Abstract

A high-quality black phosphorus (BP) saturable-absorber mirror (SAM) was successfully fabricated with the multi-layered BP, prepared by liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) method. The modulation depth and saturation power intensity of BP absorber were measured to be 10.7% and 0.96 MW/cm2, respectively. Using the BP-SAM, we experimentally demonstrated the mid-infrared (mid-IR) pulse generation from a BP Q-switched Cr:ZnSe laser for the first time to our best knowledge. Stable Q-switched pulse as short as 189 ns with an average output power of 36 mW was realized at 2.4 μm, corresponding to a repetition rate of 176 kHz and a single pulse energy of 205 nJ. Our work sufficiently validated that multi-layer BP could be used as an optical modulator for mid-IR pulse laser sources.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2015 (10)

X. Zheng, R. Chen, G. Shi, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Characterization of nonlinear properties of black phosphorus nanoplatelets with femtosecond pulsed Z-scan measurements,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3480–3483 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, R. Chen, G. Shi, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Characterization of nonlinear properties of black phosphorus nanoplatelets with femtosecond pulsed Z-scan measurements,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3480–3483 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus a new saturable absorber material for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (10)

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Strain-Induced Gap Modification in Black Phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(17), 176801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Das, W. Zhang, M. Demarteau, A. Hoffmann, M. Dubey, and A. Roelofs, “Tunable transport gap in phosphorene,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5733–5739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. Jiao, L. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Diankov, and H. Dai, “Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes,” Nature 458(7240), 877–880 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. Morita, “Semiconducting black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 39(4), 227–242 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

S. Sugai and I. Shirotani, “Raman and infrared reflection spectroscopy in black phosphorus,” Solid State Commun. 53(9), 753–755 (1985).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus a new saturable absorber material for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asadi, M.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asahina, H.

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, A.

A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Strain-Induced Gap Modification in Black Phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(17), 176801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Strain-Induced Gap Modification in Black Phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(17), 176801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, X.

Chhowalla, M.

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crommie, M. F.

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

L. Jiao, L. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Diankov, and H. Dai, “Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes,” Nature 458(7240), 877–880 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, S.

S. Das, W. Zhang, M. Demarteau, A. Hoffmann, M. Dubey, and A. Roelofs, “Tunable transport gap in phosphorene,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5733–5739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demarteau, M.

S. Das, W. Zhang, M. Demarteau, A. Hoffmann, M. Dubey, and A. Roelofs, “Tunable transport gap in phosphorene,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5733–5739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diankov, G.

L. Jiao, L. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Diankov, and H. Dai, “Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes,” Nature 458(7240), 877–880 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, J.

Dubey, M.

S. Das, W. Zhang, M. Demarteau, A. Hoffmann, M. Dubey, and A. Roelofs, “Tunable transport gap in phosphorene,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5733–5739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eda, G.

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, D.

Fan, D. Y.

Feng, D.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Foroozan, T.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, Q.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

Guo, Z. N.

Hao, Z.

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, J.

Hoffmann, A.

S. Das, W. Zhang, M. Demarteau, A. Hoffmann, M. Dubey, and A. Roelofs, “Tunable transport gap in phosphorene,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5733–5739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.-X.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Indacochea, J. E.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, W.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, G.

Jiang, T.

Jiang, X. F.

Jiao, L.

L. Jiao, L. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Diankov, and H. Dai, “Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes,” Nature 458(7240), 877–880 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jussila, H.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karvonen, L.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klie, R. F.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, X.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, B.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Li, L.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.-J.

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lipsanen, H.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lou, F.

Lu, S.

Lu, S. B.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z. C.

Ma, J.

Macherzynski, W.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus a new saturable absorber material for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martin, M. C.

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mei, L.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, L. L.

Morita, A.

A. Morita, “Semiconducting black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 39(4), 227–242 (1986).
[Crossref]

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Neal, A. T.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ning, J.

Ou, X.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paletko, P.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus a new saturable absorber material for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

Qiao, J.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodin, A. S.

A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Strain-Induced Gap Modification in Black Phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(17), 176801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roelofs, A.

S. Das, W. Zhang, M. Demarteau, A. Hoffmann, M. Dubey, and A. Roelofs, “Tunable transport gap in phosphorene,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5733–5739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salehi-Khojin, A.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, G.

Shin, H. S.

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirotani, I.

S. Sugai and I. Shirotani, “Raman and infrared reflection spectroscopy in black phosphorus,” Solid State Commun. 53(9), 753–755 (1985).
[Crossref]

Sobon, G.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus a new saturable absorber material for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soklaski, R.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sotor, J.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus a new saturable absorber material for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

Sugai, S.

S. Sugai and I. Shirotani, “Raman and infrared reflection spectroscopy in black phosphorus,” Solid State Commun. 53(9), 753–755 (1985).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takao, Y.

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, R.

Tang, T.-T.

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tománek, D.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, V.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tuschel, D.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F. Z.

Wang, H.

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

L. Jiao, L. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Diankov, and H. Dai, “Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes,” Nature 458(7240), 877–880 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

Wu, H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W. C.

Xu, X.

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Yang, F.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.

Yang, L.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yasaei, P.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, G.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, G. J.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, P. D.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

Yu, X. F.

Yu, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, H.

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

L. Jiao, L. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Diankov, and H. Dai, “Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes,” Nature 458(7240), 877–880 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Das, W. Zhang, M. Demarteau, A. Hoffmann, M. Dubey, and A. Roelofs, “Tunable transport gap in phosphorene,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5733–5739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, R.

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus a new saturable absorber material for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

A. Morita, “Semiconducting black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 39(4), 227–242 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Das, W. Zhang, M. Demarteau, A. Hoffmann, M. Dubey, and A. Roelofs, “Tunable transport gap in phosphorene,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5733–5739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Chem. (1)

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

L. Jiao, L. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Diankov, and H. Dai, “Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes,” Nature 458(7240), 877–880 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459(7248), 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Strain-Induced Gap Modification in Black Phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(17), 176801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

S. Sugai and I. Shirotani, “Raman and infrared reflection spectroscopy in black phosphorus,” Solid State Commun. 53(9), 753–755 (1985).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

T. Jiang, K. Yin, X. Zheng, H. Yu, and X.-A. Cheng, “Black phosphorus as a new broadband saturable absorber for infrared passively Q-switched fiber lasers,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1504.07341 (2015).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM image and typical height profile of the transferred phosphorene sheets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raman spectrum of the prepared multi-layered BP film at room temperature; (b)Transmittance versus incident optical power intensity on phosphorene SA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The schematic of Q-switched Cr:ZnSe laser setup based on BP-SAM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Average output power and single pulse energy versus incident pump power; (b) Evolutions of the pulse repetition rate and pulse width as increasing incident pump power; (c) A typical Q-switched pulse train (inset) and the temporal pulse profile, (d) Emission spectrum of Q-switched Cr:ZnSe laser.

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