Abstract

Organic-inorganic (hybrid) and all-inorganic lead halide perovskites, in particular APbX3 where A is an organic cation (methylammonium or formamidinium) or cesium cation and X = Cl, Br, I, respectively, are of great interest in photovoltaic devices and as luminescent materials for light-emitting devices. It has recently been demonstrated that they can be prepared not only as nanoparticulate material by using the pores of mesoporous films, but also as colloidal nanoparticles, which exhibit enhanced optical properties with respect to the bulk material. We summarize here the methods reported for their preparation as well as their optical features. Experimental and theoretical studies on this class of materials are ongoing and there is still a demand for enhancing their emissive properties, stability in polar solvents, dispersibility in different media and/or photostability.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (22)

S. González-Carrero, R. E. Galian, and J. Pérez-Prieto, “Organometal halide perovskites: bulk low-dimension materials and nanoparticles,” Particle & Particle Systems Characterization 32(7), 709–720 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Ko, J.-W. Lee, and N.-G. Park, “15.76% efficiency perovskite solar cells prepared under high relative humidity: importance of PbI2 morphology in two-step deposition of CH3NH3PbI3,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(16), 8808–8815 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Im, J. Luo, M. Franckevičius, N. Pellet, P. Gao, T. Moehl, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Nanowire Perovskite Solar Cell,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2120–2126 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gonzalez-Carrero, R. E. Galian, and J. Perez-Prieto, “Maximizing the emissive properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9187–9193 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Luo, Y.-C. Pu, Y. Yang, S. A. Lindley, G. Abdelmageed, H. Ashry, Y. Li, X. Li, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, optical properties, and exciton dynamics of organolead bromide perovskite nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 119(47), 26672–26682 (2015).

M. F. Aygüler, M. D. Weber, B. M. D. Puscher, D. D. Medina, P. Docampo, and R. D. Costa, “Light-emitting electrochemical cells based on hybrid lead halide perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 119, 12047–12054 (2015).

P. Tyagi, S. M. Arveson, and W. A. Tisdale, “Colloidal organohalide perovskite nanoplatelets exhibiting quantum confinement,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(10), 1911–1916 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Jang, K. Park, D. H. Kim, J. Park, F. Shojaei, H. S. Kang, J.-P. Ahn, J. W. Lee, and J. K. Song, “Reversible halide exchange reaction of organometal trihalide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals for full-range band gap tuning,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5191–5199 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhu, L. Men, Y. Guo, Q. Zhu, U. Bhattacharjee, P. M. Goodwin, J. W. Petrich, E. A. Smith, and J. Vela, “Shape evolution and single particle luminescence of organometal halide perovskite nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 9(3), 2948–2959 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Sichert, Y. Tong, N. Mutz, M. Vollmer, S. Fischer, K. Z. Milowska, R. García Cortadella, B. Nickel, C. Cardenas-Daw, J. K. Stolarczyk, A. S. Urban, and J. Feldmann, “Quantum size effect in organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6521–6527 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tuneable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Chen, X. G. Wu, X. Hu, H. Huang, J. Han, B. Zou, and Y. Dong, “Brightly Luminescent and Color-Tunable Colloidal CH3NH3PbI3 (X = Br, I, Cl) Quantum Dots: Potential Alternatives for Display Technology,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4533–4542 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kollek, D. Gruber, J. Gehring, E. Zimmermann, L. Schmidt-Mende, and S. Polarz, “Porous and shape-anisotropic single crystals of the semiconductor perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 from a single-source precursor,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(4), 1341–1346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX₃, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Nedelcu, L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, M. J. Grotevent, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Fast anion-exchange in highly luminescent nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I),” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5635–5640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. A. Akkerman, V. D’Innocenzo, S. Accornero, A. Scarpellini, A. Petrozza, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Tuning the optical properties of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals by anion exchange reactions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(32), 10276–10281 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, E. Yassitepe, O. Voznyy, R. Comin, G. Walters, X. Gong, P. Kanjanaboos, A. F. Nogueira, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient luminescence from perovskite quantum dot solids,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25007–25013 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, S. W. Eaton, Y. Yu, L. Dou, and P. Yang, “Solution-phase synthesis of cesium lead halide perovskite nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(29), 9230–9233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Park, S. Guo, N. S. Makarov, and V. I. Klimov, “Room temperature single-photon emission from individual perovskite quantum dots,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10386–10393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wu, G. Liang, Q. Shang, Y. Ren, D. Kong, and T. Lian, “Ultrafast interfacial electron and hole transfeR from CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(40), 12792–12795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, A. Merdasa, M. Peter, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, C. S. Ponseca, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Giant photoluminescence blinking of perovskite nanocrystals reveals single-trap control of luminescence,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1603–1608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kulbak, D. Cahen, and G. Hodes, “How important is the organic part of lead halide perovskite photovoltaic cells? efficient CsPbBr3 Cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(13), 2452–2456 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (9)

