Abstract

Ptychography is a lensless imaging technique that aims to reconstruct an object from a set of coherent diffraction patterns originating from different and partially overlapping sample illumination areas. For a successful convergence of the iterative algorithms used, the sample scan positions have to be known with very high accuracy. Here, we present a method that allows to directly encode this information in the diffraction patterns without the need of accurate position encoders. Our approach relies on combining ptychography with another coherent imaging method, namely Fourier-transform holography. We have imaged two different objects using coherent soft-X-ray illumination and investigate the influence of experimental and numerical position refinement on the reconstruction result. We demonstrate that holographically encoded positions significantly reduce the experimental and numerical requirements. Our ptychographic reconstructions cover a large field of view with diffraction-limited resolution and high sensitivity in the reconstructed phase shift and absorption of the objects.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Dark-field X-ray ptychography

Akihiro Suzuki and Yukio Takahashi
Opt. Express 23(12) 16429-16438 (2015)

Use of Kramers–Kronig relation in phase retrieval calculation in X-ray spectro-ptychography

Makoto Hirose, Kei Shimomura, Nicolas Burdet, and Yukio Takahashi
Opt. Express 25(8) 8593-8603 (2017)

Evaluation of partial coherence correction in X-ray ptychography

Nicolas Burdet, Xiaowen Shi, Daniel Parks, Jesse N. Clark, Xiaojing Huang, Stephen D. Kevan, and Ian K. Robinson
Opt. Express 23(5) 5452-5467 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 833–839 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21(15), 2758–2769 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14(6), 063004 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Liu, Z. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Wu, Z. Guo, and R. Tai, “Effects of missing low-frequency information on ptychographic and plane-wave coherent diffraction imaging,” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2416–2427 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7264–7278 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Shenfield and J. M. Rodenburg, “Evolutionary determination of experimental parameters for ptychographical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 124510 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Tripathi, I. McNulty, and O. G. Shpyrko, “Ptychographic overlap constraint errors and the limits of their numerical recovery using conjugate gradient descent methods,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1452–1466 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Drift correction in ptychographic diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 126, 44–47 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. B. Pfau and S. Eisebitt, “X-ray holography,” in: Synchrotron Light Sources and Free-Electron lasers, E. Jaeschke, S. Khan, J. R. Schneider, J. B. Hastings, eds. (Springer, 2015).
  19. K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent X-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. Guehrs, C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, W. F. Schlotter, and S. Eisebitt, “Wavefield back-propagation in high-resolution X-ray holography with a movable field of view,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18922–18931 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. Botman, J. J. L. Mulders, and C. W. Hagen, “Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 372001 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 156–158 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. J. L. Mulders and A. Botman, “Towards electron beam induced deposition improvements for nanotechnology,” in Proceedings of the Beilstein Bozen Symposium Functional Nanoscience, M. G. Hicks and C. Kettner, eds. (Logos, 2011), pp. 179–192.
  26. L.-M. Stadler, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, O. Leupold, S. Rehbein, Y. Chushkin, and G. Grübel, “Hard X ray holographic diffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245503 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University, 1999).
  29. E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  30. A. Menzel, A. Diaz, and M. Guizar-Sicairosa, “Ptychographic Imaging at the Swiss Light Source,” Synchr. Rad. News 26(2), 26–31 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (7)

H. Liu, Z. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Wu, Z. Guo, and R. Tai, “Effects of missing low-frequency information on ptychographic and plane-wave coherent diffraction imaging,” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2416–2427 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, A. Diaz, and M. Guizar-Sicairosa, “Ptychographic Imaging at the Swiss Light Source,” Synchr. Rad. News 26(2), 26–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Drift correction in ptychographic diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 126, 44–47 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14(6), 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent X-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shenfield and J. M. Rodenburg, “Evolutionary determination of experimental parameters for ptychographical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 124510 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 833–839 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Guehrs, C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, W. F. Schlotter, and S. Eisebitt, “Wavefield back-propagation in high-resolution X-ray holography with a movable field of view,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18922–18931 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

A. Botman, J. J. L. Mulders, and C. W. Hagen, “Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 372001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2004 (2)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Arnold, B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Autenrieth, T.

L.-M. Stadler, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, O. Leupold, S. Rehbein, Y. Chushkin, and G. Grübel, “Hard X ray holographic diffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batey, D. J.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bean, R.

Beckers, M.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Drift correction in ptychographic diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 126, 44–47 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent X-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berenguer, F.

Botman, A.

A. Botman, J. J. L. Mulders, and C. W. Hagen, “Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 372001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Büldt, G.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 833–839 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

Chushkin, Y.

L.-M. Stadler, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, O. Leupold, S. Rehbein, Y. Chushkin, and G. Grübel, “Hard X ray holographic diffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Claus, D.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

A. Menzel, A. Diaz, and M. Guizar-Sicairosa, “Ptychographic Imaging at the Swiss Light Source,” Synchr. Rad. News 26(2), 26–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dzhigaev, D.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eberhardt, W.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edo, T. B.

