Abstract

We present results on CVD growth and electro-optical characterization of Ge0.92Sn0.08/Ge p-i-n heterostructure diodes. The suitability of Ge as barriers for direct bandgap GeSn active layers in different LED geometries, such as double heterostructures and multi quantum wells is discussed based on electroluminescence data. Theoretical calculations by effective mass and 6 band k∙p method reveal low barrier heights for this specific structure. Best configurations offer only a maximum barrier height for electrons of about 40 meV at the Γ point at room temperature (e.g. 300 K), evidently insufficient for proper light emitting devices. An alternative solution using SiGeSn as barrier material is introduced, which provides appropriate band alignment for both electrons and holes resulting in efficient confinement in direct bandgap GeSn wells. Finally, epitaxial growth of such a complete SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double heterostructure including doping is shown.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Theoretical analysis of performance enhancement in GeSn/SiGeSn light-emitting diode enabled by Si3N4 liner stressor technique

Qingfang Zhang, Yan Liu, Genquan Han, Yao Shao, Xi Gao, Chunfu Zhang, Jincheng Zhang, and Yue Hao
Appl. Opt. 55(34) 9668-9674 (2016)

Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics

Seyed Amir Ghetmiri, Yiyin Zhou, Joe Margetis, Sattar Al-Kabi, Wei Dou, Aboozar Mosleh, Wei Du, Andrian Kuchuk, Jifeng Liu, Greg Sun, Richard A. Soref, John Tolle, Hameed A. Naseem, Baohua Li, Mansour Mortazavi, and Shui-Qing Yu
Opt. Lett. 42(3) 387-390 (2017)

Biaxial strain effects on photoluminescence of Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum well

Chung-Yi Lin, Hung-Yu Ye, Fang-Liang Lu, H. S. Lan, and C. W. Liu
Opt. Mater. Express 8(9) 2795-2802 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Alferov, “Double heterostructure lasers: Early days and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 832–840 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, P. Sims, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. P. Gupta, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, T. Adam, and J. Kolodzey, “Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251117 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Schwartz, M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, D. Widmann, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, I. A. Fischer, T. Wendav, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, and M. Kittler, “Electroluminescence of GeSn/Ge MQW LEDs on Si substrate,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3209–3212 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. I. A. Fischer, T. Wendav, L. Augel, S. Jitpakdeebodin, F. Oliveira, A. Benedetti, S. Stefanov, S. Chiussi, G. Capellini, K. Busch, and J. Schulze, “Growth and characterization of SiGeSn quantum well photodiodes,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25048–25057 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4711–4714 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. A. Soref, G. Sun, and H. H. Cheng, “Franz-Keldysh electro-absorption modulation in germanium-tin alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123113 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055002 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).
  19. F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Jaros, “Simple analytic model for heterojunction band offsets,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(12), 7112–7114 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).
  24. K. Lu Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. G. Chang, S. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1-z/SixGeySn1-x-y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. L. Senaratne, J. D. Gallagher, T. Aoki, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Advances in light emission from group-IV alloys via lattice engineering and n-type doping based on custom-designed chemistries,” Chem. Mater. 26(20), 6033–6041 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge 1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171908 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  32. P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1−x−ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073106 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2015 (8)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, P. Sims, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091103 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Schwartz, M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, D. Widmann, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, I. A. Fischer, T. Wendav, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, and M. Kittler, “Electroluminescence of GeSn/Ge MQW LEDs on Si substrate,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3209–3212 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Fischer, T. Wendav, L. Augel, S. Jitpakdeebodin, F. Oliveira, A. Benedetti, S. Stefanov, S. Chiussi, G. Capellini, K. Busch, and J. Schulze, “Growth and characterization of SiGeSn quantum well photodiodes,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25048–25057 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4711–4714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. L. Senaratne, J. D. Gallagher, T. Aoki, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Advances in light emission from group-IV alloys via lattice engineering and n-type doping based on custom-designed chemistries,” Chem. Mater. 26(20), 6033–6041 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

M. Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge 1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171908 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. P. Gupta, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, T. Adam, and J. Kolodzey, “Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251117 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1−x−ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073106 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Lu Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, G. Sun, and H. H. Cheng, “Franz-Keldysh electro-absorption modulation in germanium-tin alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123113 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chang, S. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1-z/SixGeySn1-x-y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055002 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Z. Alferov, “Double heterostructure lasers: Early days and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 832–840 (2000).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. Jaros, “Simple analytic model for heterojunction band offsets,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(12), 7112–7114 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbadie, A.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adam, T.

J. P. Gupta, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, T. Adam, and J. Kolodzey, “Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alferov, Z.

