Abstract

We report on the first application (to our knowledge) of an extended–wavelength (2.33 μm) multi-mode diode laser for simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of CH4 and CO in the ambient air. The signals identification and quantitative analysis are performed using correlation spectroscopy. A Herriott cell and the wavelength modulation spectroscopy technique with second harmonic detection are also utilized to improve the detection sensitivity of the system. The detection limits of the system are estimated to be about 81 ppbv and 31 ppbv for CH4 and CO, respectively. The accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and stability are also analyzed to confirm the potential of the system.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 153–164 (2015).
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2013 (2)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Gao, Y. G. Zhang, J. Yu, S. H. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, F. Zheng, X. T. Lou, and W. Guo, “Tunable multi-mode diode laser absorption spectroscopy for methane detection,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 199(9), 106–110 (2013).

2012 (4)

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, “A QEPAS based methane sensor with a 2.35 μm antimonide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 483–489 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. T. Lou, C. T. Xu, S. Svanberg, and G. Somesfalean, “Multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy using gas-filled porous materials for pathlength enhancement,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 453–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Lou, G. Somesfalean, S. Svanberg, Z. Zhang, and S. Wu, “Detection of elemental mercury by multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(5), 4927–4938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. D. Cai, G. Z. Gao, W. E. Chen, G. Liu, and X. M. Gao, “Simultaneous measurements of CO2 and CO using a single distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser near 1.57 μm at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Spectrosc. 65(1), 108–112 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, G. Somesfalean, L. Mei, H. Zhou, C. Yan, and S. He, “Detection of gas concentration by correlation spectroscopy using a multi-wavelength fiber laser,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 114, 469–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 313–329 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Hamilton, G. A. D. Ritchie, Y. Arita, and P. Ewart, “Multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, using wavelength modulation and cavity enhancement techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 665–673 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. T. Lou, G. Somesfalean, B. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, H. S. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, S. H. Wu, and Y. K. Qin, “Simultaneous detection of multiple-gas species by correlation spectroscopy using a multimode diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1749–1751 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

E. Hawe, P. Chambers, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, “CO2 monitoring and detection using an integrating sphere as a multipass absorption cell,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3187–3194 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

F. E. Barton, J. D. Bargeron, G. R. Gamble, D. L. McAlister, and E. Hequet, “Analysis of sticky cotton by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 59(11), 1388–1392 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski, “High repetition-rate wavelength tuning of an extended cavity diode laser for gas phase sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 757–760 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 184102 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. Engelbrecht, “A compact NIR fiber-optic diode laser spectrometer for CO and CO2,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3291–3298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. C. Sauer, T. J. Pisano, and R. D. Fitz, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer measurements of ambient nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, formaldehyde, and hydrogen peroxide in Parlier, California,” Atmos. Environ. 37(12), 1583–1591 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity en- hanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(11), 3763–3769 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(4), 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Oh, M. E. Paige, and D. S. Bomse, “Frequency modulation multiplexing for simultaneous detection of multiple gases by use of wavelength modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 37(12), 2499–2501 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, and B. H. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 29(1–3), 87–93 (1995).

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59(12), 2544–2551 (1988).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

1942 (1)

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(4), 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alnis, J.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arita, Y.

M. L. Hamilton, G. A. D. Ritchie, Y. Arita, and P. Ewart, “Multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, using wavelength modulation and cavity enhancement techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 665–673 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Arita and P. Ewart, “Infra-red multi-mode absorption spectroscopy of acetylene using an Er/Yb:glass micro-laser,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4437–4442 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Axner, O.

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baer, D. S.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bargeron, J. D.

Barton, F. E.

Belahsene, S.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berden, G.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity en- hanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(11), 3763–3769 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bomse, D. S.

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

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Campargue, A.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Chen, W. E.

Chenevier, M.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Y. Arita and P. Ewart, “Infra-red multi-mode absorption spectroscopy of acetylene using an Er/Yb:glass micro-laser,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4437–4442 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Fitzpatrick, C.

E. Hawe, P. Chambers, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, “CO2 monitoring and detection using an integrating sphere as a multipass absorption cell,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3187–3194 (2007).
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Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gamble, G. R.

Gao, G. Z.

Gao, H.

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Gao, X. M.

Gianfrani, L.

Golston, L. M.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 153–164 (2015).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Q. Gao, Y. G. Zhang, J. Yu, S. H. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, F. Zheng, X. T. Lou, and W. Guo, “Tunable multi-mode diode laser absorption spectroscopy for methane detection,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 199(9), 106–110 (2013).

Hamilton, M. L.

M. L. Hamilton, G. A. D. Ritchie, Y. Arita, and P. Ewart, “Multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, using wavelength modulation and cavity enhancement techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 665–673 (2010).
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Hanson, R. K.

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hawe, E.

E. Hawe, P. Chambers, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, “CO2 monitoring and detection using an integrating sphere as a multipass absorption cell,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3187–3194 (2007).
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Herndon, S.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
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Herriott, D.

