Abstract

In this paper, a new daytime sea fog detection algorithm has been developed by using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data. Based on spectral analysis, differences in spectral characteristics were found over different underlying surfaces, which include land, sea, middle/high level clouds, stratus clouds and sea fog. Statistical analysis showed that the Rrc (412 nm) (Rayleigh Corrected Reflectance) of sea fog pixels is approximately 0.1-0.6. Similarly, various band combinations could be used to separate different surfaces. Therefore, three indices (SLDI, MCDI and BSI) were set to discern land/sea, middle/high level clouds and fog/stratus clouds, respectively, from which it was generally easy to extract fog pixels. The remote sensing algorithm was verified using coastal sounding data, which demonstrated that the algorithm had the ability to detect sea fog. The algorithm was then used to monitor an 8-hour sea fog event and the results were consistent with observational data from buoys data deployed near the Sheyang coast (121°E, 34°N). The goal of this study was to establish a daytime sea fog detection algorithm based on GOCI data, which shows promise for detecting fog separately from stratus.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  37. Y. T. Liang, X. Chen, and H. Z. Xia, “Monitoring fog using FY-1D meteorological satellite,” Geo-spatial, Inf. Sci. 11, 107–111 (2008).
  38. R. P. Ji, F. Dai, and X. X. Ban, “Application of NOAA/AVHRR Data in Monitoring Fog Disaster,” J. Seismol. 24, 149–152 (2004).
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  40. X. J. Wu, S. M. Li, and M. Liao, “Analyses of seasonal feature of sea fog over the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea based on the recent 20 years of satellite remote sensing data,” Acta Oceanol. Sin. 37, 63–72 (2015).
  41. J. H. Ryu, H. J. Han, S. Cho, Y. J. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Overview of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) and GOCI data processing system (GDPS),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 223–233 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  42. H. Kim, G. Kang, B. Ellis, M. Nam, H. Youn, F. Faure, P. Coste, and P. Servin, “Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), Overview and Prospect,” in Proc. of 60th International Astronautical Congress, 12–16 (2009).

2015 (2)

D. Wu, B. Lu, T. Zhang, and F. Yan, “A method of detecting sea fogs using CALIOP data and its application to improve MODIS-based sea fog detection,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 153, 88–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. J. Wu, S. M. Li, and M. Liao, “Analyses of seasonal feature of sea fog over the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea based on the recent 20 years of satellite remote sensing data,” Acta Oceanol. Sin. 37, 63–72 (2015).

2014 (6)

Y. Wang, S. Gao, G. Fu, J. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Assimilating MTSAT-derived humidity in now casting Sea Fog over the Yellow Sea,” Weather Forecast. 29(2), 205–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Heo, S. Park, K. J. Ha, and J. S. Shim, “Algorithm for sea fog monitoring with the use of information technologies,” Meteorol. Appl. 21(2), 350–359 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Deng, J. C. Wang, and J. Cao, “Detection of daytime fog in South China Sea using MODIS data,” J. Trop. Meteorol. 20, 386–390 (2014).

D. Koračin, C. E. Dorman, J. M. Lewis, J. G. Hudson, E. M. Wilcox, and A. Torregrosa, “Marine fog: A review,” Atmos. Res. 143, 142–175 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Qu, Y. Y. Xie, L. L. Liu, Y. Liu, and N. G. He, “Character analysis of Sea fog in Bohai Bay from 1988 to 2010,” Plateau Meteorol. 33, 285–293 (2014).

2013 (1)

S. P. Zhang and L. Yi, “A comprehensive dynamic threshold algorithm for daytime sea fog retrieval over the Chinese adjacent seas,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 170(11), 1931–1944 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world’s first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 117(C9), 1978–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of atmospheric correction algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ryu and J. Ishizaka, “GOCI data processing and ocean applications,” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 221 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ryu, H. J. Han, S. Cho, Y. J. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Overview of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) and GOCI data processing system (GDPS),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 223–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Jun, H. Zhi-Gang, C. Hong-Bin, Z. Zeng-Liang, and W. Hong-Yi, “Fog detection over China’s adjacent sea area by using the MTSAT geostationary satellite data,” Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett. 5(2), 128–133 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. L. Jiang and M. Wei, “Application of Fog Monitoring with FY-3A Data,” Remote Sens. Technol. Appl. 26, 489–495 (2011).