Z. Alferov, “Double heterostructure lasers: Early days and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 832–840 (2000).
[Crossref]

Aoki, T.

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, P. Sims, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. L. Senaratne, J. D. Gallagher, T. Aoki, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Advances in light emission from group-IV alloys via lattice engineering and n-type doping based on custom-designed chemistries,” Chem. Mater. 26(20), 6033–6041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arguirov, T.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Augel, L.

Bauer, M.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bechler, S.

Beeler, R. T.

M. Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge 1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bender, H.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, A.

Bernardy, P.

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

Bhargava, N.

J. P. Gupta, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, T. Adam, and J. Kolodzey, “Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blaeser, S.

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Breuer, U.

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buca, D.

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

Busch, K.

Capellini, G.

Caymax, M.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.

G. Chang, S. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1-z/SixGeySn1-x-y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

G. Chang, S. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1-z/SixGeySn1-x-y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. H.

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, G. Sun, and H. H. Cheng, “Franz-Keldysh electro-absorption modulation in germanium-tin alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123113 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cherkashin, N.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. A. Fischer, T. Wendav, L. Augel, S. Jitpakdeebodin, F. Oliveira, A. Benedetti, S. Stefanov, S. Chiussi, G. Capellini, K. Busch, and J. Schulze, “Growth and characterization of SiGeSn quantum well photodiodes,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25048–25057 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, S. L.

G. Chang, S. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1-z/SixGeySn1-x-y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[Crossref]

Clavelier, L.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Conley, B. R.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crozier, P.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
[Crossref]

D’Costa, V. R.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demeulemeester, J.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Du, W.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, W.

K. Lu Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y. Y.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, I. A.

Franquet, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gallagher, J. D.

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, P. Sims, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. L. Senaratne, J. D. Gallagher, T. Aoki, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Advances in light emission from group-IV alloys via lattice engineering and n-type doping based on custom-designed chemistries,” Chem. Mater. 26(20), 6033–6041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geiger, R.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gencarelli, F.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghetmiri, S. A.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gollhofer, M.

Grampeix, H.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grützmacher, D.

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

Gupta, J. P.

J. P. Gupta, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, T. Adam, and J. Kolodzey, “Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, G.

K. Lu Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, T. R.

M. Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge 1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harrison, P.

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heyns, M.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holländer, B.

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

Ikonic, Z.

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1−x−ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jaros, M.

M. Jaros, “Simple analytic model for heterojunction band offsets,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(12), 7112–7114 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jitpakdeebodin, S.

Kamins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaschel, M.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kasper, E.

Kim, S.

J. P. Gupta, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, T. Adam, and J. Kolodzey, “Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kittler, M.

Koerner, R.

Kolodzey, J.

J. P. Gupta, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, T. Adam, and J. Kolodzey, “Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Korner, R. A.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kostecki, K.

Kouvetakis, J.

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, P. Sims, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. L. Senaratne, J. D. Gallagher, T. Aoki, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Advances in light emission from group-IV alloys via lattice engineering and n-type doping based on custom-designed chemistries,” Chem. Mater. 26(20), 6033–6041 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge 1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171908 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loo, R.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu Low, K.

K. Lu Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

Margetis, J.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mashanov, V.

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meersschaut, J.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Menendez, J.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
[Crossref]

Menéndez, J.

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, P. Sims, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. L. Senaratne, J. D. Gallagher, T. Aoki, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Advances in light emission from group-IV alloys via lattice engineering and n-type doping based on custom-designed chemistries,” Chem. Mater. 26(20), 6033–6041 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moontragoon, P.

P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1−x−ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mosleh, A.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moussa, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

Narcy, G.

Naseem, H. A.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nazzal, A.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oehme, M.

Oliveira, F.

Ren, J.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritter, C.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Roth, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, M. Y.

M. Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge 1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, T.

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schulte-Braucks, C.

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schulze, J.

Schwartz, B.

Senaratne, C. L.

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, P. Sims, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. L. Senaratne, J. D. Gallagher, T. Aoki, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Advances in light emission from group-IV alloys via lattice engineering and n-type doping based on custom-designed chemistries,” Chem. Mater. 26(20), 6033–6041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shimura, Y.

Sigg, H.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sims, P.

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, P. Sims, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, G. Sun, and H. H. Cheng, “Franz-Keldysh electro-absorption modulation in germanium-tin alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123113 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1−x−ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073106 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stange, D.

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stefanov, S.

Stoica, T.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

Sun, G.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, G. Sun, and H. H. Cheng, “Franz-Keldysh electro-absorption modulation in germanium-tin alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123113 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Temst, K.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tiedemann, A. T.

