Abstract

The accurate determination of light absorption coefficients of particles in water, especially in very oligotrophic oceanic areas, is still a challenging task. Concentrating aquatic particles on a glass fiber filter and using the Quantitative Filter Technique (QFT) is a common practice. Its routine application is limited by the necessary use of high performance spectrophotometers, distinct problems induced by the strong scattering of the filters and artifacts induced by freezing and storing samples. Measurements of the sample inside a large integrating sphere reduce scattering effects and direct field measurements avoid artifacts due to sample preservation. A small, portable, Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter setup (QFT-ICAM) is presented, that allows rapid measurements of a sample filter. The measurement technique takes into account artifacts due to chlorophyll-a fluorescence. The QFT-ICAM is shown to be highly comparable to similar measurements in laboratory spectrophotometers, in terms of accuracy, precision, and path length amplification effects. No spectral artifacts were observed when compared to measurement of samples in suspension, whereas freezing and storing of sample filters induced small losses of water-soluble pigments (probably phycoerythrins). Remaining problems in determining the particulate absorption coefficient with the QFT-ICAM are strong sample-to-sample variations of the path length amplification, as well as fluorescence by pigments that is emitted in a different spectral region than that of chlorophyll-a.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. G. Trüper and C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94(4), 1255–1256 (1967).
    [PubMed]
  2. K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, and M. Calvin, “The absorption spectra of suspensions of living micro-organisms,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15(4), 461–470 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. Shibata, “Spectrophotometry of intact biological materials,” J. Biochem. 45(8), 599–624 (1958).
  4. C. S. Yentsch, “A non-extractive method for the quantitative estimation of chlorophyll in algal cultures,” Nature 179(4573), 1302–1304 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. A. Kiefer and J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27(3), 492–499 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, “Determination of absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for phytoplankton,” in Marine Phytoplankton and Productivity, O. Holm-Hansen, L. Bolis, and R. Gilles, eds. (Springer, 1984), pp. 157–169.
  7. B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll α specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35(5), 639–663 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 137–148 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1358–1368 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, “A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1526–1532 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 42(24), 4802–4810 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Röttgers, C. Dupouy, B. B. Taylor, A. Bracher, and S. B. Woźniak, “Mass-specific light absorption coefficients of natural aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(5), 1449–1460 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Stramski, “Artifacts in measuring absorption spectra of phytoplankton collected on a filter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8), 1804–1809 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. M. Sosik, “Storage of marine particulate samples for light-absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44(4), 1139–1141 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Röttgers and S. Gehnke, “Measurement of light absorption by aquatic particles: improvement of the quantitative filter technique by use of an integrating sphere approach,” Appl. Opt. 51(9), 1336–1351 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, S. Kaczmarek, J. Uitz, and G. Zheng, “Correction of pathlength amplification in the filter-pad technique for measurements of particulate absorption coefficient in the visible spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 54(22), 6763–6782 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. Babin and D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(3), 911–915 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. Röttgers, C. Häse, and R. Doerffer, “Determination of the particulate absorption of microalgae using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter: verification with a photometric technique, improvements for pigment bleaching and correction for chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 1–12 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the Sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37(2), 634–642 (1985).
  21. G. M. Ferrari and S. Tassan, “A method using chemical oxidation to remove light absorption by phytoplankton pigments,” J. Phycol. 35(5), 1090–1098 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. L. Miller, C. Buonassissi, C. E. Del Castillo, and M. Belz, “A portable fiber optic system for measuring particle absorption using the quantified filter technique (QFT),” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9, 554–564 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).
  24. R. Röttgers and R. Doerffer, “Measurements of optical absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 126–135 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, “The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAs in the UV waveband,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 1, 1–9 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(7), 1649–1660 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

R. Röttgers, C. Dupouy, B. B. Taylor, A. Bracher, and S. B. Woźniak, “Mass-specific light absorption coefficients of natural aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(5), 1449–1460 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

R. L. Miller, C. Buonassissi, C. E. Del Castillo, and M. Belz, “A portable fiber optic system for measuring particle absorption using the quantified filter technique (QFT),” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9, 554–564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, “The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAs in the UV waveband,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 1, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

