Abstract

We have designed a new kind of focal reducer for the 2.3 m Thai National Telescope (TNT) to image the TNT specified FOV Δθ = 14.6’ with an angular resolution α ≈1.2 arcsec. This, at a minimum cost by using common glasses, spherical surfaces and by requiring comfortable mechanical tolerance. This focal reducer comprises 1 lens placed at the level of the fork entrance and 1 lens placed in front of the detector. In this paper, we present the focal reducer paraxial model, we describe the optical design and we present the performance.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).
  2. R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics 1 (Springer, 1996).
  3. A. B. Meinel, “An F/2 Cassegrain camera,” Astrophys. J. 124, 652 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Courtes, “Symposium on instrumental astronomy: interferometric studies of emission nebulosities,” Astrophys. J. 69, 325 (1964).
  5. G. Courtès, “Spiral structure and kinematics of the galaxy from a study of the H II regions: Fabry-Perot interference methods applied to ionized hydrogen,” Vistas Astron. 14(1), 81–161 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. V. L. Afanasiev and A. V. Moiseev, “The SCORPIO universal focal reducer of the 6-m telescope,” Astron. Lett. 31(3), 194–204 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Lim, S. Chang, S. Pak, Y. Kim, W.-K. Park, and M. Im, “Focal reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse),” J. Kor. Astron. Soc. 46(4), 161–172 (2013).
  9. C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).
  10. C. Buisset, A. Prasit, T. Lépine, and S. Poshyajinda, “Optical and mechanical design and characterization of the new baffle for the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262F (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. S. Bessell, “UBVRI passbands,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 1181–1199 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Protassov, Analyse Statistique des Données Expérimentales (EDP sciences, 2002).
  13. C. R. Pidgeon and S. D. Smith, “Resolving power of multilayer filters in nonparallel light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(12), 1459–1466 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. H. Elliot and J. Meaburn, “The design, construction and performance of a large Hα and [NII] interference filter for the SRC 48-inch Schmidt,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 39(2), 437–445 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  15. Q. A. Parker and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Technical aspects of the new AAO/UKST Hα interference filter,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 15(01), 33–37 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Bessell, G. Bloxham, B. Schmidt, S. Keller, P. Tisserand, and P. Francis, “SkyMapper filter set: design and fabrication of large scale optical filters,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123(905), 789–798 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. A. Quijada, C. T. Marx, R. G. Arendt, and S. H. Moseley, “Angle-of-incidence effects in the spectral performance of the infrared array camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 244–252 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. OPTIMAX website, http://www.optimaxsi.com/innovation/optical-manufacturing-tolerance-chart/ (2015).

2015 (2)

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, T. Lépine, and S. Poshyajinda, “Optical and mechanical design and characterization of the new baffle for the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262F (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

2013 (1)

J. Lim, S. Chang, S. Pak, Y. Kim, W.-K. Park, and M. Im, “Focal reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse),” J. Kor. Astron. Soc. 46(4), 161–172 (2013).

2011 (1)

M. Bessell, G. Bloxham, B. Schmidt, S. Keller, P. Tisserand, and P. Francis, “SkyMapper filter set: design and fabrication of large scale optical filters,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123(905), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

V. L. Afanasiev and A. V. Moiseev, “The SCORPIO universal focal reducer of the 6-m telescope,” Astron. Lett. 31(3), 194–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. A. Quijada, C. T. Marx, R. G. Arendt, and S. H. Moseley, “Angle-of-incidence effects in the spectral performance of the infrared array camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 244–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. A. Parker and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Technical aspects of the new AAO/UKST Hα interference filter,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 15(01), 33–37 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. S. Bessell, “UBVRI passbands,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 1181–1199 (1990).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

K. H. Elliot and J. Meaburn, “The design, construction and performance of a large Hα and [NII] interference filter for the SRC 48-inch Schmidt,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 39(2), 437–445 (1976).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

G. Courtès, “Spiral structure and kinematics of the galaxy from a study of the H II regions: Fabry-Perot interference methods applied to ionized hydrogen,” Vistas Astron. 14(1), 81–161 (1972).
[Crossref]

1964 (2)

G. Courtes, “Symposium on instrumental astronomy: interferometric studies of emission nebulosities,” Astrophys. J. 69, 325 (1964).

