).
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X. Li, S. Zhang, S. A. Kulinich, Y. Liu, and H. Zeng, “Engineering surface states of carbon dots to achieve controllable luminescence for solid-luminescent composites and sensitive Be2+ detection,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4976 (2014).

C. Yu, X. Li, F. Zeng, F. Zheng, and S. Wu, “Carbon-dot-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor for detecting hydrogen sulfide in aqueous media and inside live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(4), 403–405 (2013).
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X. Li, H. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(3), 932–934 (2011).
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Li, X. B.

S. W. Yang, J. Sun, X. B. Li, W. Zhou, Z. Y. Wang, P. He, G. Q. Ding, X. M. Xie, Z. H. Kang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large-scale fabrication of heavy doped carbon quantum dots with tunable-photoluminescence and sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 2(23), 8660–8667 (2014).
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Li, Y.

R. Shen, K. Song, H. Liu, Y. Li, and H. Liu, “Dramatic fluorescence enhancement of bare carbon dots through facile reduction chemistry,” ChemPhysChem 13(15), 3549–3555 (2012).
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H. Zhu, X. Wang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, F. Yang, and X. Yang, “Microwave synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with electrochemiluminescence properties,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 34, 5118–5120 (2009).
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Li, Z.

W. Wu, L. Zhan, W. Fan, J. Song, X. Li, Z. Li, R. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Zheng, M. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Cu-N dopants boost electron transfer and photooxidation reactions of carbon dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(22), 6540–6544 (2015).
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Li Pira, N.

A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, J. M. Lupton, C. Bertoni, D. E. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Li Pira, M. Paderi, P. Repetto, S. G. Romanov, C. O’Dwyer, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and A. Eychmüller, “Light-emitting diodes with semiconductor nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(35), 6538–6549 (2008).
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Lian, S.

H. Li, X. He, Y. Liu, H. Huang, S. Lian, S.-T. Lee, and Z. Kang, “One-step ultrasonic synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles with excellent photoluminescent properties,” Carbon 49(2), 605–609 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Li, X. He, Z. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
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Liang, J.

J. Liang, Y. Jiao, M. Jaroniec, and S. Z. Qiao, “Sulfur and nitrogen dual-doped mesoporous graphene electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with synergistically enhanced performance,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(46), 11496–11500 (2012).
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Lim, S. Y.

S. Y. Lim, W. Shen, and Z. Gao, “Carbon quantum dots and their applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(1), 362–381 (2015).
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Lin, H.

K. Jiang, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Lu, A. Wu, C. Cai, and H. Lin, “Red, green, and blue luminescence by carbon dots: full-color emission tuning and multicolor cellular imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(18), 5360–5363 (2015).
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Lin, L. P.

J. M. Liu, L. P. Lin, X. X. Wang, S. Q. Lin, W. L. Cai, L. H. Zhang, and Z. Y. Zheng, “Highly selective and sensitive detection of Cu2+ with lysine enhancing bovine serum albumin modified-carbon dots fluorescent probe,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(11), 2637–2642 (2012).
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Lin, S. H.

S. C. Pu, M. J. Yang, C. C. Hsu, C. W. Lai, C. C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. M. Cheng, and P. T. Chou, “The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots,” Small 2(11), 1308–1313 (2006).
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Lin, S. Q.

J. M. Liu, L. P. Lin, X. X. Wang, S. Q. Lin, W. L. Cai, L. H. Zhang, and Z. Y. Zheng, “Highly selective and sensitive detection of Cu2+ with lysine enhancing bovine serum albumin modified-carbon dots fluorescent probe,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(11), 2637–2642 (2012).
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Lin, T. E.

C. L. Li, C. M. Ou, C. C. Huang, W. C. Wu, Y. P. Chen, T. E. Lin, L. C. Ho, C. W. Wang, C. C. Shih, H. C. Zhou, Y. C. Lee, W. F. Tzeng, T. J. Chiou, S. T. Chu, J. Cang, and H. T. Chang, “Carbon dots prepared from ginger exhibiting efficient inhibition of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 2(28), 4564–4571 (2014).
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Lin, Y.

L. Bao, Z. L. Zhang, Z. Q. Tian, L. Zhang, C. Liu, Y. Lin, B. Qi, and D. W. Pang, “Electrochemical tuning of luminescent carbon nanodots: from preparation to luminescence mechanism,” Adv. Mater. 23(48), 5801–5806 (2011).
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L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. Lu, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
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Liu, B. T.

J. M. Wei, X. Zhang, Y. Z. Sheng, J. M. Shen, P. Huang, S. K. Guo, J. Q. Pan, B. T. Liu, and B. X. Feng, “Simple one-step synthesis of water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots from waste paper,” New J. Chem. 38(3), 906–909 (2014).
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Liu, C.

X. Zhai, P. Zhang, C. Liu, T. Bai, W. Li, L. Dai, and W. Liu, “Highly luminescent carbon nanodots by microwave-assisted pyrolysis,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(64), 7955–7957 (2012).
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L. Bao, Z. L. Zhang, Z. Q. Tian, L. Zhang, C. Liu, Y. Lin, B. Qi, and D. W. Pang, “Electrochemical tuning of luminescent carbon nanodots: from preparation to luminescence mechanism,” Adv. Mater. 23(48), 5801–5806 (2011).
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Liu, C. Y.

