Abstract

Further development of multiphoton microscopic imaging is confronted with a number of limitations, including high-cost, high complexity and relatively low spatial resolution due to the long excitation wavelength. To overcome these problems, for the first time, we propose visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging by using a common cost-effective 730-nm laser diode to excite the prepared Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles (Nd3+-UCNPs). An ordinary multiphoton scanning microscope system was built using a visible CW diode laser and the lateral imaging resolution as high as 161-nm was achieved via the four-photon upconversion process. The demonstrated large saturation excitation power for Nd3+-UCNPs would be more practical and facilitate the four-photon imaging in the application. A sample with fine structure was imaged to demonstrate the advantages of visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging with 730-nm diode laser excited nanocrystals. Combining the uniqueness of UCNPs, the proposed visible-to-visible four-photon imaging would be highly promising and attractive in the field of multiphoton imaging.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

2014 (3)

H. Liu, C. T. Xu, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Potential of multi-photon upconversion emissions for fluorescence diffuse optical imaging,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17782–17790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chen, H. Qiu, P. N. Prasad, and X. Chen, “Upconversion nanoparticles: design, nanochemistry, and applications in theranostics,” Chem. Rev. 114(10), 5161–5214 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhong, G. Tian, Z. Gu, Y. Yang, L. Gu, Y. Zhao, Y. Ma, and J. Yao, “Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2831–2837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (11)

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q.-H. Xu, and X. Liu, “Mechanistic investigation of photon upconversion in Nd3+-sensitized core-shell nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(34), 12608–12611 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale 5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, R. Wang, F. Zhang, L. Zhou, D. Shen, C. Yao, and D. Zhao, “Nd3+ sensitized up/down converting dual-mode nanomaterials for efficient in-vitro and in-vivo bioimaging excited at 800 nm,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3536 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Shen, G. Chen, A.-M. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C.-C. Chang, and G. Han, “Engineering the upconversion nanoparticle excitation wavelength: cascade sensitization of tri-doped upconversion colloidal nanoparticles at 800 nm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(9), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, L.-D. Sun, J.-W. Xiao, J.-C. Zhou, and C.-H. Yan, “Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanophosphors: efficient in vivo bioimaging probes with minimized heating effect,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7200–7206 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Hoover and J. A. Squier, “Advances in multiphoton microscopy technology,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 93–101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, S. He, J. Qian, H. Cheng, and F. Cai, “Optimization of optical excitation of upconversion nanoparticles for rapid microscopy and deeper tissue imaging with higher quantum yield,” Theranostics 3(5), 306–316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Caillat, B. Hajj, V. Shynkar, L. Michely, D. Chauvat, J. Zyss, and F. Pellé, “Multiphoton upconversion in rare earth doped nanocrystals for sub-diffractive microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 143114 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, P. Svenmarker, H. Liu, X. Wu, M. E. Messing, L. R. Wallenberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High-resolution fluorescence diffuse optical tomography developed with nonlinear upconverting nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 4788–4795 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Gainer, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Scanning two-photon microscopy with upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles via Richardson-Lucy deconvolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Q. Zhan, J. Qian, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, D. Wang, S. He, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Using 915 nm laser excited Tm³+/Er³+/Ho³+- doped NaYbF4 upconversion nanoparticles for in vitro and deeper in vivo bioimaging without overheating irradiation,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3744–3757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yu, F. Li, Z. Chen, H. Hu, C. Zhan, H. Yang, and C. Huang, “Laser scanning up-conversion luminescence microscopy for imaging cells labeled with rare-earth nanophosphors,” Anal. Chem. 81(3), 930–935 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, M. E. Durst, N. Nishimura, A. W. Wong, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “Deep tissue multiphoton microscopy using longer wavelength excitation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13354–13364 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy in biological research,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5(5), 603–608 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

K. König, “Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences,” J. Microsc. 200(2), 83–104 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, “Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected cellular sites,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(12), 6700–6704 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys. J. 75(4), 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ågren, H.

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aloni, S.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altoe, V.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

H. Liu, C. T. Xu, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Potential of multi-photon upconversion emissions for fluorescence diffuse optical imaging,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17782–17790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, P. Svenmarker, H. Liu, X. Wu, M. E. Messing, L. R. Wallenberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High-resolution fluorescence diffuse optical tomography developed with nonlinear upconverting nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 4788–4795 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, J. Qian, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, D. Wang, S. He, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Using 915 nm laser excited Tm³+/Er³+/Ho³+- doped NaYbF4 upconversion nanoparticles for in vitro and deeper in vivo bioimaging without overheating irradiation,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3744–3757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Axelsson, J.

