Abstract

We report on the fabrication of disordered nanostructures by combining colloidal lithography and silicon etching. We show good control of the short-range ordered colloidal pattern for a wide range of bead sizes from 170 to 850 nm. The inter-particle spacing follows a Gaussian distribution with the average distance between two neighboring beads (center to center) being approximately twice their diameter, thus enabling the nanopatterning with dimensions relevant to the light wavelength scale. The disordered nanostructures result in a lower integrated reflectance (8.1%) than state-of-the-art random pyramid texturing (11.7%) when fabricated on 700 µm thick wafers. When integrated in a 1.1 µm thin crystalline silicon slab, the absorption is enhanced from 24.0% up to 64.3%. The broadening of resonant modes present for the disordered nanopattern offers a more broadband light confinement compared to a periodic nanopattern. Owing to its simplicity, versatility and the degrees of freedom it offers, this potentially low-cost bottom-up nanopatterning process opens perspectives towards the integration of advanced light-trapping schemes in thin solar cells.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  33. P. Gao, H. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Han, J. Li, and J. Ye, “Efficient light trapping in low aspect-ratio honeycomb nanobowl surface texturing for crystalline silicon solar cell applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  39. M. Otto, M. Kroll, T. Kasebier, R. Salzer, A. Tunnermann, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Extremelly low surface recombination velocities in black silicon passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191603 (2012).
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  40. G. Von Gastrow, R. Alcubulla, P. Ortega, M. Yli-Koski, S. Conesa-Boj, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and H. Savin, “Analysis of the atomic layer deposited Al2O3 field-effect passivation in black silicon,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol 142, 29–33 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (6)

J. Muller, A. Herman, A. Mayer, and O. Deparis, “A fair comparison between ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with either periodic or correlated disorder inverted pyramid textures,” Opt. Express 23(11), A657–A670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. Pratim Sharma, H. Sivaramakrishnan Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, A. Stesmans, E. Simoen, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, K. Lee, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poormants, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in silicon solar cells: the impact of etching on the material electronic quality,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 2015, 10394 (2015).

G. Von Gastrow, R. Alcubulla, P. Ortega, M. Yli-Koski, S. Conesa-Boj, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and H. Savin, “Analysis of the atomic layer deposited Al2O3 field-effect passivation in black silicon,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol 142, 29–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Broadband light trapping with disordered photonic structures in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22, 1237–1245 (2014).

X. Liu, P. R. Coxon, M. Peters, B. Hoex, J. M. Cole, and D. J. Fray, “Black silicon: fabrication methods, properties and solar energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(10), 3223–3263 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, C. Seassal, and E. Drouard, “Absorption control in pseudodisordered photonic-crystal thin films,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053835 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Gao, H. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Han, J. Li, and J. Ye, “Efficient light trapping in low aspect-ratio honeycomb nanobowl surface texturing for crystalline silicon solar cell applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (10)

A. Herman, C. Trompoukis, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, and O. Deparis, “Influence of the pattern shape on the efficiency of front-side periodically patterned ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 113107 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Photonic light-trapping versus Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns,” Opt. Express 20(S2), A224–A244 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Otto, M. Kroll, T. Kasebier, R. Salzer, A. Tunnermann, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Extremelly low surface recombination velocities in black silicon passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191603 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, V. Depauw, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103901 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: the supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, and G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2792–2796 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Nanophotonic light-trapping theory for solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 105(2), 329–339 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Mellor, I. Tobias, A. Marti, M. J. Mendes, and A. Luque, “Upper limits to absorption enhancement in thick solar cells using diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(6), 676–687 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 844–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Eriksson, S. Yamada, P. V. Krishnan, S. Ramasamy, and B. Heidari, “High volume nanoimprint lithography on III/V substrates: Imprint fidelity and stamp lifetime,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(3), 293–299 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

G. Zhang and D. Wang, “Colloidal lithography--the art of nanochemical patterning,” Chem. Asian J. 4(2), 236–245 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zach, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Koynov, M. S. Brandt, and M. Stutzmann, “Black nonreflecting silicon surfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203107 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo, “Control of nanoparticle film structure for colloidal lithography,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 214(1-3), 23–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. Verdonck, A. Goodyear, R. D. Mansano, P. R. J. Barroy, and N. St. J. Braithwaite, “Importance of fluorine surface diffusion for plasma etching of silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 791–796 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5(2), 115–120 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. Seidel and L. Csepregi, “Anisotropic etching of crystalline silicon in alkaline solutions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137(11), 3612 (1990).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

P. Pieranski, “Two-dimensional interfacial colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(7), 569–572 (1980).
[Crossref]

Abdo, I.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alaverdyan, Y.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zach, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alcubulla, R.

