Abstract

We have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror features 44 actuators, has an aperture of 50 mm, and is designed to reproduce low-order Zernike modes with a stroke of several tens of μm. We assessed the space compliance by operating the mirror in thermal vacuum, and exposing it to random and sinusoidal vibrations, as well as to ionizing irradiation. Additionally, the operational life time and the laser power handling capability were tested. The mirror was successfully operated in thermal vacuum at 100 K. We report on the conducted tests and the methods used to evaluate the mirror’s performance, and discuss the compliance with the demanded requirements.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (3)

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Goy, C. Reinlein, J. Kinast, and N. Lange, “Cryogenic testing of a unimorph-type deformable mirror and theoretical material optimization,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 13(1), 011107 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Reinlein, M. Goy, N. Lange, and J. Kinast, “Unimorph-type deformable mirror for cryogenic telescopes,” Proc. SPIE,  9151, 915104 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Patterson and S. Pellegrino, “Ultralightweight deformable mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 52(22), 5327–5341 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

K. Enya, H. Kataza, and P. Bierden, “A micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS)-based cryogenic deformable mirror,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121(877), 260–265, (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Nicolai, S. Uhlig, A. Schönecker, and A. Michaelis, “Experimental investigation of non-linear behaviour of PZT piezoceramics at low temperatures,” Adv. Sci. Tech. 56, 105–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. B. Stewart, T. G. Bifano, S. Cornelissen, P. Bierden, B. M. Levine, and T. Cook, “Design and development of a 331-segment tip–tilt–piston mirror array for space-based adaptive optics,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 138(1), 230–238 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A 356(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. L. Mulvihill, M. E. Roche, J. L. Cavaco, R. J. Shawgo, Z. Chaudhry, and M. A. Ealey, “Cryogenic deformable mirror technology development,” Proc. SPIE 5172, 60–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Manhart, W. J. Hupfer, S. Nikolov, C. Wuehrer, G. V. Vdovin, and Z. Sodnik, “50-mm MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 555–562 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Fett, S. Müller, D. Munz, and G. Thun, “Nonsymmetry in the deformation behaviour of PZT,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 17(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

J. Fanson and M. Ealey, “Articulating fold mirror for the Wide-Field/Planetary Camera II,” Proc. SPIE 1920, 306–316 (1993).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

X. L. Zhang, Z. X. Chen, L. E. Cross, and W. A. Schulze, “Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of modified lead titanate zirconate ceramics from 4.2 to 300 K,” J. Mater. Sci. 18(4), 968–972 (1983).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65(386), 229–236 (1953).
[Crossref]

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65(386), 229–236 (1953).
[Crossref]

Barbee, T.

G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bastard, A.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Beaufort, E.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Berkefeld, T.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Biasi, R.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Bierden, P.

K. Enya, H. Kataza, and P. Bierden, “A micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS)-based cryogenic deformable mirror,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121(877), 260–265, (2009).
[Crossref]

J. B. Stewart, T. G. Bifano, S. Cornelissen, P. Bierden, B. M. Levine, and T. Cook, “Design and development of a 331-segment tip–tilt–piston mirror array for space-based adaptive optics,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 138(1), 230–238 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bifano, T. G.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

J. B. Stewart, T. G. Bifano, S. Cornelissen, P. Bierden, B. M. Levine, and T. Cook, “Design and development of a 331-segment tip–tilt–piston mirror array for space-based adaptive optics,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 138(1), 230–238 (2007).
[Crossref]

Booth, M.

M. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A 356(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
[Crossref]

Broomfield, G. H.

G. H. Broomfield, “The effects of temperature and irradiation on piezoelectric acoustic transducers and materials,” AERE-R11942 (1985).

Cadiergues, L.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Cavaco, J. L.

M. L. Mulvihill, M. E. Roche, J. L. Cavaco, R. J. Shawgo, Z. Chaudhry, and M. A. Ealey, “Cryogenic deformable mirror technology development,” Proc. SPIE 5172, 60–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chakrabarti, S.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaudhry, Z.

M. L. Mulvihill, M. E. Roche, J. L. Cavaco, R. J. Shawgo, Z. Chaudhry, and M. A. Ealey, “Cryogenic deformable mirror technology development,” Proc. SPIE 5172, 60–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chazallet, F.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. X.

X. L. Zhang, Z. X. Chen, L. E. Cross, and W. A. Schulze, “Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of modified lead titanate zirconate ceramics from 4.2 to 300 K,” J. Mater. Sci. 18(4), 968–972 (1983).
[Crossref]

Clampin, M.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Content, D. A.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Cook, T.