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eisebitt, S.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Guehrs, C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, W. F. Schlotter, and S. Eisebitt, “Wavefield back-propagation in high-resolution X-ray holography with a movable field of view,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18922–18931 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fienup, J. R.

Flewett, S.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Frömmel, S.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Frömter, R.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Galtier, E. C.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geilhufe, J.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giewekemeyer, K.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Drift correction in ptychographic diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 126, 44–47 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent X-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorniak, T.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Drift correction in ptychographic diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 126, 44–47 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent X-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorobtsov, O.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grübel, G.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-M. Stadler, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, O. Leupold, S. Rehbein, Y. Chushkin, and G. Grübel, “Hard X ray holographic diffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grunze, M.

Guehrs, E.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Guehrs, C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, W. F. Schlotter, and S. Eisebitt, “Wavefield back-propagation in high-resolution X-ray holography with a movable field of view,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18922–18931 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14(6), 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 156–158 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7264–7278 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairosa, M.

A. Menzel, A. Diaz, and M. Guizar-Sicairosa, “Ptychographic Imaging at the Swiss Light Source,” Synchr. Rad. News 26(2), 26–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Günther, C. M.

Guo, Z.

Gutt, C.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-M. Stadler, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, O. Leupold, S. Rehbein, Y. Chushkin, and G. Grübel, “Hard X ray holographic diffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagen, C. W.

A. Botman, J. J. L. Mulders, and C. W. Hagen, “Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 372001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hastings, J. B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hellwig, O.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hertz, H. M.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holler, M.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, R.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humphry, M. J.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, B.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. J.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leupold, O.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

L.-M. Stadler, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, O. Leupold, S. Rehbein, Y. Chushkin, and G. Grübel, “Hard X ray holographic diffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Lörgen, M.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüning, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maiden, A. M.

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

Meier, V.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menk, C.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Menzel, A.

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, A. Diaz, and M. Guizar-Sicairosa, “Ptychographic Imaging at the Swiss Light Source,” Synchr. Rad. News 26(2), 26–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mulders, J. J. L.

A. Botman, J. J. L. Mulders, and C. W. Hagen, “Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 372001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagler, B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nilsson, D.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 833–839 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oepen, H. P.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Patommel, J.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pešic, Z. D.

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peterson, I.

Pfau, B.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Guehrs, C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, W. F. Schlotter, and S. Eisebitt, “Wavefield back-propagation in high-resolution X-ray holography with a movable field of view,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18922–18931 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rander, T.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Guehrs, C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, W. F. Schlotter, and S. Eisebitt, “Wavefield back-propagation in high-resolution X-ray holography with a movable field of view,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18922–18931 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rau, C.

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rehbein, S.

L.-M. Stadler, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, O. Leupold, S. Rehbein, Y. Chushkin, and G. Grübel, “Hard X ray holographic diffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, I. K.

Rodenburg, J. M.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shenfield and J. M. Rodenburg, “Evolutionary determination of experimental parameters for ptychographical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 124510 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rose, M.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenhahn, A.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Drift correction in ptychographic diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 126, 44–47 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent X-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salditt, T.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Drift correction in ptychographic diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 126, 44–47 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent X-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarahan, M. C.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffert, S.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Guehrs, C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, W. F. Schlotter, and S. Eisebitt, “Wavefield back-propagation in high-resolution X-ray holography with a movable field of view,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18922–18931 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlotter, W. F.

E. Guehrs, C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, W. F. Schlotter, and S. Eisebitt, “Wavefield back-propagation in high-resolution X-ray holography with a movable field of view,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18922–18931 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schropp, A.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seiboth, F.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senkbeil, T.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Drift correction in ptychographic diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 126, 44–47 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shabalin, A.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shenfield, A.

A. Shenfield and J. M. Rodenburg, “Evolutionary determination of experimental parameters for ptychographical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 124510 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shpyrko, O. G.

Skopintsev, P.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sprung, M.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stadler, A. M.

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stadler, L. M.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stadler, L.-M.

L.-M. Stadler, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, O. Leupold, S. Rehbein, Y. Chushkin, and G. Grübel, “Hard X ray holographic diffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stickler, D.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stillrich, H.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stöhr, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Streit-Nierobisch, S.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tai, R.

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14(6), 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurman, S. T.

Tieg, C.

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tripathi, A.

Uhlén, F.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vartanyants, I.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viefhaus, J.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vila-Comamala, J.

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vogt, U.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Gundlach, A.

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, U.

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waigh, T. A.

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xu, Z.