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bilsel, O. S.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A.-M. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C.-C. Chang, and G. Han, “Engineering the upconversion nanoparticle excitation wavelength: cascade sensitization of tri-doped upconversion colloidal nanoparticles at 800 nm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(9), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buhr, H. J.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, F.

Q. Zhan, S. He, J. Qian, H. Cheng, and F. Cai, “Optimization of optical excitation of upconversion nanoparticles for rapid microscopy and deeper tissue imaging with higher quantum yield,” Theranostics 3(5), 306–316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caillat, L.

L. Caillat, B. Hajj, V. Shynkar, L. Michely, D. Chauvat, J. Zyss, and F. Pellé, “Multiphoton upconversion in rare earth doped nanocrystals for sub-diffractive microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 143114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Centonze, V. E.

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys. J. 75(4), 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-C.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A.-M. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C.-C. Chang, and G. Han, “Engineering the upconversion nanoparticle excitation wavelength: cascade sensitization of tri-doped upconversion colloidal nanoparticles at 800 nm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(9), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chauvat, D.

L. Caillat, B. Hajj, V. Shynkar, L. Michely, D. Chauvat, J. Zyss, and F. Pellé, “Multiphoton upconversion in rare earth doped nanocrystals for sub-diffractive microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 143114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, H. Qiu, P. N. Prasad, and X. Chen, “Upconversion nanoparticles: design, nanochemistry, and applications in theranostics,” Chem. Rev. 114(10), 5161–5214 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shen, G. Chen, A.-M. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C.-C. Chang, and G. Han, “Engineering the upconversion nanoparticle excitation wavelength: cascade sensitization of tri-doped upconversion colloidal nanoparticles at 800 nm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(9), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

G. Chen, H. Qiu, P. N. Prasad, and X. Chen, “Upconversion nanoparticles: design, nanochemistry, and applications in theranostics,” Chem. Rev. 114(10), 5161–5214 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

M. Yu, F. Li, Z. Chen, H. Hu, C. Zhan, H. Yang, and C. Huang, “Laser scanning up-conversion luminescence microscopy for imaging cells labeled with rare-earth nanophosphors,” Anal. Chem. 81(3), 930–935 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

Q. Zhan, S. He, J. Qian, H. Cheng, and F. Cai, “Optimization of optical excitation of upconversion nanoparticles for rapid microscopy and deeper tissue imaging with higher quantum yield,” Theranostics 3(5), 306–316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, C. G.

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C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
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J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale 5(3), 944–952 (2013).
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Li, N.

Li, X.

X. Li, R. Wang, F. Zhang, L. Zhou, D. Shen, C. Yao, and D. Zhao, “Nd3+ sensitized up/down converting dual-mode nanomaterials for efficient in-vitro and in-vivo bioimaging excited at 800 nm,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3536 (2013).
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G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
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Q. Zhan, J. Qian, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, D. Wang, S. He, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Using 915 nm laser excited Tm³+/Er³+/Ho³+- doped NaYbF4 upconversion nanoparticles for in vitro and deeper in vivo bioimaging without overheating irradiation,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3744–3757 (2011).
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G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, “Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected cellular sites,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(12), 6700–6704 (1999).
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[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
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C. T. Xu, P. Svenmarker, H. Liu, X. Wu, M. E. Messing, L. R. Wallenberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High-resolution fluorescence diffuse optical tomography developed with nonlinear upconverting nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 4788–4795 (2012).
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C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
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Liu, J.

Liu, X.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q.-H. Xu, and X. Liu, “Mechanistic investigation of photon upconversion in Nd3+-sensitized core-shell nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(34), 12608–12611 (2013).
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G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, “Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected cellular sites,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(12), 6700–6704 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale 5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

Y. Zhong, G. Tian, Z. Gu, Y. Yang, L. Gu, Y. Zhao, Y. Ma, and J. Yao, “Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2831–2837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McRae, C.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale 5(3), 944–952 (2013).
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C. T. Xu, P. Svenmarker, H. Liu, X. Wu, M. E. Messing, L. R. Wallenberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High-resolution fluorescence diffuse optical tomography developed with nonlinear upconverting nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 4788–4795 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Caillat, B. Hajj, V. Shynkar, L. Michely, D. Chauvat, J. Zyss, and F. Pellé, “Multiphoton upconversion in rare earth doped nanocrystals for sub-diffractive microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 143114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Milliron, D. J.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishimura, N.