C. R. Pidgeon and S. D. Smith, “Resolving power of multilayer filters in nonparallel light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(12), 1459–1466 (1964).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

A. B. Meinel, “An F/2 Cassegrain camera,” Astrophys. J. 124, 652 (1956).
[Crossref]

Afanasiev, V. L.

V. L. Afanasiev and A. V. Moiseev, “The SCORPIO universal focal reducer of the 6-m telescope,” Astron. Lett. 31(3), 194–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appenzeller, I.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arendt, R. G.

M. A. Quijada, C. T. Marx, R. G. Arendt, and S. H. Moseley, “Angle-of-incidence effects in the spectral performance of the infrared array camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 244–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, D. C.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Bessell, M.

M. Bessell, G. Bloxham, B. Schmidt, S. Keller, P. Tisserand, and P. Francis, “SkyMapper filter set: design and fabrication of large scale optical filters,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123(905), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bessell, M. S.

M. S. Bessell, “UBVRI passbands,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 1181–1199 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bezawada, N.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Q. A. Parker and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Technical aspects of the new AAO/UKST Hα interference filter,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 15(01), 33–37 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bloxham, G.

M. Bessell, G. Bloxham, B. Schmidt, S. Keller, P. Tisserand, and P. Francis, “SkyMapper filter set: design and fabrication of large scale optical filters,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123(905), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boehnhardt, H.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bours, M. C. P.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Buisset, C.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, T. Lépine, and S. Poshyajinda, “Optical and mechanical design and characterization of the new baffle for the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262F (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

J. Lim, S. Chang, S. Pak, Y. Kim, W.-K. Park, and M. Im, “Focal reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse),” J. Kor. Astron. Soc. 46(4), 161–172 (2013).

Copperwheat, C. M.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Courtes, G.

G. Courtes, “Symposium on instrumental astronomy: interferometric studies of emission nebulosities,” Astrophys. J. 69, 325 (1964).

Courtès, G.

G. Courtès, “Spiral structure and kinematics of the galaxy from a study of the H II regions: Fabry-Perot interference methods applied to ionized hydrogen,” Vistas Astron. 14(1), 81–161 (1972).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, V.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

Dhillon, V. S.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Elliot, K. H.

K. H. Elliot and J. Meaburn, “The design, construction and performance of a large Hα and [NII] interference filter for the SRC 48-inch Schmidt,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 39(2), 437–445 (1976).
[Crossref]

Francis, P.

M. Bessell, G. Bloxham, B. Schmidt, S. Keller, P. Tisserand, and P. Francis, “SkyMapper filter set: design and fabrication of large scale optical filters,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123(905), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fuertig, W.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gaebler, W.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gamble, T.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Haefner, R.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hardy, L. K.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Harke, R.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hess, H.-J.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hickman, R. D. H.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Im, M.

J. Lim, S. Chang, S. Pak, Y. Kim, W.-K. Park, and M. Im, “Focal reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse),” J. Kor. Astron. Soc. 46(4), 161–172 (2013).

Irawati, P.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Ives, D. J.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Juergens, P.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

M. Bessell, G. Bloxham, B. Schmidt, S. Keller, P. Tisserand, and P. Francis, “SkyMapper filter set: design and fabrication of large scale optical filters,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123(905), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kerry, P.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Kim, Y.

J. Lim, S. Chang, S. Pak, Y. Kim, W.-K. Park, and M. Im, “Focal reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse),” J. Kor. Astron. Soc. 46(4), 161–172 (2013).

Leckngam, A.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Lépine, T.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, T. Lépine, and S. Poshyajinda, “Optical and mechanical design and characterization of the new baffle for the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262F (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

J. Lim, S. Chang, S. Pak, Y. Kim, W.-K. Park, and M. Im, “Focal reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse),” J. Kor. Astron. Soc. 46(4), 161–172 (2013).