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hult, J.

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski, “High repetition-rate wavelength tuning of an extended cavity diode laser for gas phase sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 757–760 (2005).
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Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jahjah, M.

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, “A QEPAS based methane sensor with a 2.35 μm antimonide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 483–489 (2012).
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Romanini, D.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rouillard, Y.

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, “A QEPAS based methane sensor with a 2.35 μm antimonide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 483–489 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, L. Gianfrani, A. Salhi, Y. Rouillard, A. Ouvrard, and D. Romanini, “Looking into the volcano with a Mid-IR DFB diode laser and cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11442–11452 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salhi, A.

Sauer, G. C.

G. C. Sauer, T. J. Pisano, and R. D. Fitz, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer measurements of ambient nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, formaldehyde, and hydrogen peroxide in Parlier, California,” Atmos. Environ. 37(12), 1583–1591 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sjoholm, M.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 184102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sjöholm, M.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Somesfalean, G.

X. T. Lou, C. T. Xu, S. Svanberg, and G. Somesfalean, “Multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy using gas-filled porous materials for pathlength enhancement,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 453–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Lou, G. Somesfalean, S. Svanberg, Z. Zhang, and S. Wu, “Detection of elemental mercury by multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(5), 4927–4938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, G. Somesfalean, L. Mei, H. Zhou, C. Yan, and S. He, “Detection of gas concentration by correlation spectroscopy using a multi-wavelength fiber laser,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 114, 469–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. T. Lou, G. Somesfalean, B. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, H. S. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, S. H. Wu, and Y. K. Qin, “Simultaneous detection of multiple-gas species by correlation spectroscopy using a multimode diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1749–1751 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 184102 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, “Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 26(1), 16–18 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Supplee, J. M.

Svanberg, S.

X. T. Lou, C. T. Xu, S. Svanberg, and G. Somesfalean, “Multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy using gas-filled porous materials for pathlength enhancement,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 453–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Lou, G. Somesfalean, S. Svanberg, Z. Zhang, and S. Wu, “Detection of elemental mercury by multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(5), 4927–4938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 184102 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, “Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 26(1), 16–18 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svensson, T.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 184102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tao, L.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vicet, A.

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, “A QEPAS based methane sensor with a 2.35 μm antimonide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 483–489 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, G. Somesfalean, L. Mei, H. Zhou, C. Yan, and S. He, “Detection of gas concentration by correlation spectroscopy using a multi-wavelength fiber laser,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 114, 469–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. S.

Weigl, B. H.

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, and B. H. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 29(1–3), 87–93 (1995).

Werle, P.

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 313–329 (2011).
[Crossref]

White, J. U.

Whittaker, E. A.

Wood, E.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Worschech, L.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

Wu, S. H.

Q. Gao, Y. G. Zhang, J. Yu, S. H. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, F. Zheng, X. T. Lou, and W. Guo, “Tunable multi-mode diode laser absorption spectroscopy for methane detection,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 199(9), 106–110 (2013).

X. T. Lou, G. Somesfalean, B. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, H. S. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, S. H. Wu, and Y. K. Qin, “Simultaneous detection of multiple-gas species by correlation spectroscopy using a multimode diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1749–1751 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wysocki, G.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C. T.

X. T. Lou, C. T. Xu, S. Svanberg, and G. Somesfalean, “Multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy using gas-filled porous materials for pathlength enhancement,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 453–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, C.

B. Wang, G. Somesfalean, L. Mei, H. Zhou, C. Yan, and S. He, “Detection of gas concentration by correlation spectroscopy using a multi-wavelength fiber laser,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 114, 469–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Q. Gao, Y. G. Zhang, J. Yu, S. H. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, F. Zheng, X. T. Lou, and W. Guo, “Tunable multi-mode diode laser absorption spectroscopy for methane detection,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 199(9), 106–110 (2013).

Zahniser, M. S.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. G.

Q. Gao, Y. G. Zhang, J. Yu, S. H. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, F. Zheng, X. T. Lou, and W. Guo, “Tunable multi-mode diode laser absorption spectroscopy for methane detection,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 199(9), 106–110 (2013).

X. T. Lou, G. Somesfalean, B. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, H. S. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, S. H. Wu, and Y. K. Qin, “Simultaneous detection of multiple-gas species by correlation spectroscopy using a multimode diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1749–1751 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Zhang, Z. G.

Q. Gao, Y. G. Zhang, J. Yu, S. H. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, F. Zheng, X. T. Lou, and W. Guo, “Tunable multi-mode diode laser absorption spectroscopy for methane detection,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 199(9), 106–110 (2013).

X. T. Lou, G. Somesfalean, B. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, H. S. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, S. H. Wu, and Y. K. Qin, “Simultaneous detection of multiple-gas species by correlation spectroscopy using a multimode diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1749–1751 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, F.