Y. Liu, C. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Zhang, “Synthesis of highly luminescent graphitized carbon dots and the application in the Hg2+ detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 263, 263481 (2012).

F. Wang, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and D. G. Ma, “White light-emitting devices based on carbon dots’ electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(12), 3502–3504 (2011).
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Liu, C.-y.

B. Zhang, C.-y. Liu, and Y. Liu, “A novel one-step approach to synthesize fluorescent carbon nanoparticles,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2010(28), 4411–4414 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, S. Pang, L. Wang, Q. Li, M. Kreiter, and C.-y. Liu, “One-step synthesis of highly luminescent carbon dots in noncoordinating solvents,” Chem. Mater. 22(16), 4528–4530 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

J. Wang, P. Zhang, C. Huang, G. Liu, K. C. Leung, and Y. X. Wáng, “High performance photoluminescent carbon dots for in vitro and in vivo bioimaging: effect of nitrogen doping ratios,” Langmuir 31(29), 8063–8073 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

R. Shen, K. Song, H. Liu, Y. Li, and H. Liu, “Dramatic fluorescence enhancement of bare carbon dots through facile reduction chemistry,” ChemPhysChem 13(15), 3549–3555 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shen, K. Song, H. Liu, Y. Li, and H. Liu, “Dramatic fluorescence enhancement of bare carbon dots through facile reduction chemistry,” ChemPhysChem 13(15), 3549–3555 (2012).
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H. Liu, T. Ye, and C. Mao, “Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles derived from candle soot,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(34), 6473–6475 (2007).
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Liu, J.

S. Hu, R. Tian, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, and Q. Chang, “Modulation and effects of surface groups on photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity of carbon dots,” Nanoscale 5(23), 11665–11671 (2013).
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X. Chen, C. Han, H. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Liu, Z. Xu, and L. Hu, “Rapid speciation analysis of mercury in seawater and marine fish by cation exchange chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr. A 1314, 86–93 (2013).
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S. L. Hu, J. Liu, J. L. Yang, Y. Z. Wang, and S. R. Cao, “Laser synthesis and size tailor of carbon quantum dots,” J. Nanopart. Res. 13(12), 7247–7252 (2011).
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H. Li, X. He, Z. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. H.

J. H. Liu, L. Cao, G. E. LeCroy, P. Wang, M. J. Meziani, Y. Dong, Y. Liu, P. G. Luo, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon “quantum” dots for Fluorescence labeling of cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19439–19445 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. M.

J. M. Liu, L. P. Lin, X. X. Wang, S. Q. Lin, W. L. Cai, L. H. Zhang, and Z. Y. Zheng, “Highly selective and sensitive detection of Cu2+ with lysine enhancing bovine serum albumin modified-carbon dots fluorescent probe,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(11), 2637–2642 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

Q. Hu, M. C. Paau, Y. Zhang, X. Gong, L. Zhang, D. Lu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, J. Yao, and M. M. F. Choi, “Green synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen/sulfur-doped carbon dots and investigation of their properties by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry,” RSC Advances 4(35), 18065–18073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

M. Zheng, S. Liu, J. Li, D. Qu, H. Zhao, X. Guan, X. Hu, Z. Xie, X. Jing, and Z. Sun, “Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: an unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3554–3560 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, J. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Zhang, X. Qin, Y. Luo, A. M. Asiri, A. O. Al-Youbi, and X. Sun, “Hydrothermal treatment of grass: a low-cost, green route to nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, photoluminescent polymer nanodots as an effective fluorescent sensing platform for label-free detection of Cu(II) ions,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 2037–2041 (2012).
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Liu, W.

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhai, P. Zhang, C. Liu, T. Bai, W. Li, L. Dai, and W. Liu, “Highly luminescent carbon nanodots by microwave-assisted pyrolysis,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(64), 7955–7957 (2012).
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H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
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Liu, X.

S. Qu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Liu, and L. Wang, “A biocompatible fluorescent ink based on water-soluble luminescent carbon nanodots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(49), 12215–12218 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Q. Xu, Y. Liu, C. Gao, J. Wei, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Dong, T. S. Sreeprasad, N. Li, and Z. Xia, “Synthesis, mechanistic investigation, and application of photoluminescent sulfur and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(38), 9885–9893 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Liu, L. Cao, G. E. LeCroy, P. Wang, M. J. Meziani, Y. Dong, Y. Liu, P. G. Luo, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon “quantum” dots for Fluorescence labeling of cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19439–19445 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, P. Pu, J. G. Zhao, C. B. Dong, C. Gao, Y. S. Chen, J. R. Chen, Y. Liu, and H. J. Zhou, “Preparation of highly photoluminescent sulfur-doped carbon dots for Fe(III) detection,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(2), 542–546 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Zhang, S. A. Kulinich, Y. Liu, and H. Zeng, “Engineering surface states of carbon dots to achieve controllable luminescence for solid-luminescent composites and sensitive Be2+ detection,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4976 (2014).