H. Oga, A. Saeki, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and S. Seki, “Improved understanding of the electronic and energetic landscapes of perovskite solar cells: high local charge carrier mobility, reduced recombination, and extremely shallow traps,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(39), 13818–13825 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dualeh, P. Gao, S. I. Seok, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Thermal behavior of methylammonium lead-trihalide perovskite photovoltaic light harvesters,” Chem. Mater. 26(21), 6160–6164 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. A. Jishi, O. B. Ta, and A. A. Sharif, “Modeling of lead halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” J. Phys. Chem. 118, 28344–28349 (2014).

C. Zhenhua, L. Hui, T. Yongbing, H. Xing, H. Derek, and L. Chun-Sing, “Shape-controlled synthesis of organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals and their tunable optical absorption,” Materials Research Express 1(1), 015034 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Schmidt, A. Pertegás, S. González-Carrero, O. Malinkiewicz, S. Agouram, G. Mínguez Espallargas, H. J. Bolink, R. E. Galian, and J. Pérez-Prieto, “Nontemplate synthesis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(3), 850–853 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Kulkarni, T. Baikie, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, N. Mathews, and S. Mhaisalkar, “Band-gap tuning of lead halide perovskites using a sequential deposition process,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 2(24), 9221–9225 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, H. Yu, M. Lyu, Q. Wang, J.-H. Yun, and L. Wang, “Composition-dependent photoluminescence intensity and prolonged recombination lifetime of perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3-xClx films,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(79), 11727–11730 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dualeh, N. Tétreault, T. Moehl, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Effect of annealing temperature on film morphology of organic–inorganic hybrid pervoskite solid-state solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3250–3258 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Im, H.-S. Kim, and N.-G. Park, “Morphology-photovoltaic property correlation in perovskite solar cells: One-step versus two-step deposition of CH3NH3PbI3,” APL Mater. 2(8), 081510 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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2012 (5)

J.-H. Im, J. Chung, S.-J. Kim, and N.-G. Park, “Synthesis, structure, and photovoltaic property of a nanocrystalline 2H perovskite-type novel sensitizer (CH3CH2NH3)PbI3,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 353 (2012).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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A. Kojima, M. Ikegami, K. Teshima, and T. Miyasaka, “Highly luminescent lead bromide perovskite nanoparticles synthesized with porous alumina media,” Chem. Lett. 41(4), 397–399 (2012).
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2011 (1)

J.-H. Im, C.-R. Lee, J.-W. Lee, S.-W. Park, and N.-G. Park, “6.5% efficient perovskite quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell,” Nanoscale 3(10), 4088–4093 (2011).
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2009 (1)

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
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2008 (2)

I. Borriello, G. Cantele, and D. Ninno, “Ab initio investigation of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites based on tin halides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(23), 235214 (2008).
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2000 (1)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
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1999 (1)

C. R. Kagan, D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors,” Science 286(5441), 945–947 (1999).
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1998 (1)

K. Liang, D. B. Mitzi, and M. T. Prikas, “Synthesis and characterization of organic−inorganic perovskite thin films prepared using a versatile two-step dipping technique,” Chem. Mater. 10(1), 403–411 (1998).
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1997 (1)

G. C. Papavassiliou, “Three- and low-dimensional inorganic semiconductors,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 25(3-4), 125–270 (1997).
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1996 (1)

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1993 (1)

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Q. A. Akkerman, V. D’Innocenzo, S. Accornero, A. Scarpellini, A. Petrozza, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Tuning the optical properties of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals by anion exchange reactions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(32), 10276–10281 (2015).
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P. Tyagi, S. M. Arveson, and W. A. Tisdale, “Colloidal organohalide perovskite nanoplatelets exhibiting quantum confinement,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(10), 1911–1916 (2015).
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B. Luo, Y.-C. Pu, Y. Yang, S. A. Lindley, G. Abdelmageed, H. Ashry, Y. Li, X. Li, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, optical properties, and exciton dynamics of organolead bromide perovskite nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 119(47), 26672–26682 (2015).