R. Röttgers and R. Doerffer, “Measurements of optical absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 126–135 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Röttgers, C. Häse, and R. Doerffer, “Determination of the particulate absorption of microalgae using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter: verification with a photometric technique, improvements for pigment bleaching and correction for chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Babin and D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(3), 911–915 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

H. M. Sosik, “Storage of marine particulate samples for light-absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44(4), 1139–1141 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. M. Ferrari and S. Tassan, “A method using chemical oxidation to remove light absorption by phytoplankton pigments,” J. Phycol. 35(5), 1090–1098 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(7), 1649–1660 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1358–1368 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, “A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1526–1532 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 137–148 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, “Artifacts in measuring absorption spectra of phytoplankton collected on a filter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8), 1804–1809 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll α specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35(5), 639–663 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the Sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37(2), 634–642 (1985).

1982 (1)

D. A. Kiefer and J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27(3), 492–499 (1982).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

H. G. Trüper and C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94(4), 1255–1256 (1967).
[PubMed]

1958 (1)

K. Shibata, “Spectrophotometry of intact biological materials,” J. Biochem. 45(8), 599–624 (1958).

1957 (1)

C. S. Yentsch, “A non-extractive method for the quantitative estimation of chlorophyll in algal cultures,” Nature 179(4573), 1302–1304 (1957).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, and M. Calvin, “The absorption spectra of suspensions of living micro-organisms,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15(4), 461–470 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allali, K.

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, “A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1526–1532 (1995).
[Crossref]

Babin, M.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Babin and D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(3), 911–915 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, “A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1526–1532 (1995).
[Crossref]

Belz, M.

R. L. Miller, C. Buonassissi, C. E. Del Castillo, and M. Belz, “A portable fiber optic system for measuring particle absorption using the quantified filter technique (QFT),” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9, 554–564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Benson, A. A.

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, and M. Calvin, “The absorption spectra of suspensions of living micro-organisms,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15(4), 461–470 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blouin, F.

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, “The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAs in the UV waveband,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 1, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bracher, A.

R. Röttgers, C. Dupouy, B. B. Taylor, A. Bracher, and S. B. Woźniak, “Mass-specific light absorption coefficients of natural aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(5), 1449–1460 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bricaud, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, “A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1526–1532 (1995).
[Crossref]

Buonassissi, C.

R. L. Miller, C. Buonassissi, C. E. Del Castillo, and M. Belz, “A portable fiber optic system for measuring particle absorption using the quantified filter technique (QFT),” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9, 554–564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Calvin, M.

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, and M. Calvin, “The absorption spectra of suspensions of living micro-organisms,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15(4), 461–470 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, P.

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, “A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1526–1532 (1995).
[Crossref]

Claustre, H.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Del Castillo, C. E.

R. L. Miller, C. Buonassissi, C. E. Del Castillo, and M. Belz, “A portable fiber optic system for measuring particle absorption using the quantified filter technique (QFT),” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9, 554–564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Doerffer, R.

R. Röttgers and R. Doerffer, “Measurements of optical absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 126–135 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Röttgers, C. Häse, and R. Doerffer, “Determination of the particulate absorption of microalgae using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter: verification with a photometric technique, improvements for pigment bleaching and correction for chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dupouy, C.

R. Röttgers, C. Dupouy, B. B. Taylor, A. Bracher, and S. B. Woźniak, “Mass-specific light absorption coefficients of natural aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(5), 1449–1460 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, G. M.

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 42(24), 4802–4810 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Ferrari and S. Tassan, “A method using chemical oxidation to remove light absorption by phytoplankton pigments,” J. Phycol. 35(5), 1090–1098 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1358–1368 (1995).
[Crossref]

Freeman, S.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Gehnke, S.

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hargreaves, B. R.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Häse, C.

R. Röttgers, C. Häse, and R. Doerffer, “Determination of the particulate absorption of microalgae using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter: verification with a photometric technique, improvements for pigment bleaching and correction for chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the Sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37(2), 634–642 (1985).

Kaczmarek, S.

Kiefer, D. A.

B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll α specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35(5), 639–663 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. A. Kiefer and J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27(3), 492–499 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the Sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37(2), 634–642 (1985).

Lance, V. P.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Laurion, I.

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, “The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAs in the UV waveband,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 1, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Lubac, B.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Miller, R.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Miller, R. L.