2009 (1)

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. Cermak and J. Bendix, “A novel approach to fog/low stratus detection using Meteosat 8 data,” Atmos. Res. 87(3-4), 279–292 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. P. Zhang and X. W. Bao, “The main advances in sea fog research in China,” Period. Ocean University Chin. 38, 359–366 (2008).

Y. T. Liang, X. Chen, and H. Z. Xia, “Monitoring fog using FY-1D meteorological satellite,” Geo-spatial, Inf. Sci. 11, 107–111 (2008).

2007 (2)

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, M. Pagowski, and J. Reid, “A satellite-based fog detection scheme using screen air temperature,” Weather Forecast. 22(3), 444–456 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Fu, J. Guo, S. P. Xie, Y. Duan, and M. Zhang, “Analysis and high-resolution modeling of a dense sea fog event over the Yellow Sea,” Atmos. Res. 81(4), 293–303 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Sediment Res. 26, 5651–5663 (2005).

J. Bendix, B. Thies, J. Cermak, and T. Nauß, “Ground fog detection from space based on MODIS daytime data-a feasibility study,” Weather Forecast. 20(6), 989–1005 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Lewis, D. Koračin, and K. Redmond, “Sea fog research in the United Kingdom and United States: A historical essay including outlook,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85(3), 395–408 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. P. Ji, F. Dai, and X. X. Ban, “Application of NOAA/AVHRR Data in Monitoring Fog Disaster,” J. Seismol. 24, 149–152 (2004).

2002 (2)

J. Bendix, “A satellite-based climatology of fog and low-level stratus in Germany and adjacent areas,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 3–18 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Sediment Res. 23, 2693–2702 (2002).

2001 (2)

Z. H. Li, “Studies of fog in China over the past 40 years,” Acta Meteorol. Sin. 59, 616–624 (2001).

Y. L. Wang, J. Wang, and D. L. Gong, “The macro-micro structure analysis of Jianghuai cyclone and cold front,” Quart. J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 30–38 (2001).

1997 (1)

T. F. Lee, F. J. Turk, and K. Richardson, “Stratus and fog products using GOES-8-9 3.9-μ m data,” Weather Forecast. 12(3), 664–677 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

G. P. Ellrod, “Advances in the detection and analysis of fog at night using GOES multispectral infrared imagery,” Weather Forecast. 10(3), 606–619 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

1984 (1)

J. Eyre, J. Brownscombe, and R. Allam, “Detection of fog at night using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery,” Meteorol. Mag. 113, 266–271 (1984).

1973 (1)

G. E. Hunt, “Radiative properties of terrestrial clouds at visible and infra-red thermal window wavelengths,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 99, 346–369 (1973).

Ahn, J. H.

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world’s first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 117(C9), 1978–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of atmospheric correction algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

J. H. Ryu, H. J. Han, S. Cho, Y. J. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Overview of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) and GOCI data processing system (GDPS),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 223–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allam, R.

J. Eyre, J. Brownscombe, and R. Allam, “Detection of fog at night using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery,” Meteorol. Mag. 113, 266–271 (1984).

Ban, X. X.

R. P. Ji, F. Dai, and X. X. Ban, “Application of NOAA/AVHRR Data in Monitoring Fog Disaster,” J. Seismol. 24, 149–152 (2004).

Bao, X. W.

S. P. Zhang and X. W. Bao, “The main advances in sea fog research in China,” Period. Ocean University Chin. 38, 359–366 (2008).

Bendix, J.

J. Cermak and J. Bendix, “A novel approach to fog/low stratus detection using Meteosat 8 data,” Atmos. Res. 87(3-4), 279–292 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Bendix, B. Thies, J. Cermak, and T. Nauß, “Ground fog detection from space based on MODIS daytime data-a feasibility study,” Weather Forecast. 20(6), 989–1005 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Bendix, “A satellite-based climatology of fog and low-level stratus in Germany and adjacent areas,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 3–18 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, B.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bott, A.

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brownscombe, J.

J. Eyre, J. Brownscombe, and R. Allam, “Detection of fog at night using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery,” Meteorol. Mag. 113, 266–271 (1984).