Littlefair, S. P.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Mantel, K.-H.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Marsh, T. R.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Marx, C. T.

M. A. Quijada, C. T. Marx, R. G. Arendt, and S. H. Moseley, “Angle-of-incidence effects in the spectral performance of the infrared array camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 244–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

McLay, S. A.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Meaburn, J.

K. H. Elliot and J. Meaburn, “The design, construction and performance of a large Hα and [NII] interference filter for the SRC 48-inch Schmidt,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 39(2), 437–445 (1976).
[Crossref]

Meinel, A. B.

A. B. Meinel, “An F/2 Cassegrain camera,” Astrophys. J. 124, 652 (1956).
[Crossref]

Meisl, W.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moiseev, A. V.

V. L. Afanasiev and A. V. Moiseev, “The SCORPIO universal focal reducer of the 6-m telescope,” Astron. Lett. 31(3), 194–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moseley, S. H.

M. A. Quijada, C. T. Marx, R. G. Arendt, and S. H. Moseley, “Angle-of-incidence effects in the spectral performance of the infrared array camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 244–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

Muschielok, B.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nicklas, H. E.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, K.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Pak, S.

J. Lim, S. Chang, S. Pak, Y. Kim, W.-K. Park, and M. Im, “Focal reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse),” J. Kor. Astron. Soc. 46(4), 161–172 (2013).

Park, W.-K.

J. Lim, S. Chang, S. Pak, Y. Kim, W.-K. Park, and M. Im, “Focal reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse),” J. Kor. Astron. Soc. 46(4), 161–172 (2013).

Parker, Q. A.

Q. A. Parker and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Technical aspects of the new AAO/UKST Hα interference filter,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 15(01), 33–37 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peacocke, P. T.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Pidgeon, C. R.

Poshyachinda, S.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Poshyajinda, S.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, T. Lépine, and S. Poshyajinda, “Optical and mechanical design and characterization of the new baffle for the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262F (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

Prasit, A.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, T. Lépine, and S. Poshyajinda, “Optical and mechanical design and characterization of the new baffle for the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262F (2015).
[Crossref]

Quijada, M. A.

M. A. Quijada, C. T. Marx, R. G. Arendt, and S. H. Moseley, “Angle-of-incidence effects in the spectral performance of the infrared array camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 244–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

Richichi, A.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Rupprecht, G.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sawangwit, U.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

Schmidt, B.

M. Bessell, G. Bloxham, B. Schmidt, S. Keller, P. Tisserand, and P. Francis, “SkyMapper filter set: design and fabrication of large scale optical filters,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123(905), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seifert, W.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. D.

Soonthornthum, B.

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Stahl, O.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Szeifert, T.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tarantik, K.

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tisserand, P.

M. Bessell, G. Bloxham, B. Schmidt, S. Keller, P. Tisserand, and P. Francis, “SkyMapper filter set: design and fabrication of large scale optical filters,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123(905), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vick, A.

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Astron. Lett. (1)

V. L. Afanasiev and A. V. Moiseev, “The SCORPIO universal focal reducer of the 6-m telescope,” Astron. Lett. 31(3), 194–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (2)

A. B. Meinel, “An F/2 Cassegrain camera,” Astrophys. J. 124, 652 (1956).
[Crossref]

G. Courtes, “Symposium on instrumental astronomy: interferometric studies of emission nebulosities,” Astrophys. J. 69, 325 (1964).

Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

K. H. Elliot and J. Meaburn, “The design, construction and performance of a large Hα and [NII] interference filter for the SRC 48-inch Schmidt,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 39(2), 437–445 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Kor. Astron. Soc. (1)

J. Lim, S. Chang, S. Pak, Y. Kim, W.-K. Park, and M. Im, “Focal reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse),” J. Kor. Astron. Soc. 46(4), 161–172 (2013).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O’Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, and A. Vick, “ULTRASPEC: a high speed imaging photometer on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1–14 (2014).