R. L. Miller, C. Buonassissi, C. E. Del Castillo, and M. Belz, “A portable fiber optic system for measuring particle absorption using the quantified filter technique (QFT),” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9, 554–564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, B. G.

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 137–148 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll α specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35(5), 639–663 (1988).
[Crossref]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, “A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1526–1532 (1995).
[Crossref]

Okami, N.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the Sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37(2), 634–642 (1985).

Ras, J.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, R. A.

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(7), 1649–1660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Röttgers, R.

R. Röttgers, C. Dupouy, B. B. Taylor, A. Bracher, and S. B. Woźniak, “Mass-specific light absorption coefficients of natural aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(5), 1449–1460 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Röttgers and S. Gehnke, “Measurement of light absorption by aquatic particles: improvement of the quantitative filter technique by use of an integrating sphere approach,” Appl. Opt. 51(9), 1336–1351 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Röttgers and R. Doerffer, “Measurements of optical absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 126–135 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Röttgers, C. Häse, and R. Doerffer, “Determination of the particulate absorption of microalgae using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter: verification with a photometric technique, improvements for pigment bleaching and correction for chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roy, S.

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, “The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAs in the UV waveband,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 1, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shang, S.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Shibata, K.

K. Shibata, “Spectrophotometry of intact biological materials,” J. Biochem. 45(8), 599–624 (1958).

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, and M. Calvin, “The absorption spectra of suspensions of living micro-organisms,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15(4), 461–470 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soohoo, J. B.

D. A. Kiefer and J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27(3), 492–499 (1982).
[Crossref]

Sosik, H. M.

H. M. Sosik, “Storage of marine particulate samples for light-absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44(4), 1139–1141 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, S. Kaczmarek, J. Uitz, and G. Zheng, “Correction of pathlength amplification in the filter-pad technique for measurements of particulate absorption coefficient in the visible spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 54(22), 6763–6782 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Babin and D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(3), 911–915 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, “Artifacts in measuring absorption spectra of phytoplankton collected on a filter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8), 1804–1809 (1990).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the Sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37(2), 634–642 (1985).

Tassan, S.

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 42(24), 4802–4810 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Ferrari and S. Tassan, “A method using chemical oxidation to remove light absorption by phytoplankton pigments,” J. Phycol. 35(5), 1090–1098 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1358–1368 (1995).
[Crossref]

Taylor, B. B.

R. Röttgers, C. Dupouy, B. B. Taylor, A. Bracher, and S. B. Woźniak, “Mass-specific light absorption coefficients of natural aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(5), 1449–1460 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tièche, F.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Trüper, H. G.

H. G. Trüper and C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94(4), 1255–1256 (1967).
[PubMed]

Twardowski, M.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Uitz, J.

Vaillancourt, R.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Wei, G.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

Wozniak, S. B.

R. Röttgers, C. Dupouy, B. B. Taylor, A. Bracher, and S. B. Woźniak, “Mass-specific light absorption coefficients of natural aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(5), 1449–1460 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yentsch, C. S.

H. G. Trüper and C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94(4), 1255–1256 (1967).
[PubMed]

C. S. Yentsch, “A non-extractive method for the quantitative estimation of chlorophyll in algal cultures,” Nature 179(4573), 1302–1304 (1957).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, and M. Calvin, “The absorption spectra of suspensions of living micro-organisms,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15(4), 461–470 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bull. Mar. Sci. (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the Sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37(2), 634–642 (1985).

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll α specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35(5), 639–663 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Bacteriol. (1)

H. G. Trüper and C. S. Yentsch, “Use of glass fiber filters for the rapid preparation of in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic bacteria,” J. Bacteriol. 94(4), 1255–1256 (1967).
[PubMed]

J. Biochem. (1)

K. Shibata, “Spectrophotometry of intact biological materials,” J. Biochem. 45(8), 599–624 (1958).

J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. (1)

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. E. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–15 (2011).