G. Von Gastrow, R. Alcubulla, P. Ortega, M. Yli-Koski, S. Conesa-Boj, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and H. Savin, “Analysis of the atomic layer deposited Al2O3 field-effect passivation in black silicon,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol 142, 29–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alexander, D. T. L.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Broadband light trapping with disordered photonic structures in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22, 1237–1245 (2014).

A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Photonic light-trapping versus Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns,” Opt. Express 20(S2), A224–A244 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barroy, P. R. J.

P. Verdonck, A. Goodyear, R. D. Mansano, P. R. J. Barroy, and N. St. J. Braithwaite, “Importance of fluorine surface diffusion for plasma etching of silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 791–796 (2002).
[Crossref]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benick, J.

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front side antireflection concepts for silicon solar cells with diffractive rear side structures,” 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition2014Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 987–991.

Bett, A.

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front side antireflection concepts for silicon solar cells with diffractive rear side structures,” 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition2014Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 987–991.

Bläsi, B.

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front side antireflection concepts for silicon solar cells with diffractive rear side structures,” 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition2014Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 987–991.

Bloch, A. N.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[Crossref]

Boccard, M.

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C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
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A. Herman, C. Trompoukis, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, and O. Deparis, “Influence of the pattern shape on the efficiency of front-side periodically patterned ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 113107 (2012).
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C. Trompoukis, A. Stesmans, E. Simoen, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, K. Lee, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poormants, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in silicon solar cells: the impact of etching on the material electronic quality,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 2015, 10394 (2015).

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
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C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, V. Depauw, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103901 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Herman, C. Trompoukis, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, and O. Deparis, “Influence of the pattern shape on the efficiency of front-side periodically patterned ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 113107 (2012).
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El Daif, O.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. Pratim Sharma, H. Sivaramakrishnan Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, A. Stesmans, E. Simoen, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, K. Lee, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poormants, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in silicon solar cells: the impact of etching on the material electronic quality,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 2015, 10394 (2015).

A. Herman, C. Trompoukis, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, and O. Deparis, “Influence of the pattern shape on the efficiency of front-side periodically patterned ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 113107 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, V. Depauw, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Elwenspoek, M.

H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5(2), 115–120 (1995).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

G. Von Gastrow, R. Alcubulla, P. Ortega, M. Yli-Koski, S. Conesa-Boj, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and H. Savin, “Analysis of the atomic layer deposited Al2O3 field-effect passivation in black silicon,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol 142, 29–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fray, D. J.

X. Liu, P. R. Coxon, M. Peters, B. Hoex, J. M. Cole, and D. J. Fray, “Black silicon: fabrication methods, properties and solar energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(10), 3223–3263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fredriksson, H.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zach, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gao, P.

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gao, H. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Han, J. Li, and J. Ye, “Efficient light trapping in low aspect-ratio honeycomb nanobowl surface texturing for crystalline silicon solar cell applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253105 (2013).
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P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo, “Control of nanoparticle film structure for colloidal lithography,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 214(1-3), 23–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

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A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front side antireflection concepts for silicon solar cells with diffractive rear side structures,” 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition2014Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 987–991.

Gomard, G.

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, C. Seassal, and E. Drouard, “Absorption control in pseudodisordered photonic-crystal thin films,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053835 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goodyear, A.

P. Verdonck, A. Goodyear, R. D. Mansano, P. R. J. Barroy, and N. St. J. Braithwaite, “Importance of fluorine surface diffusion for plasma etching of silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 791–796 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I.

C. Trompoukis, A. Stesmans, E. Simoen, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, K. Lee, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poormants, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in silicon solar cells: the impact of etching on the material electronic quality,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 2015, 10394 (2015).

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. Pratim Sharma, H. Sivaramakrishnan Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, V. Depauw, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103901 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 844–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, S. E.

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, and G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2792–2796 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, W.

P. Gao, H. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Han, J. Li, and J. Ye, “Efficient light trapping in low aspect-ratio honeycomb nanobowl surface texturing for crystalline silicon solar cell applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hanarp, P.

P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo, “Control of nanoparticle film structure for colloidal lithography,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 214(1-3), 23–36 (2003).
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Poortmans, J.

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C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. Pratim Sharma, H. Sivaramakrishnan Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
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Prod’Homme, P.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Y.

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 844–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raman, A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Nanophotonic light-trapping theory for solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 105(2), 329–339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ramasamy, S.

T. Eriksson, S. Yamada, P. V. Krishnan, S. Ramasamy, and B. Heidari, “High volume nanoimprint lithography on III/V substrates: Imprint fidelity and stamp lifetime,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(3), 293–299 (2011).
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S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[Crossref]

Repo, P.