Aygüler, M. F.

M. F. Aygüler, M. D. Weber, B. M. D. Puscher, D. D. Medina, P. Docampo, and R. D. Costa, “Light-emitting electrochemical cells based on hybrid lead halide perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 119, 12047–12054 (2015).

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S. A. Kulkarni, T. Baikie, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, N. Mathews, and S. Mhaisalkar, “Band-gap tuning of lead halide perovskites using a sequential deposition process,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 2(24), 9221–9225 (2014).
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P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
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F. Zhu, L. Men, Y. Guo, Q. Zhu, U. Bhattacharjee, P. M. Goodwin, J. W. Petrich, E. A. Smith, and J. Vela, “Shape evolution and single particle luminescence of organometal halide perovskite nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 9(3), 2948–2959 (2015).
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G. Nedelcu, L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, M. J. Grotevent, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Fast anion-exchange in highly luminescent nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I),” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5635–5640 (2015).
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S. A. Kulkarni, T. Baikie, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, N. Mathews, and S. Mhaisalkar, “Band-gap tuning of lead halide perovskites using a sequential deposition process,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 2(24), 9221–9225 (2014).
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Bolink, H. J.

L. C. Schmidt, A. Pertegás, S. González-Carrero, O. Malinkiewicz, S. Agouram, G. Mínguez Espallargas, H. J. Bolink, R. E. Galian, and J. Pérez-Prieto, “Nontemplate synthesis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(3), 850–853 (2014).
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Borriello, I.

I. Borriello, G. Cantele, and D. Ninno, “Ab initio investigation of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites based on tin halides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(23), 235214 (2008).
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Burschka, J.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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Cahen, D.

M. Kulbak, D. Cahen, and G. Hodes, “How important is the organic part of lead halide perovskite photovoltaic cells? efficient CsPbBr3 Cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(13), 2452–2456 (2015).
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I. Borriello, G. Cantele, and D. Ninno, “Ab initio investigation of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites based on tin halides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(23), 235214 (2008).
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L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX₃, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
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Cardenas-Daw, C.

J. A. Sichert, Y. Tong, N. Mutz, M. Vollmer, S. Fischer, K. Z. Milowska, R. García Cortadella, B. Nickel, C. Cardenas-Daw, J. K. Stolarczyk, A. S. Urban, and J. Feldmann, “Quantum size effect in organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6521–6527 (2015).
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Chandiran, A. K.

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
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Chen, C.

F. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Chen, X. G. Wu, X. Hu, H. Huang, J. Han, B. Zou, and Y. Dong, “Brightly Luminescent and Color-Tunable Colloidal CH3NH3PbI3 (X = Br, I, Cl) Quantum Dots: Potential Alternatives for Display Technology,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4533–4542 (2015).
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Chung, J.

J.-H. Im, J. Chung, S.-J. Kim, and N.-G. Park, “Synthesis, structure, and photovoltaic property of a nanocrystalline 2H perovskite-type novel sensitizer (CH3CH2NH3)PbI3,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 353 (2012).
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Chun-Sing, L.

C. Zhenhua, L. Hui, T. Yongbing, H. Xing, H. Derek, and L. Chun-Sing, “Shape-controlled synthesis of organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals and their tunable optical absorption,” Materials Research Express 1(1), 015034 (2014).
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Y. Kim, E. Yassitepe, O. Voznyy, R. Comin, G. Walters, X. Gong, P. Kanjanaboos, A. F. Nogueira, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient luminescence from perovskite quantum dot solids,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25007–25013 (2015).
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Costa, R. D.

M. F. Aygüler, M. D. Weber, B. M. D. Puscher, D. D. Medina, P. Docampo, and R. D. Costa, “Light-emitting electrochemical cells based on hybrid lead halide perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 119, 12047–12054 (2015).

D’Innocenzo, V.

Q. A. Akkerman, V. D’Innocenzo, S. Accornero, A. Scarpellini, A. Petrozza, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Tuning the optical properties of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals by anion exchange reactions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(32), 10276–10281 (2015).
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C. Zhenhua, L. Hui, T. Yongbing, H. Xing, H. Derek, and L. Chun-Sing, “Shape-controlled synthesis of organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals and their tunable optical absorption,” Materials Research Express 1(1), 015034 (2014).
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Dimitrakopoulos, C. D.