Q. Hu, M. C. Paau, Y. Zhang, X. Gong, L. Zhang, D. Lu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, J. Yao, and M. M. F. Choi, “Green synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen/sulfur-doped carbon dots and investigation of their properties by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry,” RSC Advances 4(35), 18065–18073 (2014).
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Y. Xu, M. Wu, Y. Liu, X. Z. Feng, X. B. Yin, X. W. He, and Y. K. Zhang, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots: a facile and general preparation method, photoluminescence investigation, and imaging applications,” Chemistry 19(7), 2276–2283 (2013).
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Z. Ma, H. Ming, H. Huang, Y. Liu, and Z. Kang, “One-step ultrasonic synthesis of fluorescent N-doped carbon dots from glucose and their visible-light sensitive photocatalytic ability,” New J. Chem. 36(4), 861–864 (2012).
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Y. Yang, J. Cui, M. Zheng, C. Hu, S. Tan, Y. Xiao, Q. Yang, and Y. Liu, “One-step synthesis of amino-functionalized fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by hydrothermal carbonization of chitosan,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(3), 380–382 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, Z. Kang, Y. Liu, and S.-T. Lee, “Carbon nanodots: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(46), 24230–24253 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, C. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Zhang, “Synthesis of highly luminescent graphitized carbon dots and the application in the Hg2+ detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 263, 263481 (2012).

H. Li, X. He, Y. Liu, H. Huang, S. Lian, S.-T. Lee, and Z. Kang, “One-step ultrasonic synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles with excellent photoluminescent properties,” Carbon 49(2), 605–609 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, C.-y. Liu, and Y. Liu, “A novel one-step approach to synthesize fluorescent carbon nanoparticles,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2010(28), 4411–4414 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Li, X. He, Z. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. A. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-T. Yang, L. Cao, P. G. Luo, F. Lu, X. Wang, H. Wang, M. J. Meziani, Y. Liu, G. Qi, and Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots for optical imaging in vivo,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(32), 11308–11309 (2009).
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Liu, Y. H.

Y. H. Liu, J. S. Xue, T. Zheng, and J. R. Dahn, “Mechanism of lithium insertion in hard carbons prepared by pyrolysis of epoxy resins,” Carbon 34(2), 193–200 (1996).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

K. Chang, Z. Liu, H. Chen, L. Sheng, S. X. A. Zhang, D. T. Chiu, S. Yin, C. Wu, and W. Qin, “Conjugated polymer dots for ultra-stable full-color fluorescence patterning,” Small 10(21), 4270–4275 (2014).
[PubMed]

Long, Y.

H. Zheng, Q. Wang, Y. Long, H. Zhang, X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
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Lou, L.

Y. J. Bao, J. J. Li, Y. T. Wang, L. Yu, L. Lou, W. J. Du, Z. Q. Zhu, H. Peng, and J. Z. Zhu, “Probing cytotoxicity of CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 22(7), 843–846 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, D.

Q. Hu, M. C. Paau, Y. Zhang, X. Gong, L. Zhang, D. Lu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, J. Yao, and M. M. F. Choi, “Green synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen/sulfur-doped carbon dots and investigation of their properties by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry,” RSC Advances 4(35), 18065–18073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

X. Wang, L. Cao, S. T. Yang, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, L. Tian, K. W. Sun, M. A. Bloodgood, and Y. P. Sun, “Bandgap-like strong fluorescence in functionalized carbon nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(31), 5310–5314 (2010).
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S.-T. Yang, L. Cao, P. G. Luo, F. Lu, X. Wang, H. Wang, M. J. Meziani, Y. Liu, G. Qi, and Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots for optical imaging in vivo,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(32), 11308–11309 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 25, 3774–3776 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. Lu, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Bao, Z. L. Zhang, Z. Q. Tian, L. Zhang, C. Liu, Y. Lin, B. Qi, and D. W. Pang, “Electrochemical tuning of luminescent carbon nanodots: from preparation to luminescence mechanism,” Adv. Mater. 23(48), 5801–5806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. H.

J. M. Liu, L. P. Lin, X. X. Wang, S. Q. Lin, W. L. Cai, L. H. Zhang, and Z. Y. Zheng, “Highly selective and sensitive detection of Cu2+ with lysine enhancing bovine serum albumin modified-carbon dots fluorescent probe,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(11), 2637–2642 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Q. L. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, B. H. Huang, J. Peng, M. Zhang, and D. W. Pang, “Facile preparation of low cytotoxicity fluorescent carbon nanocrystals by electrooxidation of graphite,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 41, 5116–5118 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

J. Wang, P. Zhang, C. Huang, G. Liu, K. C. Leung, and Y. X. Wáng, “High performance photoluminescent carbon dots for in vitro and in vivo bioimaging: effect of nitrogen doping ratios,” Langmuir 31(29), 8063–8073 (2015).
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X. Zhai, P. Zhang, C. Liu, T. Bai, W. Li, L. Dai, and W. Liu, “Highly luminescent carbon nanodots by microwave-assisted pyrolysis,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(64), 7955–7957 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Y. Song, S. Zhu, S. Zhang, Y. Fu, L. Wang, X. Zhao, and B. Yang, “Investigation from chemical structure to photoluminescent mechanism: a type of carbon dots from the pyrolysis of citric acid and an amine,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(23), 5976–5984 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Zhang, S. A. Kulinich, Y. Liu, and H. Zeng, “Engineering surface states of carbon dots to achieve controllable luminescence for solid-luminescent composites and sensitive Be2+ detection,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4976 (2014).