J. Phycol. (1)

G. M. Ferrari and S. Tassan, “A method using chemical oxidation to remove light absorption by phytoplankton pigments,” J. Phycol. 35(5), 1090–1098 (1999).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (9)

C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(7), 1649–1660 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. A. Kiefer and J. B. Soohoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27(3), 492–499 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tièche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1358–1368 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, “A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8), 1526–1532 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Babin and D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(3), 911–915 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Röttgers, C. Dupouy, B. B. Taylor, A. Bracher, and S. B. Woźniak, “Mass-specific light absorption coefficients of natural aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(5), 1449–1460 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, “Artifacts in measuring absorption spectra of phytoplankton collected on a filter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8), 1804–1809 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. M. Sosik, “Storage of marine particulate samples for light-absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44(4), 1139–1141 (1999).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods (4)

R. Röttgers, C. Häse, and R. Doerffer, “Determination of the particulate absorption of microalgae using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter: verification with a photometric technique, improvements for pigment bleaching and correction for chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. L. Miller, C. Buonassissi, C. E. Del Castillo, and M. Belz, “A portable fiber optic system for measuring particle absorption using the quantified filter technique (QFT),” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9, 554–564 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Röttgers and R. Doerffer, “Measurements of optical absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 126–135 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, “The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAs in the UV waveband,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 1, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C. S. Yentsch, “A non-extractive method for the quantitative estimation of chlorophyll in algal cultures,” Nature 179(4573), 1302–1304 (1957).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 137–148 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, “Determination of absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for phytoplankton,” in Marine Phytoplankton and Productivity, O. Holm-Hansen, L. Bolis, and R. Gilles, eds. (Springer, 1984), pp. 157–169.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The Quantitative Filter Technique Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (QFT-ICAM). A. Schematic view of the integrating cavity (inner diameter 80 mm) showing the positions of the optical fibers and of the GF-filter. Shown here is only the positioning of the GF-filter in the light beam. Moving the GF-filter along the Nylon strings to the right, leads to a position outside the beam. B. An exploded view showing the principal components of the ICAM.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A. Typical light intensity spectra measured inside the QFT-ICAM when an empty GF-filter (black lines) and when a sample GF-filter (green lines) is placed in the light beam, and when a short-pass filter for chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (SPF; see text) is placed in front of the light source (dotted lines). Additionally shown are the dark current measurements (dashed line) and the calculated intensity from chlorophyll fluorescence emission (blue line, right axis). The legend shows the relevant notations for each spectrum (see text). B. Optical density (OD) spectra calculated from the light intensity measurements when a filter is placed in (black, solid line) and outside the light beam (black, dashed line), and the final OD of the filter sample, ODf (green, solid line). C. Calculated OD around the chlorophyll peak at 670 nm with and without a correction for chlorophyll fluorescence.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Standard deviation (s.d.) for repetitive optical density measurements of several filters in the QFT-ICAM and with the QFT2 filter holder. Shown is s.d. as a function of light wavelength.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical density as a function of light wavelength for two sample filters. Shown are results for each filter when measured using the QFT-ICAM and when using the Lambda 950 spectrophotometer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Histograms of the path length amplification factors, β, for different data sets. A. Direct QFT-ICAM measurements during April '15 in waters around the British Isles (n = 93). B. Direct QFT-ICAM measurements during April '14 in waters of the New Caledonian lagoon (n = 46). C. Separate spectrophotometer measurements of the April '15 samples, done 14 days after the end of the cruise (n = 37).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of particulate absorption spectra determined from QFT measurements inside an integrating sphere. Shown are results of QFT-ICAM measurements done directly after sample filtration onboard a research vessel and spectrophotometric measurements later in the home lab done with filters of the same sample that had been frozen and stored. For comparison, results of PSICAM measurements on the original sample (particles in suspensions) are shown. Note, the absolute absorption coefficients of each sample are adjusted to be the same by using the PSICAM results to determine a mean path length amplification correction factor for each filter for wavelengths of 400-500 nm and 600-700 nm, the 500-600 nm is ignored due to artifacts induced by fluorescence of phycobiliproteins in some samples.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Same as Fig. 6, but for six samples with visible differences between direct and later QFT measurements.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Same as in Fig. 7 but for a sample with very low particulate absorption coefficient, to highlight the spectral differences at 500 - 640 nm.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 0in = I 0in ' I dark .
I fl* = I fl T I 0 fl .
r= I I 0 I fl I 0 fl .
I * =Ir I fl* ,
O D x = log 10 ( I x * / I 0x ),
O D f =O D in O D out .
a p =2.303O D f A/ (Vβ) ,

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