C. R. Kagan, D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors,” Science 286(5441), 945–947 (1999).
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Docampo, P.

M. F. Aygüler, M. D. Weber, B. M. D. Puscher, D. D. Medina, P. Docampo, and R. D. Costa, “Light-emitting electrochemical cells based on hybrid lead halide perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 119, 12047–12054 (2015).

Dong, Y.

F. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Chen, X. G. Wu, X. Hu, H. Huang, J. Han, B. Zou, and Y. Dong, “Brightly Luminescent and Color-Tunable Colloidal CH3NH3PbI3 (X = Br, I, Cl) Quantum Dots: Potential Alternatives for Display Technology,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4533–4542 (2015).
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Dou, L.

D. Zhang, S. W. Eaton, Y. Yu, L. Dou, and P. Yang, “Solution-phase synthesis of cesium lead halide perovskite nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(29), 9230–9233 (2015).
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A. Dualeh, P. Gao, S. I. Seok, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Thermal behavior of methylammonium lead-trihalide perovskite photovoltaic light harvesters,” Chem. Mater. 26(21), 6160–6164 (2014).
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A. Dualeh, N. Tétreault, T. Moehl, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Effect of annealing temperature on film morphology of organic–inorganic hybrid pervoskite solid-state solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3250–3258 (2014).
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S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tuneable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
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D. Zhang, S. W. Eaton, Y. Yu, L. Dou, and P. Yang, “Solution-phase synthesis of cesium lead halide perovskite nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(29), 9230–9233 (2015).
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Etgar, L.

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
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Feldmann, J.

J. A. Sichert, Y. Tong, N. Mutz, M. Vollmer, S. Fischer, K. Z. Milowska, R. García Cortadella, B. Nickel, C. Cardenas-Daw, J. K. Stolarczyk, A. S. Urban, and J. Feldmann, “Quantum size effect in organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6521–6527 (2015).
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J. A. Sichert, Y. Tong, N. Mutz, M. Vollmer, S. Fischer, K. Z. Milowska, R. García Cortadella, B. Nickel, C. Cardenas-Daw, J. K. Stolarczyk, A. S. Urban, and J. Feldmann, “Quantum size effect in organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6521–6527 (2015).
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Franckevicius, M.

J.-H. Im, J. Luo, M. Franckevičius, N. Pellet, P. Gao, T. Moehl, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Nanowire Perovskite Solar Cell,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2120–2126 (2015).
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S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tuneable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
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Galian, R. E.

S. Gonzalez-Carrero, R. E. Galian, and J. Perez-Prieto, “Maximizing the emissive properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9187–9193 (2015).
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S. González-Carrero, R. E. Galian, and J. Pérez-Prieto, “Organometal halide perovskites: bulk low-dimension materials and nanoparticles,” Particle & Particle Systems Characterization 32(7), 709–720 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Schmidt, A. Pertegás, S. González-Carrero, O. Malinkiewicz, S. Agouram, G. Mínguez Espallargas, H. J. Bolink, R. E. Galian, and J. Pérez-Prieto, “Nontemplate synthesis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(3), 850–853 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, P.

J.-H. Im, J. Luo, M. Franckevičius, N. Pellet, P. Gao, T. Moehl, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Nanowire Perovskite Solar Cell,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2120–2126 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dualeh, N. Tétreault, T. Moehl, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Effect of annealing temperature on film morphology of organic–inorganic hybrid pervoskite solid-state solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3250–3258 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Dualeh, P. Gao, S. I. Seok, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Thermal behavior of methylammonium lead-trihalide perovskite photovoltaic light harvesters,” Chem. Mater. 26(21), 6160–6164 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. A. Sichert, Y. Tong, N. Mutz, M. Vollmer, S. Fischer, K. Z. Milowska, R. García Cortadella, B. Nickel, C. Cardenas-Daw, J. K. Stolarczyk, A. S. Urban, and J. Feldmann, “Quantum size effect in organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6521–6527 (2015).
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Y. Kim, E. Yassitepe, O. Voznyy, R. Comin, G. Walters, X. Gong, P. Kanjanaboos, A. F. Nogueira, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient luminescence from perovskite quantum dot solids,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25007–25013 (2015).
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Gonzalez-Carrero, S.

S. Gonzalez-Carrero, R. E. Galian, and J. Perez-Prieto, “Maximizing the emissive properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9187–9193 (2015).
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González-Carrero, S.