Zhang, S. T.

S. J. Zhu, L. Wang, B. Li, Y. B. Song, X. H. Zhao, G. Y. Zhang, S. T. Zhang, S. Lu, J. H. Zhang, H. Y. Wang, H. B. Sun, and B. Yang, “Investigation of photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots and evaluation of their assembly into polymer dots,” Carbon 77, 462–472 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. X. A.

K. Chang, Z. Liu, H. Chen, L. Sheng, S. X. A. Zhang, D. T. Chiu, S. Yin, C. Wu, and W. Qin, “Conjugated polymer dots for ultra-stable full-color fluorescence patterning,” Small 10(21), 4270–4275 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhang, T.

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, K. Sun, C. Reckmeier, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Wu, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Combination of carbon dot and polymer dot phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(28), 12045–12050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, Y. Wang, P. Wang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Color-switchable electroluminescence of carbon dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11234–11241 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, D. Dai, X. Chen, X. Guo, and J. Fan, “Red shift in the photoluminescence of colloidal carbon quantum dots induced by photon reabsorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, K. Sun, C. Reckmeier, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Wu, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Combination of carbon dot and polymer dot phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(28), 12045–12050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Wei, X. Zhang, Y. Z. Sheng, J. M. Shen, P. Huang, S. K. Guo, J. Q. Pan, B. T. Liu, and B. X. Feng, “Simple one-step synthesis of water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots from waste paper,” New J. Chem. 38(3), 906–909 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, Y. Wang, P. Wang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Color-switchable electroluminescence of carbon dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11234–11241 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Q. Zhang, D.-K. Ma, Y. Zhuang, X. Zhang, W. Chen, L.-L. Hong, Q.-X. Yan, K. Yu, and S.-M. Huang, “One-pot synthesis of N-doped carbon dots with tunable luminescence properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 16714–16718 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, K. Sun, C. Reckmeier, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Wu, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Combination of carbon dot and polymer dot phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(28), 12045–12050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Hola, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, E. P. Giannelis, R. Zboril, and A. L. Rogach, “Carbon dots—emerging light emitters for bioimaging, cancer therapy and optoelectronics,” Nano Today 9(5), 590–603 (2014).
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Q. Hu, M. C. Paau, Y. Zhang, X. Gong, L. Zhang, D. Lu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, J. Yao, and M. M. F. Choi, “Green synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen/sulfur-doped carbon dots and investigation of their properties by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry,” RSC Advances 4(35), 18065–18073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, Y. Zhang, H. Shi, S. V. Kershaw, and A. L. Rogach, “Thickness-dependent full-color emission tunability in a flexible carbon dot ionogel,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1412–1420 (2014).
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X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, Y. Wang, P. Wang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Color-switchable electroluminescence of carbon dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11234–11241 (2013).
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S. Liu, J. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Zhang, X. Qin, Y. Luo, A. M. Asiri, A. O. Al-Youbi, and X. Sun, “Hydrothermal treatment of grass: a low-cost, green route to nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, photoluminescent polymer nanodots as an effective fluorescent sensing platform for label-free detection of Cu(II) ions,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 2037–2041 (2012).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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Zhang, Y. K.

Y. Xu, M. Wu, Y. Liu, X. Z. Feng, X. B. Yin, X. W. He, and Y. K. Zhang, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots: a facile and general preparation method, photoluminescence investigation, and imaging applications,” Chemistry 19(7), 2276–2283 (2013).
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Zhang, Y.-L.

L. Wang, S.-J. Zhu, H.-Y. Wang, S.-N. Qu, Y.-L. Zhang, J.-H. Zhang, Q.-D. Chen, H.-L. Xu, W. Han, B. Yang, and H.-B. Sun, “Common origin of green luminescence in carbon nanodots and graphene quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2541–2547 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Zhang, D.-K. Ma, Y. Zhuang, X. Zhang, W. Chen, L.-L. Hong, Q.-X. Yan, K. Yu, and S.-M. Huang, “One-pot synthesis of N-doped carbon dots with tunable luminescence properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 16714–16718 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. L.

L. Bao, Z. L. Zhang, Z. Q. Tian, L. Zhang, C. Liu, Y. Lin, B. Qi, and D. W. Pang, “Electrochemical tuning of luminescent carbon nanodots: from preparation to luminescence mechanism,” Adv. Mater. 23(48), 5801–5806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, B. H. Huang, J. Peng, M. Zhang, and D. W. Pang, “Facile preparation of low cytotoxicity fluorescent carbon nanocrystals by electrooxidation of graphite,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 41, 5116–5118 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. Y.

Y. Liu, C. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Zhang, “Synthesis of highly luminescent graphitized carbon dots and the application in the Hg2+ detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 263, 263481 (2012).

Zhao, D.