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front side antireflection concepts for silicon solar cells with diffractive rear side structures,” 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition2014Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 987–991.

Riboli, F.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Salzer, R.

M. Otto, M. Kroll, T. Kasebier, R. Salzer, A. Tunnermann, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Extremelly low surface recombination velocities in black silicon passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Savin, H.

G. Von Gastrow, R. Alcubulla, P. Ortega, M. Yli-Koski, S. Conesa-Boj, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and H. Savin, “Analysis of the atomic layer deposited Al2O3 field-effect passivation in black silicon,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol 142, 29–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front side antireflection concepts for silicon solar cells with diffractive rear side structures,” 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition2014Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 987–991.

Seassal, C.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, C. Seassal, and E. Drouard, “Absorption control in pseudodisordered photonic-crystal thin films,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053835 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seidel, H.

H. Seidel and L. Csepregi, “Anisotropic etching of crystalline silicon in alkaline solutions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137(11), 3612 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sheng, J.

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, P.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[Crossref]

Shigeta, H.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Simoen, E.

C. Trompoukis, A. Stesmans, E. Simoen, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, K. Lee, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poormants, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in silicon solar cells: the impact of etching on the material electronic quality,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 2015, 10394 (2015).

Sivaramakrishnan Radhakrishnan, H.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. Pratim Sharma, H. Sivaramakrishnan Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
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Söderström, K.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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Stepleman, R. S.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[Crossref]

Stesmans, A.

C. Trompoukis, A. Stesmans, E. Simoen, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, K. Lee, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poormants, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in silicon solar cells: the impact of etching on the material electronic quality,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 2015, 10394 (2015).

Stutzmann, M.

S. Koynov, M. S. Brandt, and M. Stutzmann, “Black nonreflecting silicon surfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

P. Gao, H. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Han, J. Li, and J. Ye, “Efficient light trapping in low aspect-ratio honeycomb nanobowl surface texturing for crystalline silicon solar cell applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, D. S.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zach, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo, “Control of nanoparticle film structure for colloidal lithography,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 214(1-3), 23–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tobias, I.

A. Mellor, I. Tobias, A. Marti, M. J. Mendes, and A. Luque, “Upper limits to absorption enhancement in thick solar cells using diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(6), 676–687 (2011).
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Trompoukis, C.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. Pratim Sharma, H. Sivaramakrishnan Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, A. Stesmans, E. Simoen, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, K. Lee, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poormants, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in silicon solar cells: the impact of etching on the material electronic quality,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 2015, 10394 (2015).

A. Herman, C. Trompoukis, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, and O. Deparis, “Influence of the pattern shape on the efficiency of front-side periodically patterned ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 113107 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, V. Depauw, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tunnermann, A.

M. Otto, M. Kroll, T. Kasebier, R. Salzer, A. Tunnermann, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Extremelly low surface recombination velocities in black silicon passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Nieuwenhuysen, K.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. Pratim Sharma, H. Sivaramakrishnan Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 844–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

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P. Verdonck, A. Goodyear, R. D. Mansano, P. R. J. Barroy, and N. St. J. Braithwaite, “Importance of fluorine surface diffusion for plasma etching of silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 791–796 (2002).
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Von Gastrow, G.

G. Von Gastrow, R. Alcubulla, P. Ortega, M. Yli-Koski, S. Conesa-Boj, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and H. Savin, “Analysis of the atomic layer deposited Al2O3 field-effect passivation in black silicon,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol 142, 29–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vynck, K.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, D.

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhang and D. Wang, “Colloidal lithography--the art of nanochemical patterning,” Chem. Asian J. 4(2), 236–245 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

P. Gao, H. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Han, J. Li, and J. Ye, “Efficient light trapping in low aspect-ratio honeycomb nanobowl surface texturing for crystalline silicon solar cell applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, K. X.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

M. Otto, M. Kroll, T. Kasebier, R. Salzer, A. Tunnermann, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Extremelly low surface recombination velocities in black silicon passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. S.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

Yamada, S.

T. Eriksson, S. Yamada, P. V. Krishnan, S. Ramasamy, and B. Heidari, “High volume nanoimprint lithography on III/V substrates: Imprint fidelity and stamp lifetime,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(3), 293–299 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gao, H. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Han, J. Li, and J. Ye, “Efficient light trapping in low aspect-ratio honeycomb nanobowl surface texturing for crystalline silicon solar cell applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yerci, S.

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, and G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2792–2796 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yli-Koski, M.