Q. Gao, Y. G. Zhang, J. Yu, S. H. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, F. Zheng, X. T. Lou, and W. Guo, “Tunable multi-mode diode laser absorption spectroscopy for methane detection,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 199(9), 106–110 (2013).

Zhou, H.

B. Wang, G. Somesfalean, L. Mei, H. Zhou, C. Yan, and S. He, “Detection of gas concentration by correlation spectroscopy using a multi-wavelength fiber laser,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 114, 469–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zondlo, M. A.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (7)

X. T. Lou, C. T. Xu, S. Svanberg, and G. Somesfalean, “Multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy using gas-filled porous materials for pathlength enhancement,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 453–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, “A QEPAS based methane sensor with a 2.35 μm antimonide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 483–489 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 313–329 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski, “High repetition-rate wavelength tuning of an extended cavity diode laser for gas phase sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 757–760 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. L. Hamilton, G. A. D. Ritchie, Y. Arita, and P. Ewart, “Multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, using wavelength modulation and cavity enhancement techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 665–673 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 184102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

G. C. Sauer, T. J. Pisano, and R. D. Fitz, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer measurements of ambient nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, formaldehyde, and hydrogen peroxide in Parlier, California,” Atmos. Environ. 37(12), 1583–1591 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

E. Hawe, P. Chambers, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, “CO2 monitoring and detection using an integrating sphere as a multipass absorption cell,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3187–3194 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(4), 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (1)

B. Wang, G. Somesfalean, L. Mei, H. Zhou, C. Yan, and S. He, “Detection of gas concentration by correlation spectroscopy using a multi-wavelength fiber laser,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 114, 469–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59(12), 2544–2551 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity en- hanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(11), 3763–3769 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. (1)

Q. Gao, Y. G. Zhang, J. Yu, S. H. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, F. Zheng, X. T. Lou, and W. Guo, “Tunable multi-mode diode laser absorption spectroscopy for methane detection,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 199(9), 106–110 (2013).

Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. (1)

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, and B. H. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 29(1–3), 87–93 (1995).

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

R. Engelbrecht, “A compact NIR fiber-optic diode laser spectrometer for CO and CO2,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3291–3298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

P. Hering, J. P. Lay, and S. Stry, Laser in Environmental and Life Sciences: Modern Analytical Methods (Springer, 2004), Chap. 11.

P. Forster and V. Ramaswamy, Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing, Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis (Cambridge University, 2007).

US environmental protection agency, “Carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standards: scope and methods plan for health risk and exposure assessment,” (April 2009), http:// www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/co/s_co_index.html .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The absorption transitions of (a) CH4, (b) CO, (c) H2O and CO2 in the range of 1-5 µm. Insert graph: (d) the CH4 and CO transitions in 4284-4289 cm−1.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The simulated line-broadening width of two represent lines ((a) a CH4 line at 4284.51 cm−1, (b) a CO line at 4288.29 cm−1) as a function of total gas pressure over the range of 0-1atm for the reference and measured signals.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental setup used for the simultaneous measurement of CH4 and CO.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The emission spectrum of the multimode diode laser measured for an injection current of 90 mA at 23 °C. (b) The absorption lines of CH4 and CO in this range are also shown.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 An example of the measured WMS-2f signals from the measurement cell and reference cells in a random ramp scan.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Correlated data points (normalized intensities) of the measured and reference signal pairs and linear fitting of the data points for (a) CH4 and (b) CO.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparisons of the measured concentrations of (a) CH4 and (b) CO versus the known values in the range of 10-10000 ppm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Allan variance from time series measurements of (a) CH4 and (b) CO sealed in the measurement cell.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 30 successive measurements with 1 minute interval for a gas sample during 35 minutes.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The selected strongest WMS-2f signals of (a) CH4 and (b) CO measured in the measurement and reference cells filled with laboratory ambient air.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 A set of concentration data recorded over a period of three hours.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of the Performance of Our System with Other Systems

Equations (6)

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ν ( t ) = ν ¯ + a cos ( ω t ) ,
τ n ( ν ) = ( I t n I 0 n ) = exp [ α n ( ν ) ] 1 α n ( ν ) = 1 P x L S n ( T ) ϕ n ,
τ n [ ν ¯ + a cos ( ω t ) ] = k = 0 H k ( ν ¯ , a ) cos ( k ω t ) ,
H 2 ( ν ¯ , a ) = 1 π π + π τ n ( ν ¯ + a cos θ ) cos 2 θ d θ = P x L S n ( T ) π π + π ϕ n ( ν ¯ + a cos θ ) cos 2 θ d θ .
S n ( ν ¯ ) 2 f G I ¯ 0 n 2 H 2 ( ν ¯ ) = G I ¯ 0 n 2 P x L S n ( T ) π π + π ϕ n ( ν ¯ + a cos θ ) cos 2 θ d θ ,
x M = S n 2 f M / ( I ¯ 0 M L M ) S n 2 f R / ( I ¯ 0 R L R ) x R ,

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