J. Tang, B. Kong, H. Wu, M. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, D. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Carbon nanodots featuring efficient FRET for real-time monitoring of drug delivery and two-photon imaging,” Adv. Mater. 25(45), 6569–6574 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

M. Zheng, S. Liu, J. Li, D. Qu, H. Zhao, X. Guan, X. Hu, Z. Xie, X. Jing, and Z. Sun, “Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: an unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3554–3560 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Qu, M. Zheng, L. Zhang, H. Zhao, Z. Xie, X. Jing, R. E. Haddad, H. Fan, and Z. Sun, “Formation mechanism and optimization of highly luminescent N-doped graphene quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, K. Sun, C. Reckmeier, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Wu, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Combination of carbon dot and polymer dot phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(28), 12045–12050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yang, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, L. Li, and Z. Zhu, “Intramolecular hydrogen bonds quench photoluminescence and enhance photocatalytic activity of carbon nanodots,” Chemistry 21(23), 8561–8568 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, Y. Wang, P. Wang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Color-switchable electroluminescence of carbon dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11234–11241 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. G.

Q. Xu, P. Pu, J. G. Zhao, C. B. Dong, C. Gao, Y. S. Chen, J. R. Chen, Y. Liu, and H. J. Zhou, “Preparation of highly photoluminescent sulfur-doped carbon dots for Fe(III) detection,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(2), 542–546 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.-Q.

S.-L. Hu, K.-Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N.-Q. Zhao, and X.-W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q. L.

Q. L. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, B. H. Huang, J. Peng, M. Zhang, and D. W. Pang, “Facile preparation of low cytotoxicity fluorescent carbon nanocrystals by electrooxidation of graphite,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 41, 5116–5118 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

Y. Song, S. Zhu, S. Zhang, Y. Fu, L. Wang, X. Zhao, and B. Yang, “Investigation from chemical structure to photoluminescent mechanism: a type of carbon dots from the pyrolysis of citric acid and an amine,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(23), 5976–5984 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, X. Zhao, Y. Song, S. Lu, and B. Yang, “Beyond bottom-up carbon nanodots: Citric-acid derived organic molecules,” Nano Today, in press (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. H.

S. J. Zhu, L. Wang, B. Li, Y. B. Song, X. H. Zhao, G. Y. Zhang, S. T. Zhang, S. Lu, J. H. Zhang, H. Y. Wang, H. B. Sun, and B. Yang, “Investigation of photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots and evaluation of their assembly into polymer dots,” Carbon 77, 462–472 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, and L. Qu, “Graphitic carbon nitride/graphene hybrids as new active materials for energy conversion and storage,” ChemNanoMat 1(5), 298–318 (2015).
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X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, Y. Wang, P. Wang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “Color-switchable electroluminescence of carbon dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11234–11241 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

C. Yu, T. Xuan, Y. Chen, Z. Zhao, Z. Sun, and H. Li, “A facile, green synthesis of highly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from oatmeal for cell imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(37), 9514–9518 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, F.

C. Yu, X. Li, F. Zeng, F. Zheng, and S. Wu, “Carbon-dot-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor for detecting hydrogen sulfide in aqueous media and inside live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(4), 403–405 (2013).
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Zheng, G.

J. Tang, B. Kong, H. Wu, M. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, D. Zhao, and G. Zheng, “Carbon nanodots featuring efficient FRET for real-time monitoring of drug delivery and two-photon imaging,” Adv. Mater. 25(45), 6569–6574 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, H.

H. Zheng, Q. Wang, Y. Long, H. Zhang, X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
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Zheng, J.

W. Wu, L. Zhan, W. Fan, J. Song, X. Li, Z. Li, R. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Zheng, M. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Cu-N dopants boost electron transfer and photooxidation reactions of carbon dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(22), 6540–6544 (2015).
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Zheng, M.

D. Qu, M. Zheng, L. Zhang, H. Zhao, Z. Xie, X. Jing, R. E. Haddad, H. Fan, and Z. Sun, “Formation mechanism and optimization of highly luminescent N-doped graphene quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zheng, S. Liu, J. Li, D. Qu, H. Zhao, X. Guan, X. Hu, Z. Xie, X. Jing, and Z. Sun, “Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: an unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3554–3560 (2014).
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Y. Yang, J. Cui, M. Zheng, C. Hu, S. Tan, Y. Xiao, Q. Yang, and Y. Liu, “One-step synthesis of amino-functionalized fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by hydrothermal carbonization of chitosan,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(3), 380–382 (2012).
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Y. H. Liu, J. S. Xue, T. Zheng, and J. R. Dahn, “Mechanism of lithium insertion in hard carbons prepared by pyrolysis of epoxy resins,” Carbon 34(2), 193–200 (1996).
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Zheng, Z. Y.

J. M. Liu, L. P. Lin, X. X. Wang, S. Q. Lin, W. L. Cai, L. H. Zhang, and Z. Y. Zheng, “Highly selective and sensitive detection of Cu2+ with lysine enhancing bovine serum albumin modified-carbon dots fluorescent probe,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(11), 2637–2642 (2012).
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Zhong, S.

X. Han, S. Zhong, W. Pan, and W. Shen, “A simple strategy for synthesizing highly luminescent carbon nanodots and application as effective down-shifting layers,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065402 (2015).
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Zhou, B.