S. González-Carrero, R. E. Galian, and J. Pérez-Prieto, “Organometal halide perovskites: bulk low-dimension materials and nanoparticles,” Particle & Particle Systems Characterization 32(7), 709–720 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Schmidt, A. Pertegás, S. González-Carrero, O. Malinkiewicz, S. Agouram, G. Mínguez Espallargas, H. J. Bolink, R. E. Galian, and J. Pérez-Prieto, “Nontemplate synthesis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(3), 850–853 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Zhu, L. Men, Y. Guo, Q. Zhu, U. Bhattacharjee, P. M. Goodwin, J. W. Petrich, E. A. Smith, and J. Vela, “Shape evolution and single particle luminescence of organometal halide perovskite nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 9(3), 2948–2959 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grätzel, M.

J.-H. Im, J. Luo, M. Franckevičius, N. Pellet, P. Gao, T. Moehl, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Nanowire Perovskite Solar Cell,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2120–2126 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dualeh, N. Tétreault, T. Moehl, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Effect of annealing temperature on film morphology of organic–inorganic hybrid pervoskite solid-state solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3250–3258 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Dualeh, P. Gao, S. I. Seok, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Thermal behavior of methylammonium lead-trihalide perovskite photovoltaic light harvesters,” Chem. Mater. 26(21), 6160–6164 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the dimensionality (D) of the inorganic framework of metal halide perovskites.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a-b) TEM images of MAPbI3 nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 (Scale bar 20 nm and 2 nm) Adapted from [7], Copyright 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. c) Cross-sectional SEM image of a photovoltaic device with MAPbI3 nanocristal on TiO2, prepared by the two-step sequencial method. Reprinted from [18], Copyright 2013, Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Image and schematic representation of colloidal MAPbBr3 perovskite NPs under UV lamp (at 365 nm) synthesized by the method reported by Pérez-Prieto et al. Adapted from Ref [20], Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society. b-c) Comparison between the absorption (b) and emission spectra (c) of MAPbBr3 NPs (20% quantum yield) synthesized by the non-template method (green dark) and of that with enhanced quantum yield (83%) prepared by the same method by changing the molar ratio between the perovskite precursors (green).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Schematic illustration of the re-precipitation method used for the synthesis of MAPbBr3 QDs. b) Images of colloidal solutions (under ambient light and UV light (excitation at 365 nm) and PL spectru of mixed lead halide QDs synthesized by re-precipitation method. Adapted from [30], Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society. c) Images of colloidal solutions under UV lamp (excitation at 365 nm) and PL spectra of MAPbBr3 QDs synthesized at different temperatures by modification of the re-precipitation method. Adapted from [31]. Copyright 2015, The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Image of the crystal structure of (TEG)2MAPbI3 (1), TEG = triethylene glycol depicting the [PbI6] octahedral (yellow faces) of the unit cell (blue lines), and the crystal-to-crystal transition into MAPbI3 (2) by the loss of TEG after injection in dichloromethane. b-c) SEM micrograph of the porous MAPbI3 single crystals (scale bar: 400 nm and 2 μm). Adapted from [32]. Copyright 2015, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic representation of the different routes and precursors for the anion exchange reactions on CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) NCs . Reprinted from [38], Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process, which enables simultaneous purification and film fabrication using crude solutions of as-synthesized CsPbX3 nanocrystals. (c) Comparison between the XRD pattern of the powder and that of the centrifugally cast film of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. Adapted from [40], Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a) PL image of single CsPbBr3 nanocrystals at excitation power of 9 W cm−2 and 60 ms exposure time; intensity line profiles show extremely high signal to background b) Normalized PL emission spectra of an ensemble of nanocrystals in solution (green dashed dot line) compared to that of a representative single-nanocrystal (red solid line) and that of 90 single nanocrystal (blue dashed line); Arrows depict spectral line-widths. c) Scatter plot of spectral FWHM and spectrally integrated intensity for 90 single NCs; Dashed lines represent average values of integrated intensities (vertical line) and FWHM (horizontal line) for 90 nanocrystals. d) Characteristic temporal fluctuation of PL intensity for three typical single nanocrystals marked (1-3) in (a), along with proportion of nanocrystals (for several hundred single nanocrystals) which exhibit corresponding intensity/blinking behaviors; Dashed lines mark approximately 50 % intensity compared to the “bright” level. Reprinted from [41], Copyright 2015, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

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