Ohulchanskyy, T. Y.

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pandey, R. K.

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, N. J.

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peleg, G.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, “Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected cellular sites,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(12), 6700–6704 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pellé, F.

L. Caillat, B. Hajj, V. Shynkar, L. Michely, D. Chauvat, J. Zyss, and F. Pellé, “Multiphoton upconversion in rare earth doped nanocrystals for sub-diffractive microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 143114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Piper, J. A.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale 5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

G. Chen, H. Qiu, P. N. Prasad, and X. Chen, “Upconversion nanoparticles: design, nanochemistry, and applications in theranostics,” Chem. Rev. 114(10), 5161–5214 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, J.

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhan, S. He, J. Qian, H. Cheng, and F. Cai, “Optimization of optical excitation of upconversion nanoparticles for rapid microscopy and deeper tissue imaging with higher quantum yield,” Theranostics 3(5), 306–316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, J. Qian, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, D. Wang, S. He, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Using 915 nm laser excited Tm³+/Er³+/Ho³+- doped NaYbF4 upconversion nanoparticles for in vitro and deeper in vivo bioimaging without overheating irradiation,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3744–3757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, H.

G. Chen, H. Qiu, P. N. Prasad, and X. Chen, “Upconversion nanoparticles: design, nanochemistry, and applications in theranostics,” Chem. Rev. 114(10), 5161–5214 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanowski, M.

C. F. Gainer, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Scanning two-photon microscopy with upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles via Richardson-Lucy deconvolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffer, C. B.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, M. E. Durst, N. Nishimura, A. W. Wong, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “Deep tissue multiphoton microscopy using longer wavelength excitation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13354–13364 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, D.

X. Li, R. Wang, F. Zhang, L. Zhou, D. Shen, C. Yao, and D. Zhao, “Nd3+ sensitized up/down converting dual-mode nanomaterials for efficient in-vitro and in-vivo bioimaging excited at 800 nm,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3536 (2013).
[PubMed]

Shen, J.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A.-M. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C.-C. Chang, and G. Han, “Engineering the upconversion nanoparticle excitation wavelength: cascade sensitization of tri-doped upconversion colloidal nanoparticles at 800 nm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(9), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shynkar, V.

L. Caillat, B. Hajj, V. Shynkar, L. Michely, D. Chauvat, J. Zyss, and F. Pellé, “Multiphoton upconversion in rare earth doped nanocrystals for sub-diffractive microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 143114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Somesfalean, G.

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhan, J. Qian, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, D. Wang, S. He, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Using 915 nm laser excited Tm³+/Er³+/Ho³+- doped NaYbF4 upconversion nanoparticles for in vitro and deeper in vivo bioimaging without overheating irradiation,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3744–3757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

E. E. Hoover and J. A. Squier, “Advances in multiphoton microscopy technology,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 93–101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, L.-D.

Y.-F. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, L.-D. Sun, J.-W. Xiao, J.-C. Zhou, and C.-H. Yan, “Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanophosphors: efficient in vivo bioimaging probes with minimized heating effect,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7200–7206 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q.-H. Xu, and X. Liu, “Mechanistic investigation of photon upconversion in Nd3+-sensitized core-shell nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(34), 12608–12611 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svenmarker, P.

C. T. Xu, P. Svenmarker, H. Liu, X. Wu, M. E. Messing, L. R. Wallenberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High-resolution fluorescence diffuse optical tomography developed with nonlinear upconverting nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 4788–4795 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Svensson, N.

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Talapin, D. V.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, G.

Y. Zhong, G. Tian, Z. Gu, Y. Yang, L. Gu, Y. Zhao, Y. Ma, and J. Yao, “Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2831–2837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

C. F. Gainer, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Scanning two-photon microscopy with upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles via Richardson-Lucy deconvolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vu, A.-M.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A.-M. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C.-C. Chang, and G. Han, “Engineering the upconversion nanoparticle excitation wavelength: cascade sensitization of tri-doped upconversion colloidal nanoparticles at 800 nm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(9), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wallenberg, L. R.