Calvert, C.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, J.

Y. J. Deng, J. C. Wang, and J. Cao, “Detection of daytime fog in South China Sea using MODIS data,” J. Trop. Meteorol. 20, 386–390 (2014).

Cao, X.

X. Cao, L. Shao, and X. Li, “Preliminary research on retrieval of daytime sea fog with MTSAT satellite data,” in Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering (RSETE, 2011), 4272 - 4276.

Cermak, J.

J. Cermak and J. Bendix, “A novel approach to fog/low stratus detection using Meteosat 8 data,” Atmos. Res. 87(3-4), 279–292 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Bendix, B. Thies, J. Cermak, and T. Nauß, “Ground fog detection from space based on MODIS daytime data-a feasibility study,” Weather Forecast. 20(6), 989–1005 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. T. Liang, X. Chen, and H. Z. Xia, “Monitoring fog using FY-1D meteorological satellite,” Geo-spatial, Inf. Sci. 11, 107–111 (2008).

Cho, S.

J. H. Ryu, H. J. Han, S. Cho, Y. J. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Overview of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) and GOCI data processing system (GDPS),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 223–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. K.

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world’s first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 117(C9), 1978–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cober, S.

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cober, S. G.

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coste, P.

H. Kim, G. Kang, B. Ellis, M. Nam, H. Youn, F. Faure, P. Coste, and P. Servin, “Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), Overview and Prospect,” in Proc. of 60th International Astronautical Congress, 12–16 (2009).

Dai, F.

R. P. Ji, F. Dai, and X. X. Ban, “Application of NOAA/AVHRR Data in Monitoring Fog Disaster,” J. Seismol. 24, 149–152 (2004).

Deng, Y. J.

Y. J. Deng, J. C. Wang, and J. Cao, “Detection of daytime fog in South China Sea using MODIS data,” J. Trop. Meteorol. 20, 386–390 (2014).

Diao, X. X.

X. X. Diao, “Statistical analysis of sea fog in Qingdao and its adjacent seas,” Mar. Forecast 9, 45–55 (1992).

Dorman, C. E.

D. Koračin, C. E. Dorman, J. M. Lewis, J. G. Hudson, E. M. Wilcox, and A. Torregrosa, “Marine fog: A review,” Atmos. Res. 143, 142–175 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duan, Y.

G. Fu, J. Guo, S. P. Xie, Y. Duan, and M. Zhang, “Analysis and high-resolution modeling of a dense sea fog event over the Yellow Sea,” Atmos. Res. 81(4), 293–303 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

H. Kim, G. Kang, B. Ellis, M. Nam, H. Youn, F. Faure, P. Coste, and P. Servin, “Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), Overview and Prospect,” in Proc. of 60th International Astronautical Congress, 12–16 (2009).

Ellrod, G.

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ellrod, G. P.

G. P. Ellrod, “Advances in the detection and analysis of fog at night using GOES multispectral infrared imagery,” Weather Forecast. 10(3), 606–619 (1995).
[Crossref]

Eom, J.

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world’s first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 117(C9), 1978–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Faure, F.

H. Kim, G. Kang, B. Ellis, M. Nam, H. Youn, F. Faure, P. Coste, and P. Servin, “Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), Overview and Prospect,” in Proc. of 60th International Astronautical Congress, 12–16 (2009).

Ferrier, B.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
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Fu, G.

Y. Wang, S. Gao, G. Fu, J. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Assimilating MTSAT-derived humidity in now casting Sea Fog over the Yellow Sea,” Weather Forecast. 29(2), 205–225 (2014).
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G. Fu, J. Guo, S. P. Xie, Y. Duan, and M. Zhang, “Analysis and high-resolution modeling of a dense sea fog event over the Yellow Sea,” Atmos. Res. 81(4), 293–303 (2006).
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Gao, S.

Y. Wang, S. Gao, G. Fu, J. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Assimilating MTSAT-derived humidity in now casting Sea Fog over the Yellow Sea,” Weather Forecast. 29(2), 205–225 (2014).
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Y. L. Wang, J. Wang, and D. L. Gong, “The macro-micro structure analysis of Jianghuai cyclone and cold front,” Quart. J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 30–38 (2001).

Gordon, H. R.