J. B. Stewart, T. G. Bifano, S. Cornelissen, P. Bierden, B. M. Levine, and T. Cook, “Design and development of a 331-segment tip–tilt–piston mirror array for space-based adaptive optics,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 138(1), 230–238 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cook, T. A.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Cornelissen, S.

J. B. Stewart, T. G. Bifano, S. Cornelissen, P. Bierden, B. M. Levine, and T. Cook, “Design and development of a 331-segment tip–tilt–piston mirror array for space-based adaptive optics,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 138(1), 230–238 (2007).
[Crossref]

Costes, V.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Cousty, R.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Creath, K.

J. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol XI, Chap 1 (Academic, 1992).

Cross, L. E.

X. L. Zhang, Z. X. Chen, L. E. Cross, and W. A. Schulze, “Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of modified lead titanate zirconate ceramics from 4.2 to 300 K,” J. Mater. Sci. 18(4), 968–972 (1983).
[Crossref]

D’Amato, F.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

David, R.

Dekhtiar, C.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Devilliers, C.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Di Gesu, F.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Dickey, F. M.

F. M. Dickey, T. E. Lizotte, S. C. Holswade, and D. L. Shealy, Laser Beam Shaping Applications (CRC, 2005).
[Crossref]

Dipper, N.

Doble, N.

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Doyon, R.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Duo, F.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Dyson, H.

Ealey, M.

G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Fanson and M. Ealey, “Articulating fold mirror for the Wide-Field/Planetary Camera II,” Proc. SPIE 1920, 306–316 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ealey, M. A.

M. L. Mulvihill, M. E. Roche, J. L. Cavaco, R. J. Shawgo, Z. Chaudhry, and M. A. Ealey, “Cryogenic deformable mirror technology development,” Proc. SPIE 5172, 60–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

Enya, K.

K. Enya, H. Kataza, and P. Bierden, “A micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS)-based cryogenic deformable mirror,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121(877), 260–265, (2009).
[Crossref]

Fanson, J.

J. Fanson and M. Ealey, “Articulating fold mirror for the Wide-Field/Planetary Camera II,” Proc. SPIE 1920, 306–316 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, M.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fett, T.

T. Fett, S. Müller, D. Munz, and G. Thun, “Nonsymmetry in the deformation behaviour of PZT,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 17(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gallieni, D.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Gambicorti, L.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Gardner, J. P.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gilbert, X.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Goy, M.

M. Goy, C. Reinlein, J. Kinast, and N. Lange, “Cryogenic testing of a unimorph-type deformable mirror and theoretical material optimization,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 13(1), 011107 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Reinlein, M. Goy, N. Lange, and J. Kinast, “Unimorph-type deformable mirror for cryogenic telescopes,” Proc. SPIE,  9151, 915104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Greenhouse, M. A.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grezes-Besset, C.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Groeninck, D.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Guercia, A.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Hammel, H. B.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hart, M.

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hartung, M.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Helmbrecht, M. A.

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hickey, G.

G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hicks, B. A.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Holswade, S. C.

F. M. Dickey, T. E. Lizotte, S. C. Holswade, and D. L. Shealy, Laser Beam Shaping Applications (CRC, 2005).
[Crossref]

Hourtoule, C.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hugot, E.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hupfer, W. J.

S. Manhart, W. J. Hupfer, S. Nikolov, C. Wuehrer, G. V. Vdovin, and Z. Sodnik, “50-mm MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 555–562 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hutchings, J B.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, P.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Juneau, T.

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kataza, H.

K. Enya, H. Kataza, and P. Bierden, “A micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS)-based cryogenic deformable mirror,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121(877), 260–265, (2009).
[Crossref]

Kinast, J.

M. Goy, C. Reinlein, J. Kinast, and N. Lange, “Cryogenic testing of a unimorph-type deformable mirror and theoretical material optimization,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 13(1), 011107 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Reinlein, M. Goy, N. Lange, and J. Kinast, “Unimorph-type deformable mirror for cryogenic telescopes,” Proc. SPIE,  9151, 915104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krol, H.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Lane, B. F.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Lange, N.

M. Goy, C. Reinlein, J. Kinast, and N. Lange, “Cryogenic testing of a unimorph-type deformable mirror and theoretical material optimization,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 13(1), 011107 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Reinlein, M. Goy, N. Lange, and J. Kinast, “Unimorph-type deformable mirror for cryogenic telescopes,” Proc. SPIE,  9151, 915104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laslandes, M.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lazzarini, P.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Levine, B. M.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

J. B. Stewart, T. G. Bifano, S. Cornelissen, P. Bierden, B. M. Levine, and T. Cook, “Design and development of a 331-segment tip–tilt–piston mirror array for space-based adaptive optics,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 138(1), 230–238 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

Lilly, S. J.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lisi, F.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Lizotte, T. E.