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, and Y. P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 25, 3774–3776 (2009).
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Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
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Zhou, H.

Q. Xu, Y. Liu, C. Gao, J. Wei, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Dong, T. S. Sreeprasad, N. Li, and Z. Xia, “Synthesis, mechanistic investigation, and application of photoluminescent sulfur and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(38), 9885–9893 (2015).
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Zhou, H. C.

C. L. Li, C. M. Ou, C. C. Huang, W. C. Wu, Y. P. Chen, T. E. Lin, L. C. Ho, C. W. Wang, C. C. Shih, H. C. Zhou, Y. C. Lee, W. F. Tzeng, T. J. Chiou, S. T. Chu, J. Cang, and H. T. Chang, “Carbon dots prepared from ginger exhibiting efficient inhibition of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 2(28), 4564–4571 (2014).
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Zhou, H. J.

Q. Xu, P. Pu, J. G. Zhao, C. B. Dong, C. Gao, Y. S. Chen, J. R. Chen, Y. Liu, and H. J. Zhou, “Preparation of highly photoluminescent sulfur-doped carbon dots for Fe(III) detection,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(2), 542–546 (2015).
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Zhou, H. S.

L. Wang and H. S. Zhou, “Green synthesis of luminescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots from milk and its imaging application,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 8902–8905 (2014).
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Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, X. Shan, J. Ma, Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, and H. Feng, “Facile synthesis of P-doped carbon quantum dots with highly efficient photoluminescence,” RSC Advances 4(11), 5465–5468 (2014).
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J. Zhou, C. Booker, R. Li, X. Zhou, T. K. Sham, X. Sun, and Z. Ding, “An electrochemical avenue to blue luminescent nanocrystals from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(4), 744–745 (2007).
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Zhou, S. F.

D. Z. Tan, Y. Yamada, S. F. Zhou, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and J. R. Qiu, “Carbon nanodots with strong nonlinear optical response,” Carbon 69, 638–640 (2014).
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Zhou, W.

S. W. Yang, J. Sun, X. B. Li, W. Zhou, Z. Y. Wang, P. He, G. Q. Ding, X. M. Xie, Z. H. Kang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large-scale fabrication of heavy doped carbon quantum dots with tunable-photoluminescence and sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 2(23), 8660–8667 (2014).
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J. Zhou, C. Booker, R. Li, X. Zhou, T. K. Sham, X. Sun, and Z. Ding, “An electrochemical avenue to blue luminescent nanocrystals from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(4), 744–745 (2007).
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Zhovtiuk, O.

Y. Wang, S. Kalytchuk, L. Wang, O. Zhovtiuk, K. Cepe, R. Zboril, and A. L. Rogach, “Carbon dot hybrids with oligomeric silsesquioxane: solid-state luminophores with high photoluminescence quantum yield and applicability in white light emitting devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(14), 2950–2953 (2015).
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Zhu, A.

C. Ding, A. Zhu, and Y. Tian, “Functional surface engineering of C-dots for fluorescent biosensing and in vivo bioimaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47(1), 20–30 (2014).
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Zhu, C.

C. Zhu, J. Zhai, and S. Dong, “Bifunctional fluorescent carbon nanodots: green synthesis via soy milk and application as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(75), 9367–9369 (2012).
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Zhu, F. W.

S. Huang, L. M. Wang, F. W. Zhu, W. Su, J. R. Sheng, C. S. Huang, and Q. Xiao, “A ratiometric nanosensor based on fluorescent carbon dots for label-free and highly selective recognition of DNA,” RSC Advances 5(55), 44587–44597 (2015).
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Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, X. Wang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, F. Yang, and X. Yang, “Microwave synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with electrochemiluminescence properties,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 34, 5118–5120 (2009).
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Zhu, J. Z.

Y. J. Bao, J. J. Li, Y. T. Wang, L. Yu, L. Lou, W. J. Du, Z. Q. Zhu, H. Peng, and J. Z. Zhu, “Probing cytotoxicity of CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 22(7), 843–846 (2011).
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Zhu, R.

H. Zheng, Q. Wang, Y. Long, H. Zhang, X. Huang, and R. Zhu, “Enhancing the luminescence of carbon dots with a reduction pathway,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(38), 10650–10652 (2011).
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Zhu, S.

Y. Song, S. Zhu, S. Zhang, Y. Fu, L. Wang, X. Zhao, and B. Yang, “Investigation from chemical structure to photoluminescent mechanism: a type of carbon dots from the pyrolysis of citric acid and an amine,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(23), 5976–5984 (2015).
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S. Zhu, Q. Meng, L. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Song, H. Jin, K. Zhang, H. Sun, H. Wang, and B. Yang, “Highly photoluminescent carbon dots for multicolor patterning, sensors, and bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(14), 3953–3957 (2013).
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S. Zhu, X. Zhao, Y. Song, S. Lu, and B. Yang, “Beyond bottom-up carbon nanodots: Citric-acid derived organic molecules,” Nano Today, in press (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S. J.

S. J. Zhu, L. Wang, B. Li, Y. B. Song, X. H. Zhao, G. Y. Zhang, S. T. Zhang, S. Lu, J. H. Zhang, H. Y. Wang, H. B. Sun, and B. Yang, “Investigation of photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots and evaluation of their assembly into polymer dots,” Carbon 77, 462–472 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.-J.