Gordon, M.

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
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Gultepe, I.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, M. Pagowski, and J. Reid, “A satellite-based fog detection scheme using screen air temperature,” Weather Forecast. 22(3), 444–456 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

G. Fu, J. Guo, S. P. Xie, Y. Duan, and M. Zhang, “Analysis and high-resolution modeling of a dense sea fog event over the Yellow Sea,” Atmos. Res. 81(4), 293–303 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gurka, J.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ha, K. J.

K. Y. Heo, S. Park, K. J. Ha, and J. S. Shim, “Algorithm for sea fog monitoring with the use of information technologies,” Meteorol. Appl. 21(2), 350–359 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, H. J.

J. H. Ryu, H. J. Han, S. Cho, Y. J. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Overview of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) and GOCI data processing system (GDPS),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 223–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hansen, B.

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, N. G.

P. Qu, Y. Y. Xie, L. L. Liu, Y. Liu, and N. G. He, “Character analysis of Sea fog in Bohai Bay from 1988 to 2010,” Plateau Meteorol. 33, 285–293 (2014).

Heo, K. Y.

K. Y. Heo, S. Park, K. J. Ha, and J. S. Shim, “Algorithm for sea fog monitoring with the use of information technologies,” Meteorol. Appl. 21(2), 350–359 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heymsfield, A. J.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
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Hong-Bin, C.

L. Jun, H. Zhi-Gang, C. Hong-Bin, Z. Zeng-Liang, and W. Hong-Yi, “Fog detection over China’s adjacent sea area by using the MTSAT geostationary satellite data,” Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett. 5(2), 128–133 (2012).
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Hong-Yi, W.

L. Jun, H. Zhi-Gang, C. Hong-Bin, Z. Zeng-Liang, and W. Hong-Yi, “Fog detection over China’s adjacent sea area by using the MTSAT geostationary satellite data,” Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett. 5(2), 128–133 (2012).
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Hudson, J. G.

D. Koračin, C. E. Dorman, J. M. Lewis, J. G. Hudson, E. M. Wilcox, and A. Torregrosa, “Marine fog: A review,” Atmos. Res. 143, 142–175 (2014).
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Hunt, G. E.

G. E. Hunt, “Radiative properties of terrestrial clouds at visible and infra-red thermal window wavelengths,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 99, 346–369 (1973).

Ishizaka, J.

J. H. Ryu and J. Ishizaka, “GOCI data processing and ocean applications,” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 221 (2012).
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Jacobs, W.

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
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Ji, R. P.

R. P. Ji, F. Dai, and X. X. Ban, “Application of NOAA/AVHRR Data in Monitoring Fog Disaster,” J. Seismol. 24, 149–152 (2004).

Jiang, L. L.

L. L. Jiang and M. Wei, “Application of Fog Monitoring with FY-3A Data,” Remote Sens. Technol. Appl. 26, 489–495 (2011).

Jun, L.

L. Jun, H. Zhi-Gang, C. Hong-Bin, Z. Zeng-Liang, and W. Hong-Yi, “Fog detection over China’s adjacent sea area by using the MTSAT geostationary satellite data,” Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett. 5(2), 128–133 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, G.

H. Kim, G. Kang, B. Ellis, M. Nam, H. Youn, F. Faure, P. Coste, and P. Servin, “Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), Overview and Prospect,” in Proc. of 60th International Astronautical Congress, 12–16 (2009).

Kim, H.

H. Kim, G. Kang, B. Ellis, M. Nam, H. Youn, F. Faure, P. Coste, and P. Servin, “Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), Overview and Prospect,” in Proc. of 60th International Astronautical Congress, 12–16 (2009).

Koracin, D.

D. Koračin, C. E. Dorman, J. M. Lewis, J. G. Hudson, E. M. Wilcox, and A. Torregrosa, “Marine fog: A review,” Atmos. Res. 143, 142–175 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lewis, D. Koračin, and K. Redmond, “Sea fog research in the United Kingdom and United States: A historical essay including outlook,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85(3), 395–408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuhn, T.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

J. H. Ahn, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of atmospheric correction algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. F.

T. F. Lee, F. J. Turk, and K. Richardson, “Stratus and fog products using GOES-8-9 3.9-μ m data,” Weather Forecast. 12(3), 664–677 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lewis, J.