C. T. Xu, P. Svenmarker, H. Liu, X. Wu, M. E. Messing, L. R. Wallenberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High-resolution fluorescence diffuse optical tomography developed with nonlinear upconverting nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 4788–4795 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Q. Zhan, J. Qian, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, D. Wang, S. He, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Using 915 nm laser excited Tm³+/Er³+/Ho³+- doped NaYbF4 upconversion nanoparticles for in vitro and deeper in vivo bioimaging without overheating irradiation,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3744–3757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

X. Li, R. Wang, F. Zhang, L. Zhou, D. Shen, C. Yao, and D. Zhao, “Nd3+ sensitized up/down converting dual-mode nanomaterials for efficient in-vitro and in-vivo bioimaging excited at 800 nm,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3536 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, L.-D. Sun, J.-W. Xiao, J.-C. Zhou, and C.-H. Yan, “Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanophosphors: efficient in vivo bioimaging probes with minimized heating effect,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7200–7206 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy in biological research,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5(5), 603–608 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, J. G.

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys. J. 75(4), 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy in biological research,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5(5), 603–608 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, A. W.

Wu, R.

Wu, S.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

C. T. Xu, P. Svenmarker, H. Liu, X. Wu, M. E. Messing, L. R. Wallenberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High-resolution fluorescence diffuse optical tomography developed with nonlinear upconverting nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 4788–4795 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, J.-W.

Y.-F. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, L.-D. Sun, J.-W. Xiao, J.-C. Zhou, and C.-H. Yan, “Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanophosphors: efficient in vivo bioimaging probes with minimized heating effect,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7200–7206 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q.-H. Xu, and X. Liu, “Mechanistic investigation of photon upconversion in Nd3+-sensitized core-shell nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(34), 12608–12611 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kobat, M. E. Durst, N. Nishimura, A. W. Wong, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “Deep tissue multiphoton microscopy using longer wavelength excitation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13354–13364 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C. T.

H. Liu, C. T. Xu, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Potential of multi-photon upconversion emissions for fluorescence diffuse optical imaging,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17782–17790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, P. Svenmarker, H. Liu, X. Wu, M. E. Messing, L. R. Wallenberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High-resolution fluorescence diffuse optical tomography developed with nonlinear upconverting nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 4788–4795 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.-H.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q.-H. Xu, and X. Liu, “Mechanistic investigation of photon upconversion in Nd3+-sensitized core-shell nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(34), 12608–12611 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, C.-H.

Y.-F. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, L.-D. Sun, J.-W. Xiao, J.-C. Zhou, and C.-H. Yan, “Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanophosphors: efficient in vivo bioimaging probes with minimized heating effect,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7200–7206 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

M. Yu, F. Li, Z. Chen, H. Hu, C. Zhan, H. Yang, and C. Huang, “Laser scanning up-conversion luminescence microscopy for imaging cells labeled with rare-earth nanophosphors,” Anal. Chem. 81(3), 930–935 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Zhong, G. Tian, Z. Gu, Y. Yang, L. Gu, Y. Zhao, Y. Ma, and J. Yao, “Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2831–2837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, C.

X. Li, R. Wang, F. Zhang, L. Zhou, D. Shen, C. Yao, and D. Zhao, “Nd3+ sensitized up/down converting dual-mode nanomaterials for efficient in-vitro and in-vivo bioimaging excited at 800 nm,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3536 (2013).
[PubMed]

Yao, J.

Y. Zhong, G. Tian, Z. Gu, Y. Yang, L. Gu, Y. Zhao, Y. Ma, and J. Yao, “Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2831–2837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Y.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale 5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

M. Yu, F. Li, Z. Chen, H. Hu, C. Zhan, H. Yang, and C. Huang, “Laser scanning up-conversion luminescence microscopy for imaging cells labeled with rare-earth nanophosphors,” Anal. Chem. 81(3), 930–935 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, C.

