Abstract

The efficiency droop of light emitting diodes (LEDs) with increasing current density limits the amount of light emitted per wafer area. Since low current densities are required for high efficiency operation, many LED die are needed for high power white light illumination systems. In contrast, the carrier density of laser diodes (LDs) clamps at threshold, so the efficiency of LDs does not droop above threshold and high efficiencies can be achieved at very high current densities. The use of a high power blue GaN-based LD coupled with a single crystal Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) sample was investigated for white light illumination applications. Under CW operation, a single phosphor-converted LD (pc-LD) die produced a peak luminous efficacy of 86.7 lm/W at 1.4 A and 4.24 V and a peak luminous flux of 1100 lm at 3.0 A and 4.85 V with a luminous efficacy of 75.6 lm/W. Simulations of a pc-LD confirm that the single crystal YAG:Ce sample did not experience thermal quenching at peak LD operating efficiency. These results show that a single pc-LD die is capable of emitting enough luminous flux for use in a high power white light illumination system.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “The potential of III-nitride laser diodes for solid-state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 11(3–4), 674–677 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David, “Color fidelity of light sources evaluated over large sets of reflectance samples,” Leukos 10(2), 59–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Lenef, J. Kelso, M. Tchoul, O. Mehl, J. Sorg, and Y. Zheng, “Laser-activated remote phosphor conversion with ceramic phosphors,” Proc. SPIE 9190, 91900C1 (2014).

2013 (3)

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Shin, and J.-I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A982–A990 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

H.-Y. Ryu and D.-H. Kim, “High-brightness phosphor-conversion white light source using InGaN blue laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 14(4), 415–419 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for theefficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Li, G. Song, Y. Wang, W. Zhuang, and Z. Long, “Phosphor-conversion white light using InGaN ultraviolet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021129 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503 (2007).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bockowski, M.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Cantore, M.

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Y. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Li, G. Song, Y. Wang, W. Zhuang, and Z. Long, “Phosphor-conversion white light using InGaN ultraviolet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Czernecki, R.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

David, A.

A. David, “Color fidelity of light sources evaluated over large sets of reflectance samples,” Leukos 10(2), 59–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Davis, W.

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Denault, K. A.

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grzanka, S.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for theefficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Iveland, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelso, J.

A. Lenef, J. Kelso, M. Tchoul, O. Mehl, J. Sorg, and Y. Zheng, “Laser-activated remote phosphor conversion with ceramic phosphors,” Proc. SPIE 9190, 91900C1 (2014).

Kim, D.-H.

Kim, J. K.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.-H.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koch, S. W.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for theefficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kozaki, T.

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lenef, A.

A. Lenef, J. Kelso, M. Tchoul, O. Mehl, J. Sorg, and Y. Zheng, “Laser-activated remote phosphor conversion with ceramic phosphors,” Proc. SPIE 9190, 91900C1 (2014).

Leszczynski, M.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Li, G. Song, Y. Wang, W. Zhuang, and Z. Long, “Phosphor-conversion white light using InGaN ultraviolet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Long, Z.

Y. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Li, G. Song, Y. Wang, W. Zhuang, and Z. Long, “Phosphor-conversion white light using InGaN ultraviolet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lucznik, B.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Marona, L.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, L.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehl, O.

A. Lenef, J. Kelso, M. Tchoul, O. Mehl, J. Sorg, and Y. Zheng, “Laser-activated remote phosphor conversion with ceramic phosphors,” Proc. SPIE 9190, 91900C1 (2014).

Moloney, J. V.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for theefficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neumann, A.

Ohno, Y.

Park, Y.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Peretti, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perlin, P.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Shin, and J.-I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu and D.-H. Kim, “High-brightness phosphor-conversion white light source using InGaN blue laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 14(4), 415–419 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seshadri, R.

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shim, J.-I.

H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Shin, and J.-I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shin, D.-S.

H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Shin, and J.-I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sizov, D. S.

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “The potential of III-nitride laser diodes for solid-state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 11(3–4), 674–677 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, G.

Y. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Li, G. Song, Y. Wang, W. Zhuang, and Z. Long, “Phosphor-conversion white light using InGaN ultraviolet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sorg, J.

A. Lenef, J. Kelso, M. Tchoul, O. Mehl, J. Sorg, and Y. Zheng, “Laser-activated remote phosphor conversion with ceramic phosphors,” Proc. SPIE 9190, 91900C1 (2014).

Speck, J. S.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suski, T.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tchoul, M.

A. Lenef, J. Kelso, M. Tchoul, O. Mehl, J. Sorg, and Y. Zheng, “Laser-activated remote phosphor conversion with ceramic phosphors,” Proc. SPIE 9190, 91900C1 (2014).

Tsao, J. Y.

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “The potential of III-nitride laser diodes for solid-state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 11(3–4), 674–677 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A982–A990 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Li, G. Song, Y. Wang, W. Zhuang, and Z. Long, “Phosphor-conversion white light using InGaN ultraviolet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “The potential of III-nitride laser diodes for solid-state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 11(3–4), 674–677 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A982–A990 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Li, G. Song, Y. Wang, W. Zhuang, and Z. Long, “Phosphor-conversion white light using InGaN ultraviolet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

A. Lenef, J. Kelso, M. Tchoul, O. Mehl, J. Sorg, and Y. Zheng, “Laser-activated remote phosphor conversion with ceramic phosphors,” Proc. SPIE 9190, 91900C1 (2014).

Zhuang, W.

Y. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Li, G. Song, Y. Wang, W. Zhuang, and Z. Long, “Phosphor-conversion white light using InGaN ultraviolet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021129 (2008).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for theefficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Shin, and J.-I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Boćkowski, B. Łucznik, M. Leszczyński, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Li, G. Song, Y. Wang, W. Zhuang, and Z. Long, “Phosphor-conversion white light using InGaN ultraviolet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021129 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leukos (1)

A. David, “Color fidelity of light sources evaluated over large sets of reflectance samples,” Leukos 10(2), 59–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. (1)

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “The potential of III-nitride laser diodes for solid-state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 11(3–4), 674–677 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Lenef, J. Kelso, M. Tchoul, O. Mehl, J. Sorg, and Y. Zheng, “Laser-activated remote phosphor conversion with ceramic phosphors,” Proc. SPIE 9190, 91900C1 (2014).

Other (2)

J. Wallace, “Nichia to make green and blue laser diodes for automotive head-up displays” (Laser Focus World, 2014). http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/2014/07/nichia-to-make-green-and-blue-laser-diodes-for-automotive-head-up-displays.html

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mashanovitch, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the LED epitaxial area and LDepitaxial area needed to produce enough power to replace a 60 W incandescent bulb.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photograph of the experimental setup showing a 50 cm integrating sphere, a YAG:Ce single crystal phosphor disc at the center of the integrating sphere, and a commercial GaN-based LD located at the side access port of the integrating sphere that was aligned so that it was incident on the phosphor disc. The YAG:Ce single crystal phosphor disc was oriented so that laser beam was incident at an angle 30° from the surface normal of the disc to avoid reflections back to the LD.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Dependence of luminous flux and luminous efficacy of the pc-LD on current. (b) Spectra of the pc-LD at 1.4 and 3 A.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculations of luminous efficacy and CCT for a two component pc-LD where the LD wavelength was varied from 400 nm to 470 nm in steps of 5 nm and the spectra of the YAG:Ce phosphor is the same as the spectra that was presented in Fig. 3(b). The calculations assume that the WPE of the LD is 31.6% and that the quantum efficiency of the YAG:Ce phosphor is 95%.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Laser diode properties.

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