J. Lewis, D. Koračin, and K. Redmond, “Sea fog research in the United Kingdom and United States: A historical essay including outlook,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85(3), 395–408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lewis, J. M.

D. Koračin, C. E. Dorman, J. M. Lewis, J. G. Hudson, E. M. Wilcox, and A. Torregrosa, “Marine fog: A review,” Atmos. Res. 143, 142–175 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S. M.

X. J. Wu, S. M. Li, and M. Liao, “Analyses of seasonal feature of sea fog over the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea based on the recent 20 years of satellite remote sensing data,” Acta Oceanol. Sin. 37, 63–72 (2015).

Li, X.

X. Cao, L. Shao, and X. Li, “Preliminary research on retrieval of daytime sea fog with MTSAT satellite data,” in Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering (RSETE, 2011), 4272 - 4276.

Li, Z. H.

Z. H. Li, “Studies of fog in China over the past 40 years,” Acta Meteorol. Sin. 59, 616–624 (2001).

Liang, Y. T.

Y. T. Liang, X. Chen, and H. Z. Xia, “Monitoring fog using FY-1D meteorological satellite,” Geo-spatial, Inf. Sci. 11, 107–111 (2008).

Liao, M.

X. J. Wu, S. M. Li, and M. Liao, “Analyses of seasonal feature of sea fog over the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea based on the recent 20 years of satellite remote sensing data,” Acta Oceanol. Sin. 37, 63–72 (2015).

Lim, H. S.

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world’s first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 117(C9), 1978–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, L. L.

P. Qu, Y. Y. Xie, L. L. Liu, Y. Liu, and N. G. He, “Character analysis of Sea fog in Bohai Bay from 1988 to 2010,” Plateau Meteorol. 33, 285–293 (2014).

Liu, P.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

P. Qu, Y. Y. Xie, L. L. Liu, Y. Liu, and N. G. He, “Character analysis of Sea fog in Bohai Bay from 1988 to 2010,” Plateau Meteorol. 33, 285–293 (2014).

Lu, B.

D. Wu, B. Lu, T. Zhang, and F. Yan, “A method of detecting sea fogs using CALIOP data and its application to improve MODIS-based sea fog detection,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 153, 88–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

Michaelides, S.

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Milbrandt, J.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Müller, M.

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nam, M.

H. Kim, G. Kang, B. Ellis, M. Nam, H. Youn, F. Faure, P. Coste, and P. Servin, “Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), Overview and Prospect,” in Proc. of 60th International Astronautical Congress, 12–16 (2009).

Nauß, T.

J. Bendix, B. Thies, J. Cermak, and T. Nauß, “Ground fog detection from space based on MODIS daytime data-a feasibility study,” Weather Forecast. 20(6), 989–1005 (2005).
[Crossref]

Oakley, J.

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oh, I. S.

J. H. Ahn, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of atmospheric correction algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pagowski, M.

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Gultepe, M. Pagowski, and J. Reid, “A satellite-based fog detection scheme using screen air temperature,” Weather Forecast. 22(3), 444–456 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

K. Y. Heo, S. Park, K. J. Ha, and J. S. Shim, “Algorithm for sea fog monitoring with the use of information technologies,” Meteorol. Appl. 21(2), 350–359 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

J. H. Ahn, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of atmospheric correction algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world’s first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 117(C9), 1978–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ryu, H. J. Han, S. Cho, Y. J. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Overview of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) and GOCI data processing system (GDPS),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 223–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pavolonis, M.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pearson, G.

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Platnick, S.

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qu, P.

P. Qu, Y. Y. Xie, L. L. Liu, Y. Liu, and N. G. He, “Character analysis of Sea fog in Bohai Bay from 1988 to 2010,” Plateau Meteorol. 33, 285–293 (2014).

Redmond, K.

J. Lewis, D. Koračin, and K. Redmond, “Sea fog research in the United Kingdom and United States: A historical essay including outlook,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85(3), 395–408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Reid, J.

I. Gultepe, M. Pagowski, and J. Reid, “A satellite-based fog detection scheme using screen air temperature,” Weather Forecast. 22(3), 444–456 (2007).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

T. F. Lee, F. J. Turk, and K. Richardson, “Stratus and fog products using GOES-8-9 3.9-μ m data,” Weather Forecast. 12(3), 664–677 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ryu, J. H.