F. M. Dickey, T. E. Lizotte, S. C. Holswade, and D. L. Shealy, Laser Beam Shaping Applications (CRC, 2005).
[Crossref]

Long, K. S.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lopez, C.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lunine, J. I.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Manhart, S.

S. Manhart, W. J. Hupfer, S. Nikolov, C. Wuehrer, G. V. Vdovin, and Z. Sodnik, “50-mm MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 555–562 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mather, J. C.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

McCaughrean, M J.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mendillo, C. B.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Michaelis, A.

M. Nicolai, S. Uhlig, A. Schönecker, and A. Michaelis, “Experimental investigation of non-linear behaviour of PZT piezoceramics at low temperatures,” Adv. Sci. Tech. 56, 105–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. T.

Moreau, A.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Morin, P.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Mountain, M.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Müller, S.

T. Fett, S. Müller, D. Munz, and G. Thun, “Nonsymmetry in the deformation behaviour of PZT,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 17(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mulvihill, M. L.

M. L. Mulvihill, M. E. Roche, J. L. Cavaco, R. J. Shawgo, Z. Chaudhry, and M. A. Ealey, “Cryogenic deformable mirror technology development,” Proc. SPIE 5172, 60–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

Munz, D.

T. Fett, S. Müller, D. Munz, and G. Thun, “Nonsymmetry in the deformation behaviour of PZT,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 17(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nella, J.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nicolai, M.

M. Nicolai, S. Uhlig, A. Schönecker, and A. Michaelis, “Experimental investigation of non-linear behaviour of PZT piezoceramics at low temperatures,” Adv. Sci. Tech. 56, 105–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nikolov, S.

S. Manhart, W. J. Hupfer, S. Nikolov, C. Wuehrer, G. V. Vdovin, and Z. Sodnik, “50-mm MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 555–562 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pages, H.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Palomo, R.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Patauner, C.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Patterson, K.

Pellegrino, S.

Pereira do Carmo, J.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Rabin, D.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Rao, S. R.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Rausch, P.

P. Rausch, S. Verpoort, and U. Wittrock, “Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: design and manufacturing,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19469–19477 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Verpoort, P. Rausch, and U. Wittrock, “Novel unimorph deformable mirror for space applications,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Redding, D.

G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reinlein, C.

M. Goy, C. Reinlein, J. Kinast, and N. Lange, “Cryogenic testing of a unimorph-type deformable mirror and theoretical material optimization,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 13(1), 011107 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Reinlein, M. Goy, N. Lange, and J. Kinast, “Unimorph-type deformable mirror for cryogenic telescopes,” Proc. SPIE,  9151, 915104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Riccardi, A.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Rieke, G. H.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rieke, M. J.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rix, H.-W.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Roche, M. E.

M. L. Mulvihill, M. E. Roche, J. L. Cavaco, R. J. Shawgo, Z. Chaudhry, and M. A. Ealey, “Cryogenic deformable mirror technology development,” Proc. SPIE 5172, 60–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge University, 1999).
[Crossref]

Samuele, R.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Scharmer, G.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmidtlin, E.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Schönecker, A.

M. Nicolai, S. Uhlig, A. Schönecker, and A. Michaelis, “Experimental investigation of non-linear behaviour of PZT piezoceramics at low temperatures,” Adv. Sci. Tech. 56, 105–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schulze, W. A.

X. L. Zhang, Z. X. Chen, L. E. Cross, and W. A. Schulze, “Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of modified lead titanate zirconate ceramics from 4.2 to 300 K,” J. Mater. Sci. 18(4), 968–972 (1983).
[Crossref]

Shao, M.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Sharples, R.

Shawgo, R. J.

M. L. Mulvihill, M. E. Roche, J. L. Cavaco, R. J. Shawgo, Z. Chaudhry, and M. A. Ealey, “Cryogenic deformable mirror technology development,” Proc. SPIE 5172, 60–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shealy, D. L.

F. M. Dickey, T. E. Lizotte, S. C. Holswade, and D. L. Shealy, Laser Beam Shaping Applications (CRC, 2005).
[Crossref]

Singer, C.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sinquin, J.-C.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, E. P.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sodnik, Z.

S. Manhart, W. J. Hupfer, S. Nikolov, C. Wuehrer, G. V. Vdovin, and Z. Sodnik, “50-mm MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 555–562 (2000).
[Crossref]

Soltau, D.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Sonneborn, G.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stewart, J. B.