Zastrau, U.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, X.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Stickler, R. Frömter, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, C. Tieg, S. Streit-Nierobisch, M. Sprung, C. Gutt, L. M. Stadler, O. Leupold, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Soft X-ray holographic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042501 (2010).
[Crossref]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Shenfield and J. M. Rodenburg, “Evolutionary determination of experimental parameters for ptychographical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 124510 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

M. Rose, P. Skopintsev, D. Dzhigaev, O. Gorobtsov, T. Senkbeil, A. von Gundlach, T. Gorniak, A. Shabalin, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. Vartanyants, “Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 819–827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

A. Botman, J. J. L. Mulders, and C. W. Hagen, “Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 372001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 833–839 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14(6), 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft X-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in X-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L.-M. Stadler, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, O. Leupold, S. Rehbein, Y. Chushkin, and G. Grübel, “Hard X ray holographic diffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 245503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Synchr. Rad. News (1)

A. Menzel, A. Diaz, and M. Guizar-Sicairosa, “Ptychographic Imaging at the Swiss Light Source,” Synchr. Rad. News 26(2), 26–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ultramicroscopy (5)

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Drift correction in ptychographic diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 126, 44–47 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

B. Pfau and S. Eisebitt, “X-ray holography,” in: Synchrotron Light Sources and Free-Electron lasers, E. Jaeschke, S. Khan, J. R. Schneider, J. B. Hastings, eds. (Springer, 2015).

J. J. L. Mulders and A. Botman, “Towards electron beam induced deposition improvements for nanotechnology,” in Proceedings of the Beilstein Bozen Symposium Functional Nanoscience, M. G. Hicks and C. Kettner, eds. (Logos, 2011), pp. 179–192.

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the holography-guided ptychography setup. The illumination of the sample is defined by the pinhole mask. A reference aperture provides the reference beam for the holographic image formation. The diffracted X-rays are recorded on the CCD detector in the far-field. A ptychogram is recorded by laterally scanning the sample using a translation stage with respect to the incoming beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the imaged diatoms and Siemens star on the same Si3N4 substrate. The light area at the top is part of the Si frame supporting the membrane. The FOV of the different scans are outlined in blue and orange. (b) SEM image of the apertures, i.e., object illumination (top) and reference (bottom), in the optics mask.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical, dark image corrected scattering patterns from (a) the Siemens star and (b) the diatoms in logarithmic intensity scale. The central part of low intensity corresponds to the shadow of the beamstop.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b) Two adjacent FTH reconstructions of the Siemens star. The yellow circle and the blue arrow highlight the shift of a selected corner between the scan positions. (c) Cross-correlation of the images in (a) and (b) (only central part of the images, i.e., omitting the Fresnel diffraction from the aperture rim). (d) Map of scan positions as retrieved from the encoder (blue circles) and corrected positions from the FTH reconstructions (yellow circles). The numbering illustrates the scan sequence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between ePIE reconstructions using (a) positioner encoded positions and numerical position correction (pcPIE) (b) FTH positions without any numerical correction and (c) FTH positions and additional numerical position correction (pcPIE). (d) Magnification of the central part of the reconstruction in (c) showing image artifacts of the Siemens star. (e) The same magnified area of a reconstruction using FTH positions, an FTH starting guess and numerical position correction where the artifacts are reduced. The full image can be found in Fig. 6. (a)–(e) The first row of images shows amplitude, the second row shows phase contrast.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Amplitude and phase of the final reconstruction of the Siemens star. (b) The illumination function in the sample plane (left) and in the mask plane (right), i.e., numerically propagated by 45 µm. The illumination function is shown in a representation where hue encodes phase from -π to π and saturation linearly encodes amplitude from zero to the value given next to the color wheel. The inset displays a magnification and amplification (the maximum amplitude is given in brackets next to the color wheel) of the reconstructed reference wave.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Amplitude and (b) phase contrast of a diatom cluster reconstructed using pcPIE and the position retrieved from FTH. At the top, the edge of the membrane and the Si frame are visible.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Example of an FTH reconstruction of the diatoms. (b) Similar region as in (a) from the ptychographic reconstruction. (c) Determination of the spatial resolution using edge scans as indicated in (a) and (b). Lines are error-function fits to the data points. The resolution of the FTH images (blue, + ) is 220 nm, while the ptychographic reconstruction (red, × ) has a resolution of 120 nm. (d) Slice through the wall of a diatom. On the left side of the wall (i.e., up to scan positions of about 2 µm), the faint bridges in the diatom openings appear as oscillation in the phase. On the right side of the wall, the low noise in the reconstructed phase (standard deviation 17 mrad) on the homogeneous substrate is demonstrated.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n=1 r 0 λ 2 n a 2π q c q ( f 1 (q) i f 2 (q) )=1 n a q c q ( δ ˜ q i β ˜ q ) .
Δφ(φ φ 0 )= 2π λ [ c δ ˜ Pt +(1c) δ ˜ C ] n a d.
Δμln A A 0 = 2π λ [ c β ˜ Pt +(1c) β ˜ C ] n a d.
c= Δφ β ˜ C Δμ δ ˜ C Δφ( β ˜ C β ˜ Pt )Δμ( δ ˜ C δ ˜ Pt ) .

Metrics