J. H. Ahn, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of atmospheric correction algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world’s first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 117(C9), 1978–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ryu and J. Ishizaka, “GOCI data processing and ocean applications,” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 221 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ryu, H. J. Han, S. Cho, Y. J. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Overview of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) and GOCI data processing system (GDPS),” Ocean Sci. J. 47(3), 223–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Servin, P.

H. Kim, G. Kang, B. Ellis, M. Nam, H. Youn, F. Faure, P. Coste, and P. Servin, “Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), Overview and Prospect,” in Proc. of 60th International Astronautical Congress, 12–16 (2009).

Shao, L.

X. Cao, L. Shao, and X. Li, “Preliminary research on retrieval of daytime sea fog with MTSAT satellite data,” in Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering (RSETE, 2011), 4272 - 4276.

Shim, J. S.

K. Y. Heo, S. Park, K. J. Ha, and J. S. Shim, “Algorithm for sea fog monitoring with the use of information technologies,” Meteorol. Appl. 21(2), 350–359 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Y. Wang, S. Gao, G. Fu, J. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Assimilating MTSAT-derived humidity in now casting Sea Fog over the Yellow Sea,” Weather Forecast. 29(2), 205–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tardif, R.

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Taylor, P.

I. Gultepe, B. Hansen, S. Cober, G. Pearson, J. Milbrandt, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, and J. Oakley, “The fog remote sensing and modeling field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90(3), 341–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thies, B.

J. Bendix, B. Thies, J. Cermak, and T. Nauß, “Ground fog detection from space based on MODIS daytime data-a feasibility study,” Weather Forecast. 20(6), 989–1005 (2005).
[Crossref]

Torregrosa, A.

D. Koračin, C. E. Dorman, J. M. Lewis, J. G. Hudson, E. M. Wilcox, and A. Torregrosa, “Marine fog: A review,” Atmos. Res. 143, 142–175 (2014).
[Crossref]

Toth, G.

I. Gultepe, R. Tardif, S. Michaelides, J. Cermak, A. Bott, J. Bendix, M. Müller, M. Pagowski, B. Hansen, G. Ellrod, W. Jacobs, G. Toth, and S. G. Cober, “Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 164(6-7), 1121–1159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Turk, F. J.

T. F. Lee, F. J. Turk, and K. Richardson, “Stratus and fog products using GOES-8-9 3.9-μ m data,” Weather Forecast. 12(3), 664–677 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. L. Wang, J. Wang, and D. L. Gong, “The macro-micro structure analysis of Jianghuai cyclone and cold front,” Quart. J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 30–38 (2001).

Wang, J. C.

Y. J. Deng, J. C. Wang, and J. Cao, “Detection of daytime fog in South China Sea using MODIS data,” J. Trop. Meteorol. 20, 386–390 (2014).

Wang, M.

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Sediment Res. 26, 5651–5663 (2005).

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Sediment Res. 23, 2693–2702 (2002).

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface-roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: The Rayleigh-scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31(21), 4247–4260 (1992).
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Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, S. Gao, G. Fu, J. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Assimilating MTSAT-derived humidity in now casting Sea Fog over the Yellow Sea,” Weather Forecast. 29(2), 205–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. L.

Y. L. Wang, J. Wang, and D. L. Gong, “The macro-micro structure analysis of Jianghuai cyclone and cold front,” Quart. J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 30–38 (2001).

Ware, R.

I. Gultepe, T. Kuhn, M. Pavolonis, C. Calvert, J. Gurka, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Liu, B. Zhou, R. Ware, B. Ferrier, J. Milbrandt, and B. Bernstein, “Ice fog in arctic during FRAM-ICE fog project: Aviation and nowcasting applications,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(2), 211–226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.

L. L. Jiang and M. Wei, “Application of Fog Monitoring with FY-3A Data,” Remote Sens. Technol. Appl. 26, 489–495 (2011).

Wilcox, E. M.