M. Yu, F. Li, Z. Chen, H. Hu, C. Zhan, H. Yang, and C. Huang, “Laser scanning up-conversion luminescence microscopy for imaging cells labeled with rare-earth nanophosphors,” Anal. Chem. 81(3), 930–935 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

J. Liu, N. Li, R. Wu, Y. Zhao, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Sub-5-nm lanthanide-doped ZrO 2@ NaYF4 nanodots as efficient upconverting probes for rapid scanning microscopy and aptamer-mediated bioimaging,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1759–1771 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Zhan, J. Liu, and S. He, “Optically investigating Nd3+-Yb3+ cascade sensitized upconversion nanoparticles for high resolution, rapid scanning, deep and damage-free bio-imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 838–848 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, and S. He, “Tens of thousands-fold upconversion luminescence enhancement induced by a single gold nanorod,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 479–487 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhan, S. He, J. Qian, H. Cheng, and F. Cai, “Optimization of optical excitation of upconversion nanoparticles for rapid microscopy and deeper tissue imaging with higher quantum yield,” Theranostics 3(5), 306–316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhan, J. Qian, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, D. Wang, S. He, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Using 915 nm laser excited Tm³+/Er³+/Ho³+- doped NaYbF4 upconversion nanoparticles for in vitro and deeper in vivo bioimaging without overheating irradiation,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3744–3757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

X. Li, R. Wang, F. Zhang, L. Zhou, D. Shen, C. Yao, and D. Zhao, “Nd3+ sensitized up/down converting dual-mode nanomaterials for efficient in-vitro and in-vivo bioimaging excited at 800 nm,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3536 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Q. Zhan, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, and S. He, “Tens of thousands-fold upconversion luminescence enhancement induced by a single gold nanorod,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 479–487 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Q. Zhan, J. Qian, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, D. Wang, S. He, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Using 915 nm laser excited Tm³+/Er³+/Ho³+- doped NaYbF4 upconversion nanoparticles for in vitro and deeper in vivo bioimaging without overheating irradiation,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3744–3757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

X. Li, R. Wang, F. Zhang, L. Zhou, D. Shen, C. Yao, and D. Zhao, “Nd3+ sensitized up/down converting dual-mode nanomaterials for efficient in-vitro and in-vivo bioimaging excited at 800 nm,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3536 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale 5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Q. Zhan, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, and S. He, “Tens of thousands-fold upconversion luminescence enhancement induced by a single gold nanorod,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 479–487 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, N. Li, R. Wu, Y. Zhao, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Sub-5-nm lanthanide-doped ZrO 2@ NaYF4 nanodots as efficient upconverting probes for rapid scanning microscopy and aptamer-mediated bioimaging,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1759–1771 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Zhan, J. Liu, and S. He, “Optically investigating Nd3+-Yb3+ cascade sensitized upconversion nanoparticles for high resolution, rapid scanning, deep and damage-free bio-imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 838–848 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhong, G. Tian, Z. Gu, Y. Yang, L. Gu, Y. Zhao, Y. Ma, and J. Yao, “Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2831–2837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Y.

Y. Zhong, G. Tian, Z. Gu, Y. Yang, L. Gu, Y. Zhao, Y. Ma, and J. Yao, “Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2831–2837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.-C.

Y.-F. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, L.-D. Sun, J.-W. Xiao, J.-C. Zhou, and C.-H. Yan, “Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanophosphors: efficient in vivo bioimaging probes with minimized heating effect,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7200–7206 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

X. Li, R. Wang, F. Zhang, L. Zhou, D. Shen, C. Yao, and D. Zhao, “Nd3+ sensitized up/down converting dual-mode nanomaterials for efficient in-vitro and in-vivo bioimaging excited at 800 nm,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3536 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy in biological research,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5(5), 603–608 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zyss, J.

L. Caillat, B. Hajj, V. Shynkar, L. Michely, D. Chauvat, J. Zyss, and F. Pellé, “Multiphoton upconversion in rare earth doped nanocrystals for sub-diffractive microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 143114 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (4)

C. T. Xu, P. Svenmarker, H. Liu, X. Wu, M. E. Messing, L. R. Wallenberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “High-resolution fluorescence diffuse optical tomography developed with nonlinear upconverting nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 4788–4795 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chen, J. Shen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, N. J. Patel, A. Kutikov, Z. Li, J. Song, R. K. Pandey, H. Ågren, P. N. Prasad, and G. Han, “(α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles with efficient near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion for high-contrast deep tissue bioimaging,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8280–8287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-F. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, L.-D. Sun, J.-W. Xiao, J.-C. Zhou, and C.-H. Yan, “Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanophosphors: efficient in vivo bioimaging probes with minimized heating effect,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7200–7206 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, J. Qian, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, D. Wang, S. He, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Using 915 nm laser excited Tm³+/Er³+/Ho³+- doped NaYbF4 upconversion nanoparticles for in vitro and deeper in vivo bioimaging without overheating irradiation,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3744–3757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Zhong, G. Tian, Z. Gu, Y. Yang, L. Gu, Y. Zhao, Y. Ma, and J. Yao, “Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2831–2837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Shen, G. Chen, A.-M. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C.-C. Chang, and G. Han, “Engineering the upconversion nanoparticle excitation wavelength: cascade sensitization of tri-doped upconversion colloidal nanoparticles at 800 nm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(9), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