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

Tolle, J.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Troitsch, R.

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tseng, H. H.

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Vandervorst, W.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vantomme, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vincent, B.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von den Driesch, N.

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wendav, T.

Widmann, D.

Wirths, S.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

Wolf, G.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, K. Y.

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

K. Lu Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, K.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yeo, Y. K.

M. Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge 1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeo, Y.-C.

K. Lu Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.-Q.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zaumseil, P.

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4711–4714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

D. Stange, S. Wirths, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Optical transitions in direct-bandgap Ge1– x Snx alloys,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1539–1545 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, P. Sims, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091103 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 182106 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Du, Y. Zhou, S. A. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. R. Conley, A. Nazzal, R. A. Soref, G. Sun, J. Tolle, J. Margetis, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge diodes on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241110 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. P. Gupta, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, T. Adam, and J. Kolodzey, “Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251117 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Schulte-Braucks, D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, S. Blaeser, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Negative differential resistance in direct bandgap GeSn p-i-n structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 042101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menendez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si(100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge 1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (2)

C. L. Senaratne, J. D. Gallagher, T. Aoki, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Advances in light emission from group-IV alloys via lattice engineering and n-type doping based on custom-designed chemistries,” Chem. Mater. 26(20), 6033–6041 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. von den Driesch, D. Stange, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, B. Holländer, Z. Ikonic, J. M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Direct bandgap group IV epitaxy on Si for laser applications,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4693–4702 (2015).
[Crossref]

ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. (2)

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1-xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(99–N), 102 (2013).

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Chang, S. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1-z/SixGeySn1-x-y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Alferov, “Double heterostructure lasers: Early days and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 832–840 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Korner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1−x−ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073106 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Lu Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, G. Sun, and H. H. Cheng, “Franz-Keldysh electro-absorption modulation in germanium-tin alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

M. Jaros, “Simple analytic model for heterojunction band offsets,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(12), 7112–7114 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055002 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Troitsch, G. Mussler, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Zaumseil, T. Schroeder, S. Mantl, and D. Buca, “Ternary and quaternary Ni(Si)Ge(Sn) contact formation for highly strained Ge p- and n-MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(5), 055003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Wirths, D. Buca, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, U. Breuer, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications,” Thin Solid Films 557, 183–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) XTEM micrograph of the MQW heterostructure shows high crystalline quality and abrupt interfaces (inset). An overlaid SIMS profile confirms the layer morphology. (b) Residual strain of the GeSn well (−0.71%) and Ge barrier (0.48%) can be extracted from XRD-RSM. (c) Satellite peaks in 2θ-θ scan match well the simulation. (d) Schematic profile of the fabricated light emitting diode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Temperature dependent EL spectra for a current density of 420 A/cm2. The inset shows integrated intensities for different injection current densities. (b,c) Injection current dependent El spectra for (b) p-i-n GeSn homojunction and (c) GeSn/Ge MQW LEDs of 100 µm diameter. (d) The calculated electronic structure at RT for GeSn/Ge MQW with −0.71% strain in GeSn ( + 0.48% in Ge) showing no confinement of electrons.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Regions of the GeSn/Ge QW parameter space (the in-plane lattice constant being determined by the fully relaxed GeSn buffer composition, and Sn concentration in the well) delivering different structure behaviors. The yellow dot represents the position of the experimentally investigated {sGe/Ge0.92Sn0.08} MQW (neglecting quantization effects). The deviation of the dot position (7 at. % well Sn concentration vs. 8 at. % inside the grown structure) results from the residual strain inside the device structure because of a non-fully relaxed buffer underneath. (b) Bandgap evolution of GeSn and strained Ge in in-plane lattice matched Ge/GeSn heterostructures. (c) Barrier heights at L and Γ in a Ge/GeSn/Ge structure depending on Sn contents in the GeSn buffer and the well. (d), (e) Band structure of direct bandgap Ge/ Ge0.88Sn0.12 /Ge with different compressive strain values. (f) Effect of the well thickness on Ge0.88Sn0.12 bandgap: the quantization may change the semiconductor bandgap from direct into indirect (if the lowest Γ-quantized state comes above L, as the well becomes thinner).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Calculated energy band alignment for SiGeSn/GeSn heterostructure as a function of the Si content in the SiGeSn cladding layer. (b) Theoretical band alignment, and electron/hole quantized states (minibands) in a 20 nm /10 nm {SiGeSn/GeSn} MQW structure and (c) SIMS and TEM of a SiGeSn/GeSn DHS.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material and band structure parameters for the investigated (Si)Ge(Sn)/GeSn DHS and MQW. All values of band offsets come from calculations.

Metrics