L. Wang, S.-J. Zhu, H.-Y. Wang, S.-N. Qu, Y.-L. Zhang, J.-H. Zhang, Q.-D. Chen, H.-L. Xu, W. Han, B. Yang, and H.-B. Sun, “Common origin of green luminescence in carbon nanodots and graphene quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2541–2547 (2014).
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Zhu, X. B.

Y. L. Hao, Z. X. Gan, X. B. Zhu, T. H. Li, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Emission from trions in carbon quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(6), 2956–2962 (2015).
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Zhu, Y.

J. Zong, Y. Zhu, X. Yang, J. Shen, and C. Li, “Synthesis of photoluminescent carbogenic dots using mesoporous silica spheres as nanoreactors,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(2), 764–766 (2011).
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Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

C. Ding, A. Zhu, and Y. Tian, “Functional surface engineering of C-dots for fluorescent biosensing and in vivo bioimaging,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47(1), 20–30 (2014).
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J. H. Liu, L. Cao, G. E. LeCroy, P. Wang, M. J. Meziani, Y. Dong, Y. Liu, P. G. Luo, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon “quantum” dots for Fluorescence labeling of cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19439–19445 (2015).
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L. Bao, Z. L. Zhang, Z. Q. Tian, L. Zhang, C. Liu, Y. Lin, B. Qi, and D. W. Pang, “Electrochemical tuning of luminescent carbon nanodots: from preparation to luminescence mechanism,” Adv. Mater. 23(48), 5801–5806 (2011).
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M. Zheng, S. Liu, J. Li, D. Qu, H. Zhao, X. Guan, X. Hu, Z. Xie, X. Jing, and Z. Sun, “Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: an unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3554–3560 (2014).
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L. Wang and H. S. Zhou, “Green synthesis of luminescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots from milk and its imaging application,” Anal. Chem. 86(18), 8902–8905 (2014).
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X. Shan, L. Chai, J. Ma, Z. Qian, J. Chen, and H. Feng, “B-doped carbon quantum dots as a sensitive fluorescence probe for hydrogen peroxide and glucose detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(10), 2322–2325 (2014).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Timeline of selected contributions to the synthesis of CDs, with an emphasis on the introduction of dopant atoms in recent years.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Reaction of citric acid and ethylenediamine to form CDs under hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C. Reproduced with permission from [9], Copyright 2013 Wiley-VCH. (b) CDs with tunable emission color by solvothermal treatment of (1,4)/(1,3)/(1,2)-benzenediamine at 180 °C. Reproduced with permission from [56], Copyright 2015 Wiley-VCH. (c) Metal-doped CDs (Cu(II)-N) by pyrolisis of a Cu(II)-EDTA complex at 250 °C W. Reproduced with permission from [90], Copyright 2015 Wiley-VCH.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) HRTEM image of CDs, showing lattice planes with distances of 0.32 and 0.24 nm (3.2 and 2.4 Å). Reproduced with permission from [102], Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society. (b-c) Schematic representation of CDs highlighting the existence of a carbogenic core with sp2 domains and different surface functionalizations (OH, COOH, polymers). (d) XRD pattern of overall amorphous CDs indicating the presence of lattice spacing of 0.34 nm belonging to the (002) plane of graphite. (e) FT-IR spectrum of CDs, exhibiting characteristic IR active modes of O-H, N-H, C-H, and C = O. (f) XPS spectrum of CDs confirming the presence of oxygen, carbon and nitrogen. The inset shows the high resolution XPS spectrum of the C1s, revealing the presence of three carbon species, namely aliphatic, oxygenated and nitrous carbon. ((d)-(f) Reproduced with permission from [9], Copyright 2013 Wiley-VCH.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Raman spectra of (a) O-CDs (blue), N-CDs (green) and (b) N,S-CDs (black). The Raman D to G band peak intensity ratio ID/IG changes depending on the dopants. Reproduced with permission from [57], Copyright 2013 Wiley-VCH.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Calculated charge depletion (blue) and charge accumulation (red) for ground and excited states of O-CDs for different excitation wavelengths. At 295 nm excitation, charge depletion in the middle layer and charge accumulation in the outer layer illustrates an interlayer charge transfer. Reproduced with permission from [107], Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society. (b) Simulated absorption spectrum of N-CDs. The inset shows the single layer CD model with edge functionalization (grey: carbon; red: oxygen; blue: nitrogen; white: hydrogen). (c) Simulated emission spectrum of N-CDs based on the lowest excited state. ((b)-(c) Adapted with permission from [44], Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society [44].
