Abstract

Inspired by the concept of parity-time symmetry, we propose a new waveguide system consisting of zero index metamaterials with an air gap. Based on analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that there are two exceptional points in such a system, which can induce unidirectional transparency. However, the introduced air gap could effectively manipulate the property of the waveguide system with PT symmetry. In particular, coherent perfect absorber-laser modes could be excited in PT broken phase, if a specific phase difference in the air gap is obtained. More interestingly, when Fabry-Pérot resonances take place in the air gap, the PT symmetry property will be suppressed, i.e., the value of loss/gain could not affect transmission and reflection of the waveguide. As a result, perfect bidirectional transmission without reflection can occur in the waveguide system.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(27), 270401 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, “Physical realization of PT-symmetric potential scattering in a planar slab waveguide,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(9), 171–176 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Theory of coupled optical PT-symmetric structures,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2632–2634 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 031801 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 093902 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Sun, W. Tan, H. Q. Li, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a coherent perfect absorber with PT phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143903 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Beam dynamics in PT symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103904 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. C. Zheng, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Fleischmann, and T. Kottos, “PT optical lattices and universality in beam dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 010103 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity–time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Mostafazadeh, “Spectral singularities of complex scattering potentials and infinite reflection and transmission coefficients at real energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(22), 220402 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. Longhi, “Optical realization of relativistic non-Hermitian quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 013903 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. Schomerus, “Quantum noise and self-sustained radiation of PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(23), 233601 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Ramezani, D. N. Christodoulides, V. Kovanis, I. Vitebskiy, and T. Kottos, “PT-symmetric Talbot effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033902 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. N. Lazarides and G. P. Tsironis, “Gain-driven discrete breathers in PT-symmetric nonlinear metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(5), 053901 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. Silveirinha and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-near-zero materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157403 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Xu and H. Chen, “Total reflection and transmission by epsilon-near-zero metamaterials with defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113501 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213903 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Fu, Y. Xu, and H. Chen, “Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6428 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Y. Fu, L. Xu, Z. H. Hang, and H. Chen, “Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 193509 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(8), 085105 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in ε-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(11), 115114 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. Wang, H. Dong, C. Ling, C. T. Chan, and K. H. Fung, “Nonreciprocal μ-near-zero mode in PT -symmetric magnetic domains,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235410 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. X. Zhu, H. Ramezani, C. Shi, J. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “PT-symmetric acoustics,” Phys. Rev. X 4(3), 031042 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Ge, Y. D. Chong, and A. D. Stone, “Conservation relations and anisotropic transmission resonances in one-dimensional PT-symmetric photonic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023802 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in ε-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(11), 115114 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Dong, C. Ling, C. T. Chan, and K. H. Fung, “Nonreciprocal μ-near-zero mode in PT -symmetric magnetic domains,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235410 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

X. Zhu, H. Ramezani, C. Shi, J. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “PT-symmetric acoustics,” Phys. Rev. X 4(3), 031042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Fu, Y. Xu, and H. Chen, “Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6428 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Fu, L. Xu, Z. H. Hang, and H. Chen, “Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 193509 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(8), 085105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, W. Tan, H. Q. Li, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a coherent perfect absorber with PT phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

N. Lazarides and G. P. Tsironis, “Gain-driven discrete breathers in PT-symmetric nonlinear metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(5), 053901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

H. Ramezani, D. N. Christodoulides, V. Kovanis, I. Vitebskiy, and T. Kottos, “PT-symmetric Talbot effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ge, Y. D. Chong, and A. D. Stone, “Conservation relations and anisotropic transmission resonances in one-dimensional PT-symmetric photonic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023802 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu and H. Chen, “Total reflection and transmission by epsilon-near-zero metamaterials with defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113501 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

S. Longhi, “Optical realization of relativistic non-Hermitian quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 013903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schomerus, “Quantum noise and self-sustained radiation of PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(23), 233601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Zheng, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Fleischmann, and T. Kottos, “PT optical lattices and universality in beam dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 010103 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity–time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Mostafazadeh, “Spectral singularities of complex scattering potentials and infinite reflection and transmission coefficients at real energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(22), 220402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Beam dynamics in PT symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Silveirinha and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-near-zero materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157403 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, “Physical realization of PT-symmetric potential scattering in a planar slab waveguide,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(9), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(27), 270401 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alu, A.