M. Yu, F. Li, Z. Chen, H. Hu, C. Zhan, H. Yang, and C. Huang, “Laser scanning up-conversion luminescence microscopy for imaging cells labeled with rare-earth nanophosphors,” Anal. Chem. 81(3), 930–935 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Caillat, B. Hajj, V. Shynkar, L. Michely, D. Chauvat, J. Zyss, and F. Pellé, “Multiphoton upconversion in rare earth doped nanocrystals for sub-diffractive microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 143114 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, N. Svensson, J. Axelsson, P. Svenmarker, G. Somesfalean, G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, Z. Zhang, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Autofluorescence insensitive imaging using upconverting nanocrystals in scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys. J. 75(4), 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

G. Chen, H. Qiu, P. N. Prasad, and X. Chen, “Upconversion nanoparticles: design, nanochemistry, and applications in theranostics,” Chem. Rev. 114(10), 5161–5214 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy in biological research,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5(5), 603–608 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q.-H. Xu, and X. Liu, “Mechanistic investigation of photon upconversion in Nd3+-sensitized core-shell nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(34), 12608–12611 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. F. Gainer, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Scanning two-photon microscopy with upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles via Richardson-Lucy deconvolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

K. König, “Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences,” J. Microsc. 200(2), 83–104 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (3)

Q. Zhan, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, and S. He, “Tens of thousands-fold upconversion luminescence enhancement induced by a single gold nanorod,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 479–487 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
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Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The proposed multiphoton luminescence mechanism of Nd3+-UCNPs under 730-nm excitation; (b) the TEM image of the prepared Nd3+-UCNPs; (c) the absorption spectrum of Nd3+-UCNPs; (d) the emission spectrum of the prepared Nd3+-UCNPs with 650 nm, 474 nm and 455 nm peak; (e) lifetime of three-photon fluorescence from the 1G43H6 transition; (f) lifetime of four-photon fluorescence from the 1D23F4 transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The home-built optical system for a CW laser excited visible-to-visible four-photon microscopy. F1: 715-nm longpass Filter, P1: half wave plate. P2: polarizing film. GM: galvanometer system, DM: 670 -nm dichroic mirror. F2: 665-nm shortpass emission filters. F3: adaptable bandpass filter. FL: focus lens. OL: objective lens. S: sample. PMT: photomultiplier tubes. M1, M2, M3: sliver reflection mirrors

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The SEM image of the highly dispersed Nd3+-UCNP sample: the imaged diameter of one single nanocrystal is 32.39 nm

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Two-photon (overly saturated three-photon excitation) fluorescence imaging of a single Nd3+-UCNP; (b) Three-photon fluorescence imaging of a single Nd3+-UCNP; (c) Four-photon fluorescence imaging of a single Nd3+-UCNP; (d) Gaussian fitting of two-photon fluorescence spot, FWHMIPSF = 250 nm; (e) Gaussian fitting of three-photon fluorescence spot, FWHMIPSF = 185 nm; (f) Gaussian fitting of four-photon fluorescence spot, FWHMIPSF = 161 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The relationship between the multiphoton fluorescence intensity and excitation saturation power in NaYF4: Nd3+, Yb3+, Tm3+.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) bright field image and (b) UC fluorescence image of Nd3+-UCNPs; (c)-(e) High-magnification fluorescence images of aggregated Nd3+-UCNPs as marked in (b). (c) four-photon image by 730-nm laser excitation; (d) two-photon image by 730-nm laser excitation; (e) two-photon image by 980-nm laser excitation; (f) line profile of signal intensity of marked line in (c)-(e); (d)-(h) The corresponding line-scanning profile from the image shown in (f) showing FWHM = 168 nm (730-nm/four-photon); FWHM = 250 nm (730-nm/two-photon); FWHM = 360 nm (980-nm/two-photon).

Equations (1)

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ΔxΔy 1.22λ 2NA N

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