D. Koračin, C. E. Dorman, J. M. Lewis, J. G. Hudson, E. M. Wilcox, and A. Torregrosa, “Marine fog: A review,” Atmos. Res. 143, 142–175 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, B. Lu, T. Zhang, and F. Yan, “A method of detecting sea fogs using CALIOP data and its application to improve MODIS-based sea fog detection,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 153, 88–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. J.

X. J. Wu, S. M. Li, and M. Liao, “Analyses of seasonal feature of sea fog over the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea based on the recent 20 years of satellite remote sensing data,” Acta Oceanol. Sin. 37, 63–72 (2015).

Xia, H. Z.

Y. T. Liang, X. Chen, and H. Z. Xia, “Monitoring fog using FY-1D meteorological satellite,” Geo-spatial, Inf. Sci. 11, 107–111 (2008).

Xie, S. P.

G. Fu, J. Guo, S. P. Xie, Y. Duan, and M. Zhang, “Analysis and high-resolution modeling of a dense sea fog event over the Yellow Sea,” Atmos. Res. 81(4), 293–303 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y. Y.

P. Qu, Y. Y. Xie, L. L. Liu, Y. Liu, and N. G. He, “Character analysis of Sea fog in Bohai Bay from 1988 to 2010,” Plateau Meteorol. 33, 285–293 (2014).

Yan, F.

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[Crossref]

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S. P. Zhang and L. Yi, “A comprehensive dynamic threshold algorithm for daytime sea fog retrieval over the Chinese adjacent seas,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 170(11), 1931–1944 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. P. Zhang and X. W. Bao, “The main advances in sea fog research in China,” Period. Ocean University Chin. 38, 359–366 (2008).

Zhang, T.

D. Wu, B. Lu, T. Zhang, and F. Yan, “A method of detecting sea fogs using CALIOP data and its application to improve MODIS-based sea fog detection,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 153, 88–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. Jun, H. Zhi-Gang, C. Hong-Bin, Z. Zeng-Liang, and W. Hong-Yi, “Fog detection over China’s adjacent sea area by using the MTSAT geostationary satellite data,” Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett. 5(2), 128–133 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Appl. Opt. (1)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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P. Qu, Y. Y. Xie, L. L. Liu, Y. Liu, and N. G. He, “Character analysis of Sea fog in Bohai Bay from 1988 to 2010,” Plateau Meteorol. 33, 285–293 (2014).

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S. P. Zhang and L. Yi, “A comprehensive dynamic threshold algorithm for daytime sea fog retrieval over the Chinese adjacent seas,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 170(11), 1931–1944 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Study area. Sounding stations: DL-Dalian, QD-Qingdao, BYD-Baengnyeongondo, HS-Heuksando, RKSO-Osan, RKJJ-Kwangju, CJ-Cheju, Buoys: SY-Sheyang, QSD-Qiansandao.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flowchart of the detection algorithm for sea fog.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 GOCI Visible Image from 00:16 May 01 2014 (UTC). Red lines are radial and zonal hatching lines.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectral signatures of all surfaces. (a) Radial hatching line and (b) Zonal hatching line.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Distribution of Rrc (412 nm) (a) fog/stratus, (b) cloud-free sea surfaces and (c) middle/high level clouds.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Sea-land discrimination Index Hatching Line.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The MCDI Index Spectrum.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Band slope index (Band 6 (680nm), Band 7 (745nm)) spectrum (a) Hatching line, (b) Sea fog and (c) Stratus.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a). GOCI 00:16 May 23 2014(UTC) RGB Image and (b). Retrieval result.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a). The GOCI 02:16 Jan 10th 2015(UTC) RGB image and (b). Retrieval result; yellow point represents the buoy location.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 GOCI 00:16-07:16 Jan 10 2015(UTC) RGB image (left) and retrieval image (right). The yellow point represents the buoy’s location.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 GOCI’s Band Settings and Applications

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Table 2 Some Water Vapor Absorption Bands

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Table 3 Dalian/Baengnyeondo/Heuksando Observations at 00Z 23, 2014 (UTC)

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Table 4 Buoy Horizontal Visibility Data on January 10th, 2015 (UTC)

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S L D I = R r c 865 n m R r c 555 n m R r c 865 n m + R r c 555 n m
B S I = ( R r c ( 745 ) R r c ( 680 ) ) / Δ n m × 10 e 4

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