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in ε-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(11), 115114 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(8), 085105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bender, C. M.

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(27), 270401 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bersch, C.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boettcher, S.

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brody, D. C.

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(27), 270401 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castaldi, G.

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in ε-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(11), 115114 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(8), 085105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. T.

J. Wang, H. Dong, C. Ling, C. T. Chan, and K. H. Fung, “Nonreciprocal μ-near-zero mode in PT -symmetric magnetic domains,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235410 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Y. Fu, Y. Xu, and H. Chen, “Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6428 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Fu, L. Xu, Z. H. Hang, and H. Chen, “Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 193509 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, W. Tan, H. Q. Li, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a coherent perfect absorber with PT phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu and H. Chen, “Total reflection and transmission by epsilon-near-zero metamaterials with defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, Y. D.

L. Ge, Y. D. Chong, and A. D. Stone, “Conservation relations and anisotropic transmission resonances in one-dimensional PT-symmetric photonic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christodoulides, D. N.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ramezani, D. N. Christodoulides, V. Kovanis, I. Vitebskiy, and T. Kottos, “PT-symmetric Talbot effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Zheng, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Fleischmann, and T. Kottos, “PT optical lattices and universality in beam dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 010103 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity–time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Beam dynamics in PT symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Theory of coupled optical PT-symmetric structures,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2632–2634 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delgado, F.

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, “Physical realization of PT-symmetric potential scattering in a planar slab waveguide,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(9), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dong, H.

J. Wang, H. Dong, C. Ling, C. T. Chan, and K. H. Fung, “Nonreciprocal μ-near-zero mode in PT -symmetric magnetic domains,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eichelkraut, T.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Ganainy, R.

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity–time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Beam dynamics in PT symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Theory of coupled optical PT-symmetric structures,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2632–2634 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in ε-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(11), 115114 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(8), 085105 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Silveirinha and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-near-zero materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157403 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fegadolli, W. S.

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischmann, R.

M. C. Zheng, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Fleischmann, and T. Kottos, “PT optical lattices and universality in beam dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 010103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, Y. Xu, and H. Chen, “Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6428 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Fu, L. Xu, Z. H. Hang, and H. Chen, “Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 193509 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fung, K. H.

J. Wang, H. Dong, C. Ling, C. T. Chan, and K. H. Fung, “Nonreciprocal μ-near-zero mode in PT -symmetric magnetic domains,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Galdi, V.

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in ε-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(11), 115114 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(8), 085105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ge, L.

L. Ge, Y. D. Chong, and A. D. Stone, “Conservation relations and anisotropic transmission resonances in one-dimensional PT-symmetric photonic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hang, Z. H.

Y. Y. Fu, L. Xu, Z. H. Hang, and H. Chen, “Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 193509 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, W. X.

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, H. F.

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(27), 270401 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kip, D.

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity–time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kottos, T.

H. Ramezani, D. N. Christodoulides, V. Kovanis, I. Vitebskiy, and T. Kottos, “PT-symmetric Talbot effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Zheng, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Fleischmann, and T. Kottos, “PT optical lattices and universality in beam dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 010103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kovanis, V.

H. Ramezani, D. N. Christodoulides, V. Kovanis, I. Vitebskiy, and T. Kottos, “PT-symmetric Talbot effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, Y.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazarides, N.

N. Lazarides and G. P. Tsironis, “Gain-driven discrete breathers in PT-symmetric nonlinear metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(5), 053901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H. Q.

Y. Sun, W. Tan, H. Q. Li, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a coherent perfect absorber with PT phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Y. Sun, W. Tan, H. Q. Li, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a coherent perfect absorber with PT phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, C.