G. Von Gastrow, R. Alcubulla, P. Ortega, M. Yli-Koski, S. Conesa-Boj, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and H. Savin, “Analysis of the atomic layer deposited Al2O3 field-effect passivation in black silicon,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol 142, 29–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Nanophotonic light-trapping theory for solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 105(2), 329–339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zach, M.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zach, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang and D. Wang, “Colloidal lithography--the art of nanochemical patterning,” Chem. Asian J. 4(2), 236–245 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: the supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zach, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, V. Depauw, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103901 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Gao, H. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Han, J. Li, and J. Ye, “Efficient light trapping in low aspect-ratio honeycomb nanobowl surface texturing for crystalline silicon solar cell applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253105 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. Koynov, M. S. Brandt, and M. Stutzmann, “Black nonreflecting silicon surfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203107 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Otto, M. Kroll, T. Kasebier, R. Salzer, A. Tunnermann, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Extremelly low surface recombination velocities in black silicon passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Nanophotonic light-trapping theory for solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 105(2), 329–339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chem. Asian J. (1)

G. Zhang and D. Wang, “Colloidal lithography--the art of nanochemical patterning,” Chem. Asian J. 4(2), 236–245 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. (1)

P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo, “Control of nanoparticle film structure for colloidal lithography,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 214(1-3), 23–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

X. Liu, P. R. Coxon, M. Peters, B. Hoex, J. M. Cole, and D. J. Fray, “Black silicon: fabrication methods, properties and solar energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(10), 3223–3263 (2014).
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IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Herman, C. Trompoukis, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, and O. Deparis, “Influence of the pattern shape on the efficiency of front-side periodically patterned ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 113107 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

H. Seidel and L. Csepregi, “Anisotropic etching of crystalline silicon in alkaline solutions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137(11), 3612 (1990).
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J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5(2), 115–120 (1995).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

P. Verdonck, A. Goodyear, R. D. Mansano, P. R. J. Barroy, and N. St. J. Braithwaite, “Importance of fluorine surface diffusion for plasma etching of silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 791–796 (2002).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. Eriksson, S. Yamada, P. V. Krishnan, S. Ramasamy, and B. Heidari, “High volume nanoimprint lithography on III/V substrates: Imprint fidelity and stamp lifetime,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(3), 293–299 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

P. Gao, J. He, S. Zhou, X. Yang, S. Li, J. Sheng, D. Wang, T. Yu, J. Ye, and Y. Cui, “Large-area nanosphere self-assembly by a micro-propulsive injection method for high throughput periodic surface nanotexturing,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4591–4598 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, and G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2792–2796 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, C. Seassal, and E. Drouard, “Absorption control in pseudodisordered photonic-crystal thin films,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053835 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: the supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Pieranski, “Two-dimensional interfacial colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(7), 569–572 (1980).
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Phys. Status Solidi (1)

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. (1)

C. Trompoukis, A. Stesmans, E. Simoen, V. Depauw, O. El Daif, K. Lee, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poormants, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in silicon solar cells: the impact of etching on the material electronic quality,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 2015, 10394 (2015).

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (4)

V. Depauw, Y. Qiu, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Epitaxy-free monocrystalline silicon thin film: first steps beyond proof-of-concept solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 844–850 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a-d) Schematic representation of the process flow. (e, f) scanning electron microscopy images of the nanostructures showing on (e) a top-view their distribution and on (f) a tilted view of their etched profiles.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Beads distribution analysis: (a) SEM image of the resulting bead distribution for bead sizes of 170, 270 and 850 nm, (b) 3 nearest neighbor distribution plot (red) with Gaussian fit (black curve) for the 270 nm bead size and (c) mean nearest neighbor (NN, black) and 3 nearest neighbor (3NN, red) values for various bead sizes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scanning electron microscopy images of (a, b) parabolic shaped nanostructures and (c, d) inverted nanopyramids after HCL. In (a) and (b), the arrows represent the under-etch which leads to an increased area fill fraction. In (c) and (d), the failing mechanism of merging neighboring corrugations due to the disordered distribution of PS beads leading to micron-scale features is highlighted.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical properties on 700 µm c-Si slabs: (a) integrated reflectance for various area fill fractions for Wet-HCL and Dry-HCL. (b) reflectance curve of the best achieved disordered nanopattern and benchmarking with state-of-the-art random pyramid texturing.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical properties on 1.1 µm c-Si slab on glass: (a) integrated absorption for various area fill fractions of the disordered nanopattern, (b) SEM images of disordered nanostructures with varying fill fraction, (c - e) transmission, reflectance and absorption spectra of flat, periodic and disordered nanostructures.

Equations (1)

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Φ R = λ min λ max λ hc S AM1.5G (λ)R(λ)dλ

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