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Absorption, PLE and emission spectrum of N-CDs. (b) Corresponding excitation dependent emission of N-CDs. (a)-(b) Reproduced with permission from [9], Copyright 2013 Wiley-VCH. (c) Absorption spectra appear unstructured for O-CDs while N- and Cl-CDs show pronounced absorption features. (d) Emission spectra of O-, N- and Cl-CDs at 360nm excitation. Only N-CDs show strong emission. (c)-(d) Reproduced with permission from [108], Copyright 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison between N-CDs in aqueous solution (black dotted line) and a PMMA film containing a mixture of PAH molecules anthracene/pyrene/perylene in molar ratio of 10:10:1 (blue solid line). (a) Normalized absorption spectra. (b) Normalized emission spectra at different excitation wavelengths: 340nm (blue), 420nm (cyan), 440nm (orange), 480nm (red). (c) Excitation wavelength (x-axis) dependent emission tracking the position of the emission maximum (y-axis). (d) Proposed model for exciton-self trapping in CDs and stacked PAHs which is used to explain the large Stokes shift, while the emission bandgap is determined by each single PAH unit. Reproduced with permission from [102], Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Ensemble PL spectrum of O-CDs in water (1) and single CD emission spectra (2-5). The inset shows O-CDs in aqueous solution in ambient light and greenish ensemble emission upon excitation with 488nm laser. (b-e) Single O-CDs excited with an azimuthally polarized laser beam. This is used to determine the characteristics of the excitation transition dipole moment. (f) Calculated excitation pattern of a single CD assuming a linear horizontal dipole. The double arrow illustrates orientation of the dipole. (g) Reference image without any CD. The excitation patterns suggest the presence of a single, fixed dipole. Adapted with permission from [114], Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society. (h-k) HRTEM images of N-CDs (h,i) and oxidized N-CDs (j,k). Crystalline core and amorphous shell are marked separately. Oxidized N-CDs show a smaller core and a larger shell. ((h)-(k) Reproduced with permission from [84], Copyright 2013 Wiley-VCH.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a)-(c) UV/Vis absorption spectra of phenylenediamine isomers m-PD (a), o-PD (b) and p-PD (c) (red lines) and corresponding m-CDs, o-CDs and p-CDs (black line) and PL emission spectra of m-CDs, o-CDs and p-CDs (blue line for 365nm excitation, green line for 420nm and 510nm, respectively). (d) Photograph of m-CDs, o-CDs and p-CDs emission under 365nm UV illumination in ethanol. Reproduced with permission from [56], Copyright 2015 Wiley-VCH.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Formation of organic fluorophores and CDs during the synthesis and their optical properties. (a) Low temperature hydrothermal reaction yields mainly molecular fluorophores, while high temperature results in crystalline carbonized cores. (b) Schematics of the reaction pathways involved into the citric acid based CD synthesis showing different intermediate states that lead to carbonized CDs with integrated fluorophores. (c) Exemplary absorption and emission spectra of N-CDs and (d) those of IPCA fluorophores. Spectral features of IPCA are very similar to N-CDs, making it difficult to distinguish between this molecular fluorophore and the carbonized state of CDs. ((a), (b), (d) Adopted with permission from [67], Copyright 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry; (c) Reproduced with permission from [46], Copyright 20012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Energy level diagram of surface functionalized CDs. Excited states in the π→π* band can either emit or be internally converted to lower lying n→π* band states and emit intrinsically from there. If surface functionalized anilines are present, energy is transferred and extrinsic emission from functionalized surface groups occur. The molecular orbitals are assumed. (b) Corresponding excitation-emission map for bare N-CDs and (c) for attached para-substituted anilines with methoxy group. Almost all n→π* band emission is quenched and emission only originates from the surface functionalized para-substituted anilines. Reproduced with permission from [105] licensed by CC BY 4.0.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Fluorescence images obtained from MCF-7 (a) and HT-29 (b) cells labelled with PEGylated CDs under two-photon excitation at 800 nm. Reproduced with permission from [140], Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society. Intravenous injection of CDs: (c) bright field, (d) as detected fluorescence (Bl, bladder; Ur, urine), and (e) color-coded images. The same order is used for the images of the dissected kidneys (c’–e’) and liver (c”–e”). Reproduced with permission from [31], Copyright 2012 American Chemical Society.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Polymer functionalized CDs for imaging and drug delivery. (a) Synthetic pathway leading to the formation of CDs for two different applications. Left: Use of highly branched polymers (multi-arm PEG, purple) leads to CDs with NIR emission and burst the release of the drug Pentoxyfilline (red). Right: Use of a thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM (blue) results in CDs which can encapsulate the drug (red) and release it upon heating. (b) NIR emission spectrum of MA-PEG-CDs in cells upon 785nm excitation. Region 1 corresponds to scattering of the excitation beam and thus the entire cell appears luminescent (inset). Region 2 corresponds to the NIR emission of CDs and can be clearly detected in the sample (inset). (c-d) TEM image of MA-PEG-CDs at two different magnifications. (e) AFM image of MA-PEG-CDs. (f) Summary of measured physical parameters for MA-PEG-CDs (top, grey) and TR-CDs (bottom, white). Reproduced with permission from [146], Copyright 2015 Wiley-VCH.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 (a) Schematic diagrams of the CD-White-LEDs’ cross-section and (b) energy band diagram of CD-White-LED, with (c) molecular structures of PEDOT: PSS and TPBI, and the schematic drawing of the CD Reproduced from http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2011/CC/C0CC05391K#!divAbstract [147] with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry, (d) Emission from CDs and Zn-doped AgInS2 nanocrystals deposited on a 380nm UV LED chip. Reproduced with permission from [152], Copyright 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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