J. Wang, H. Dong, C. Ling, C. T. Chan, and K. H. Fung, “Nonreciprocal μ-near-zero mode in PT -symmetric magnetic domains,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Longhi, S.

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Longhi, “Optical realization of relativistic non-Hermitian quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 013903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, M. H.

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makris, K. G.

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity–time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Beam dynamics in PT symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Theory of coupled optical PT-symmetric structures,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2632–2634 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miri, M.-A.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mostafazadeh, A.

A. Mostafazadeh, “Spectral singularities of complex scattering potentials and infinite reflection and transmission coefficients at real energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(22), 220402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muga, J. G.

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, “Physical realization of PT-symmetric potential scattering in a planar slab waveguide,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(9), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Musslimani, Z. H.

K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Beam dynamics in PT symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Theory of coupled optical PT-symmetric structures,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2632–2634 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliveira, J. E.

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onishchukov, G.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peschel, U.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramezani, H.

X. Zhu, H. Ramezani, C. Shi, J. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “PT-symmetric acoustics,” Phys. Rev. X 4(3), 031042 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Ramezani, D. N. Christodoulides, V. Kovanis, I. Vitebskiy, and T. Kottos, “PT-symmetric Talbot effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regensburger, A.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruschhaupt, A.

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, “Physical realization of PT-symmetric potential scattering in a planar slab waveguide,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(9), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rüter, C. E.

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity–time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Savoia, S.

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in ε-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(11), 115114 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(8), 085105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schomerus, H.

H. Schomerus, “Quantum noise and self-sustained radiation of PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(23), 233601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity–time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shi, C.

X. Zhu, H. Ramezani, C. Shi, J. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “PT-symmetric acoustics,” Phys. Rev. X 4(3), 031042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Silveirinha, M.

M. Silveirinha and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-near-zero materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157403 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

L. Ge, Y. D. Chong, and A. D. Stone, “Conservation relations and anisotropic transmission resonances in one-dimensional PT-symmetric photonic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023802 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, W. Tan, H. Q. Li, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a coherent perfect absorber with PT phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, W.

Y. Sun, W. Tan, H. Q. Li, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a coherent perfect absorber with PT phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsironis, G. P.

N. Lazarides and G. P. Tsironis, “Gain-driven discrete breathers in PT-symmetric nonlinear metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(5), 053901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitebskiy, I.

H. Ramezani, D. N. Christodoulides, V. Kovanis, I. Vitebskiy, and T. Kottos, “PT-symmetric Talbot effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, H. Dong, C. Ling, C. T. Chan, and K. H. Fung, “Nonreciprocal μ-near-zero mode in PT -symmetric magnetic domains,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

Y. Y. Fu, L. Xu, Z. H. Hang, and H. Chen, “Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 193509 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Y. Fu, Y. Xu, and H. Chen, “Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6428 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu and H. Chen, “Total reflection and transmission by epsilon-near-zero metamaterials with defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y. L.

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhu, H. Ramezani, C. Shi, J. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “PT-symmetric acoustics,” Phys. Rev. X 4(3), 031042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, M. C.

M. C. Zheng, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Fleischmann, and T. Kottos, “PT optical lattices and universality in beam dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 010103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

X. Zhu, H. Ramezani, C. Shi, J. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “PT-symmetric acoustics,” Phys. Rev. X 4(3), 031042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, H. Ramezani, C. Shi, J. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “PT-symmetric acoustics,” Phys. Rev. X 4(3), 031042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Xu and H. Chen, “Total reflection and transmission by epsilon-near-zero metamaterials with defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, L. Xu, Z. H. Hang, and H. Chen, “Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 193509 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Math. Gen. (1)

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, “Physical realization of PT-symmetric potential scattering in a planar slab waveguide,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(9), 171–176 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feng, Y. L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. H. Lu, J. E. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity–time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. C. Zheng, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Fleischmann, and T. Kottos, “PT optical lattices and universality in beam dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 010103 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Ge, Y. D. Chong, and A. D. Stone, “Conservation relations and anisotropic transmission resonances in one-dimensional PT-symmetric photonic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023802 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(8), 085105 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alu, and N. Engheta, “PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in ε-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(11), 115114 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Dong, C. Ling, C. T. Chan, and K. H. Fung, “Nonreciprocal μ-near-zero mode in PT -symmetric magnetic domains,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (13)