J. B. Stewart, T. G. Bifano, S. Cornelissen, P. Bierden, B. M. Levine, and T. Cook, “Design and development of a 331-segment tip–tilt–piston mirror array for space-based adaptive optics,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 138(1), 230–238 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stiavelli, M.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stockmann, H. S.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thun, G.

T. Fett, S. Müller, D. Munz, and G. Thun, “Nonsymmetry in the deformation behaviour of PZT,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 17(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tintori, M.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Tyson, R.

R. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (CRC, 2010).
[Crossref]

Uhlig, S.

M. Nicolai, S. Uhlig, A. Schönecker, and A. Michaelis, “Experimental investigation of non-linear behaviour of PZT piezoceramics at low temperatures,” Adv. Sci. Tech. 56, 105–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vdovin, G.

Vdovin, G. V.

S. Manhart, W. J. Hupfer, S. Nikolov, C. Wuehrer, G. V. Vdovin, and Z. Sodnik, “50-mm MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 555–562 (2000).
[Crossref]

Veran, J.-P.

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Verpoort, S.

P. Rausch, S. Verpoort, and U. Wittrock, “Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: design and manufacturing,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19469–19477 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Verpoort, P. Rausch, and U. Wittrock, “Novel unimorph deformable mirror for space applications,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

S. Verpoort, “Entwicklung neuartiger deformierbarer Spiegel für den Einsatz in Hochleistungslasern,” Verlag Dr. Hut, (2011).

Vettore, C.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Wallace, J. K.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

Wijker, J. J.

J. J. Wijker, Spacecraft Structures (Springer Science & Business Media, 2008).

Williams, D. R.

Windhorst, R. A.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wittrock, U.

P. Rausch, S. Verpoort, and U. Wittrock, “Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: design and manufacturing,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19469–19477 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Verpoort, P. Rausch, and U. Wittrock, “Novel unimorph deformable mirror for space applications,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Wright, G. S.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wuehrer, C.

S. Manhart, W. J. Hupfer, S. Nikolov, C. Wuehrer, G. V. Vdovin, and Z. Sodnik, “50-mm MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 555–562 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wyant, J.

J. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol XI, Chap 1 (Academic, 1992).

Zhang, X. L.

X. L. Zhang, Z. X. Chen, L. E. Cross, and W. A. Schulze, “Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of modified lead titanate zirconate ceramics from 4.2 to 300 K,” J. Mater. Sci. 18(4), 968–972 (1983).
[Crossref]

Zuccaro Marchi, A.

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Adv. Sci. Tech. (1)

M. Nicolai, S. Uhlig, A. Schönecker, and A. Michaelis, “Experimental investigation of non-linear behaviour of PZT piezoceramics at low temperatures,” Adv. Sci. Tech. 56, 105–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

X. L. Zhang, Z. X. Chen, L. E. Cross, and W. A. Schulze, “Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of modified lead titanate zirconate ceramics from 4.2 to 300 K,” J. Mater. Sci. 18(4), 968–972 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. Lett. (1)

T. Fett, S. Müller, D. Munz, and G. Thun, “Nonsymmetry in the deformation behaviour of PZT,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 17(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS (1)

M. Goy, C. Reinlein, J. Kinast, and N. Lange, “Cryogenic testing of a unimorph-type deformable mirror and theoretical material optimization,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 13(1), 011107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 091803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A (1)

M. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A 356(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (8)

J. Fanson and M. Ealey, “Articulating fold mirror for the Wide-Field/Planetary Camera II,” Proc. SPIE 1920, 306–316 (1993).
[Crossref]

G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Manhart, W. J. Hupfer, S. Nikolov, C. Wuehrer, G. V. Vdovin, and Z. Sodnik, “50-mm MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 555–562 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Sinquin, A. Bastard, E. Beaufort, T. Berkefeld, L. Cadiergues, V. Costes, R. Cousty, C. Dekhtiar, F. Di Gesu, X. Gilbert, C. Grezes-Besset, D. Groeninck, M. Hartung, H. Krol, A. Moreau, P. Morin, H. Pages, R. Palomo, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, and J.-P. Veran, “Recent results and future DMs for astronomy and for space applications at CILAS,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480G (2014).
[Crossref]

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 84420E (2012).
[Crossref]

M. L. Mulvihill, M. E. Roche, J. L. Cavaco, R. J. Shawgo, Z. Chaudhry, and M. A. Ealey, “Cryogenic deformable mirror technology development,” Proc. SPIE 5172, 60–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Reinlein, M. Goy, N. Lange, and J. Kinast, “Unimorph-type deformable mirror for cryogenic telescopes,” Proc. SPIE,  9151, 915104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