Proc. SPIE (4)

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, A. Leckngam, T. Lépine, S. Poshyajinda, B. Soonthornthum, P. Irawati, A. Richichi, U. Sawangwit, V. Dhillon, and L. K. Hardy, “Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262E (2015).

C. Buisset, A. Prasit, T. Lépine, and S. Poshyajinda, “Optical and mechanical design and characterization of the new baffle for the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9626, 96262F (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Szeifert, I. Appenzeller, W. Fuertig, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, H. Boehnhardt, W. Gaebler, R. Haefner, H.-J. Hess, K.-H. Mantel, W. Meisl, B. Muschielok, K. Tarantik, R. Harke, P. Juergens, H. E. Nicklas, and G. Rupprecht, “Testing FORS: the first focal reducer for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. A. Quijada, C. T. Marx, R. G. Arendt, and S. H. Moseley, “Angle-of-incidence effects in the spectral performance of the infrared array camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 244–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. (1)

Q. A. Parker and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Technical aspects of the new AAO/UKST Hα interference filter,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 15(01), 33–37 (1998).
[Crossref]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

M. Bessell, G. Bloxham, B. Schmidt, S. Keller, P. Tisserand, and P. Francis, “SkyMapper filter set: design and fabrication of large scale optical filters,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123(905), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. S. Bessell, “UBVRI passbands,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 1181–1199 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vistas Astron. (1)

G. Courtès, “Spiral structure and kinematics of the galaxy from a study of the H II regions: Fabry-Perot interference methods applied to ionized hydrogen,” Vistas Astron. 14(1), 81–161 (1972).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics 1 (Springer, 1996).

K. Protassov, Analyse Statistique des Données Expérimentales (EDP sciences, 2002).

OPTIMAX website, http://www.optimaxsi.com/innovation/optical-manufacturing-tolerance-chart/ (2015).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 TNT ZEMAX optical model.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical elements and current position of the filter wheel and of the 4K camera at the instrument cube level.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Paraxial model of the TNT without the focal reducer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 TNT and focal reducer paraxial model.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mechanical constraints at TNT fork entrance level for the accommodation of focal reducer lens L1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Accommodation constraints at the instrument cube levels for the accommodation of focal reducer lens L2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Focal reducer optical design.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Focal reducer L2 lens close view.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spot diagrams of the TNT equipped with the focal reducer on the spectral band [400 nm, 800 nm] at the FOV 1 (0, 0’), FOV 2 (0’, 4.8’) and FOV 3 (0’, 7.3′). The central box represents 1 pixel of size 30 μm x 30 μm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Chromatic focal shift of the TNT equipped with the Focal Reducer.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Ray fans of the TNT equipped with the focal reducer on the spectral band [400 nm, 800 nm] at the FOV 1 (0’, 0’), FOV 2 (0’, 4.8’) and FOV 3 (0’, 7.3′).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Angular resolution variations over the FOV (left) and histogram of the angular resolution values over the specified FOV (right).

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 TNT and focal reducer optical performance specifications.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Focal reducer L1 and L2 lenses dimension specifications

Tables Icon

Table 3 Focal reducer lens properties (units are mm).

Tables Icon

Table 4 Angular resolution mean value <αTh>, standard deviation σα and maximum value αTh, Max over the specified FOV for the specified spectral bands.

Tables Icon

Table 5 Fabrication parameters.

Tables Icon

Table 6 Results of the tolerancing analysis for the Fabrication, Mounting and alignment errors.

Tables Icon

Table 7 Angular resolution performance budget on the [400 nm, 800 nm] spectral domain.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f 2 ' =A. f 1 ' +B
A= d 3 2 / ( d 2 + d 3 ) 2
B= d 2 . d 3 / ( d 2 + d 3 )
f 2 ' =1/ ( C/ f 1 ' +D )
C=γ. ( d 2 + d 3 ) / d 3
D= ( 1γ ) / d 3
( A.D ). f 1 ' 2 +( A.C+B.D1 ). f 1 ' +B.C=0
Δλ= λ 0 [ 1cos( arcsin( sin θ i / n * ) ) ]

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