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, W. Tan, H. Q. Li, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of a coherent perfect absorber with PT phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Beam dynamics in PT symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mostafazadeh, “Spectral singularities of complex scattering potentials and infinite reflection and transmission coefficients at real energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(22), 220402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Longhi, “Optical realization of relativistic non-Hermitian quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 013903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schomerus, “Quantum noise and self-sustained radiation of PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(23), 233601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ramezani, D. N. Christodoulides, V. Kovanis, I. Vitebskiy, and T. Kottos, “PT-symmetric Talbot effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lazarides and G. P. Tsironis, “Gain-driven discrete breathers in PT-symmetric nonlinear metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(5), 053901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Silveirinha and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-near-zero materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157403 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(27), 270401 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

X. Zhu, H. Ramezani, C. Shi, J. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “PT-symmetric acoustics,” Phys. Rev. X 4(3), 031042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Fu, Y. Xu, and H. Chen, “Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6428 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic description of the two dimensional waveguide structure, where region 1 and region 5 are empty waveguides connected by a waveguide junction (with its width and length a2 and L, respectively). For the waveguide junction, it consists of three components: the middle one (region 3) is an air gap; the left one (region 2) is ZIMs with gain; the right one (region 4) is ZIMs with loss. The black lines are outer perfect electric conductor (PEC) boundaries of the waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The analytical results of transmission (T) and reflection (RL, RR) related to the variables χ and φ. (a) is analytical result of transmission (T). (b) and (c) are the corresponding analytical results of the left and right reflections (RL, RR), respectively. The white regions mean that the amplitudes are beyond the maximum value of the color bar.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The properties of S-matrix. (a) are the reflection amplitudes (in a logarithm scale) of the S-matrix, where the blue and red solid curves are corresponding to the analytical results of the left (RL) and right (RR) reflections, respectively. The blue up triangle and red down triangle data points are the corresponding numerical results of the left (RL) and right (RR) reflections. The insert in (a) is the result of transmission (T), where the black solid curve is the analytical result, while the green circles are the numerical one. (b) are the phases of left (rL), right (rR) reflection coefficients and transmission coefficient (t), represented by the blue dashed, red solid and green solid curves, respectively. (c) are the absolute value of the eigenvalues of the S-matrix in a logarithm scale. (d) is the second component of the eigenstates ν 2 , where the real and imaginary parts of ν 2 are represented by the red solid and blue dashed curves, respectively. All the results are related to the value of loss/gain χ.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The field pattern and field amplitude distribution for the unidirectional transparency. (a) and (b) are corresponding to the left and right incidences for the case of χ=3λ , respectively. (c) and (d) are corresponding to the right and the left incidences for the case of χ=5λ , respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The field pattern for the laser mode. (a) and (b) are the corresponding field patterns of the left and right incidences for the case of χ=4.12λ , respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The transmission (reflection) and field pattern for the case of FP resonances. (a) and (b) are the corresponding transmission and reflection related to the value of loss/gain χ for cases of the left and right incidence, respectively. (c) and (d) are the corresponding field patterns of the left and right incidences for FP resonances, respectively.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ={ αiδ,L/2xd/2 α+iδ,d/2xL/2 ,
2 H z x 2 +εμ k 0 2 H z =0,
( f R b R )=( M 11 M 12 M 21 M 22 )( f L b L ),
t L = f R f L = 1 M 22 , r L = b L f L = M 21 M 22 , or t R = b L b R = 1 M 22 r R = f R b R = M 12 M 22 ,
S=( t L r R r L t R ).
t L = t R =t=2 a 1 a 2 /Γ, r L =κ[ a 2 2 ( χ+ a 1 ) 2 ]/Γ, r R =κ[ a 2 2 ( χ a 1 ) 2 ]/Γ,
r L r R =1 | t | 2 =1T.

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