K. Enya, H. Kataza, and P. Bierden, “A micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS)-based cryogenic deformable mirror,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121(877), 260–265, (2009).
[Crossref]

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65(386), 229–236 (1953).
[Crossref]

Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. (1)

J. B. Stewart, T. G. Bifano, S. Cornelissen, P. Bierden, B. M. Levine, and T. Cook, “Design and development of a 331-segment tip–tilt–piston mirror array for space-based adaptive optics,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 138(1), 230–238 (2007).
[Crossref]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. S. Stockmann, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge University, 1999).
[Crossref]

L. Gambicorti, F. D’Amato, F. Lisi, A. Riccardi, C. Vettore, F. Duo, A. Guercia, D. Gallieni, P. Lazzarini, M. Tintori, C. Patauner, R. Biasi, A. Zuccaro Marchi, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

F. M. Dickey, T. E. Lizotte, S. C. Holswade, and D. L. Shealy, Laser Beam Shaping Applications (CRC, 2005).
[Crossref]

R. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (CRC, 2010).
[Crossref]

S. Verpoort, “Entwicklung neuartiger deformierbarer Spiegel für den Einsatz in Hochleistungslasern,” Verlag Dr. Hut, (2011).

Arianespace, “Soyuz user’s manual,” Issue 2, http://www.arianespace.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Soyuz-Users-Manual-March-2012.pdf .

J. J. Wijker, Spacecraft Structures (Springer Science & Business Media, 2008).

G. H. Broomfield, “The effects of temperature and irradiation on piezoelectric acoustic transducers and materials,” AERE-R11942 (1985).

S. Verpoort, P. Rausch, and U. Wittrock, “Novel unimorph deformable mirror for space applications,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ajaccio, Corse (2012).

Secretariat, E.C.S.S., Space Engineering Testing, Technical Report ECSS-E-10-03A, ESA-ESTEC Requirements & Standards Division (2002).

J. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol XI, Chap 1 (Academic, 1992).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Main mirror structure. Left: back side of the piezoelectric disc in the spiral arm design (top) and the bridge design (bottom). The difference between the two designs is highlighted by the dashed red lines in the insets that trace the contour of the piezoelectric disc. Mounting points are marked by the red dots. Right: schematic cross-section of the main mirror structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Left: back side (top) and front side (bottom) of the main mirror structure in its mounting ring. The area of the mirror that can be controlled with high precision has a diameter of 50 mm and is marked by the dashed white circle. Right: fully assembled deformable mirror.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Deformable mirror DM-1 mounted in the inner shroud of the thermal vacuum test chamber. Red dots indicate the positions of temperature sensors in proximity of the mirror.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Top: Schematic of the thermal vacuum performance verification test setup, not to scale. Bottom: Image of the optical bench located in front of the vacuum chamber. The optical setup on the bench consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with integrated illumination, and a beam expansion telescope consisting of lenses L1 and L2. The 6-axis mount of lens L2 is fixed onto a translation stage to adjust the telescope.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temperature profiles recorded by the temperature sensors indicated in Fig. 3 during one cycle. The positions of the surface measurements are indicated by black circles.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Maximum Zernike amplitudes of DM-1 in thermal vacuum achieved at the performance tests indicated in Fig. 5 (300 K, 200 K, and 300 K). The last performance test at 300 K was conducted after eight thermal cycles between 300 K and 100 K.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured (red) and calculated (blue) response of the main mirror structure in the spiral arm design (top) and in the bridge design (bottom) to acoustic sinusoidal excitation normal to the mirror surface. The insets show the (calculated) shape of the first two dominant eigenmodes of each design. For both designs, the first eigenmode corresponds to a piston-like movement of the central disc.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Fracture site of the spiral arm design after the random vibration test (DM-1). (b) Numerical calculation of the van-Mises stress inside the main mirror structure induced by the excitation of the first eigenmode.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Ratio of the peak-to-valley amplitudes of each actuator for a voltage of 100 V prior and after the gamma- and proton-irradiation tests.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Ratio of the peak-to-valley amplitudes of each actuator for a voltage of 100 V prior and after the laser irradiation tests.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Ratio of the peak-to-valley amplitudes of each actuator for a voltage of 100 V prior and after the continuous operation test.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Vibration test levels

Equations (1)

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Δ α = 2 Z 3 t p 4 E p 2 + 4 t p 3 E p t g E g + 6 t p 2 E p t g 2 E g + 4 t g 3 E g t p E p + t g 4 E g 2 3 t p E p t g E g ( t p + t g ) r 2 Δ T

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