Abstract

We characterize the timing jitter of a picosecond all-polarization-maintaining (all-PM) Yb-fiber laser using the optical cross-correlation method. For the 10 MHz all-normal dispersion mode-locked laser with ~0.5 nm spectral bandwidth, the measured high-frequency jitter is as low as 5.9 fs (RMS) when integrated from 10 kHz to the Nyquist frequency of 5 MHz. A complete numerical model with ASE noise is built to simulate the timing jitter characteristics in consideration of intracavity pulse evolution. The mutual comparison among simulation result, analytical model and experiment data indicate that the few femtosecond timing jitter from the picosecond fiber laser is attributed to the complete elimination of Gordon-Haus jitter by narrow bandpass filtering by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The low level of timing jitter from this compact and maintenance-free PM picosecond fiber laser source at a low MHz repetition rate is promising to advance a number of femtosecond-precision timing and synchronization applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (6)

S. Rauch, L. Drzewietzki, A. Klehr, J. Sacher, W. Elsäßer, S. Member, and S. Breuer, “Experimental study of the timing jitter of a passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser subject to repetition rate transitions and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(4), 1300107 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Zou, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Timing-jitter reduction by use of a spectral filter in a broadband femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(8), 911–914 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J. T. Costello, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H. Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hou, C.-C. Lee, Z. Yang, and T. R. Schibli, “Timing jitter characterization of mode-locked lasers with <1 zs/√Hz resolution using a simple optical heterodyne technique,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 2985–2988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shin, K. Jung, Y. Song, and J. Kim, “Characterization and analysis of timing jitter in normal-dispersion mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with intra-cavity filtering,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22898–22906 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhou, M. Xin, F. X. Kaertner, and G. Chang, “Timing jitter of Raman solitons,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5105–5108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (6)

2012 (5)

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

L. Z. Chen, S. C. Wen, Y. W. Wang, C. J. Zhao, L. J. Qian, and D. Y. Fan, “Synchronization and Relative Timing Jitter Measurement of Femtosecond and Picosecond Laser Regenerative Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1354–1359 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, J. H. Wong, K. Wu, S. Fu, R. Li, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. I. Chernov, and E. D. Obraztsova, “Observation of timing jitter reduction induced by spectral filtering in a fiber laser mode locked with a carbon nanotube-based saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2320–2322 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayshi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part I): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 153–162 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 163–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Noise of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(2), 159–167 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. S. Ma, R. K. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and J. Ye, “Sub-10-femtosecond active synchronization of two passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 021802 (2001).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

Abreu-Afonso, J.

Alismail, A.

Alsaif, B.

Araki, T.

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayshi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arisholm, G.

Azzeer, A. M.

Bao, C.

Barros, H. G.

Bateman, S. A.

Baumgartl, M.

Bayri, A.

Behrens, C.

S. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J. T. Costello, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H. Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benedick, A. J.

A. J. Benedick, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, “Optical flywheels with attosecond jitter,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 97–100 (2012).
[Crossref]

Breuer, S.

S. Rauch, L. Drzewietzki, A. Klehr, J. Sacher, W. Elsäßer, S. Member, and S. Breuer, “Experimental study of the timing jitter of a passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser subject to repetition rate transitions and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(4), 1300107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bromberger, H.

S. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J. T. Costello, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H. Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brons, J.

Cavalieri, A. L.

S. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J. T. Costello, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H. Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandalia, J.

Chang, G.

Chen, H. W.

Chen, J.

X. Li, W. Zou, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Timing-jitter reduction by use of a spectral filter in a broadband femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(8), 911–914 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. Z.

L. Z. Chen, S. C. Wen, Y. W. Wang, C. J. Zhao, L. J. Qian, and D. Y. Fan, “Synchronization and Relative Timing Jitter Measurement of Femtosecond and Picosecond Laser Regenerative Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1354–1359 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chernov, A. I.

Ciappina, M.

Costello, J. T.

S. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J. T. Costello, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H. Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

Czwalinna, M. K.

S. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J. T. Costello, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H. Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delfyett, P. J.

Dietzek, B.

Díez, A.

Dolkemeyer, J.

Drescher, M.

Drzewietzki, L.

S. Rauch, L. Drzewietzki, A. Klehr, J. Sacher, W. Elsäßer, S. Member, and S. Breuer, “Experimental study of the timing jitter of a passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser subject to repetition rate transitions and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(4), 1300107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duesterer, S.

Dülgergil, E.

Duterte, C.

Eiedel, R.

M. J. Prandolini, R. Eiedel, M. Schulz, and F. Tavella, “A review of high power OPCPA technology for high repetition rate free-electron lasers,” Proceeding of FEL2014, TUA02 (2014).

Elsäßer, W.

S. Rauch, L. Drzewietzki, A. Klehr, J. Sacher, W. Elsäßer, S. Member, and S. Breuer, “Experimental study of the timing jitter of a passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser subject to repetition rate transitions and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(4), 1300107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Faatz, B.

Fan, D. Y.

L. Z. Chen, S. C. Wen, Y. W. Wang, C. J. Zhao, L. J. Qian, and D. Y. Fan, “Synchronization and Relative Timing Jitter Measurement of Femtosecond and Picosecond Laser Regenerative Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1354–1359 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fattahi, H.

Fejer, M. M.

Felber, M.

S. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J. T. Costello, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H. Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldhaus, J.

Fu, S.

Fujimoto, J. G.

A. J. Benedick, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, “Optical flywheels with attosecond jitter,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 97–100 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujita, K.

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayshi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fukui, K.

K. Nose, T. Kishi, Y. Ozeki, Y. Kanematsu, H. Takata, K. Fukui, Y. Takai, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman spectral microscope using synchronized Er- and Yb-fiber lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5), 052401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Funk, A. C.

Gallmann, L.

Geng, X. T.

Giannone, D.

Gordon, J. P.

Gorjan, M.

Gottschall, T.

Grein, M. E.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Noise of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(2), 159–167 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grguraš, I.

S. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J. T. Costello, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H. Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hädrich, S.

Haefner, M.

Hashimoto, M.

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Appl. Phys. B (2)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayshi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

L. Z. Chen, S. C. Wen, Y. W. Wang, C. J. Zhao, L. J. Qian, and D. Y. Fan, “Synchronization and Relative Timing Jitter Measurement of Femtosecond and Picosecond Laser Regenerative Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1354–1359 (2010).
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S. Rauch, L. Drzewietzki, A. Klehr, J. Sacher, W. Elsäßer, S. Member, and S. Breuer, “Experimental study of the timing jitter of a passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser subject to repetition rate transitions and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(4), 1300107 (2015).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

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[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Li, W. Zou, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Timing-jitter reduction by use of a spectral filter in a broadband femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(8), 911–914 (2015).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Nose, T. Kishi, Y. Ozeki, Y. Kanematsu, H. Takata, K. Fukui, Y. Takai, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman spectral microscope using synchronized Er- and Yb-fiber lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5), 052401 (2014).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J. T. Costello, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H. Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5938 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

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Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

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G. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2008), Chap. 4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Configuration of the alignment-free picosecond all-PM fiber laser. ISO: isolator; LD: laser diode; PM FBG: polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating; SESAM: semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The output characteristics of the picosecond all-PM fiber laser. (a) Optical spectrum. (b) First harmonic of the RF pulse train. (c) Autocorrelation trace of the laser pulses after power amplification. (d) Autocorrelation trace of the dechirped laser pulses after power amplification.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for timing jitter characterization based on optical cross-correlation method. BBO: beta-barium borate crystal; DM: dichroic mirror; FFT: Fast Fourier transform; GTI: Gires-Tournois Interferometer mirror; HR: high reflective mirror; PBS: polarization beam splitter; PD: photo-detector; PI: proportional-integral servo controller; PZT: piezoelectric transducer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Timing jitter measurement results. Top: Timing jitter spectral density. The result of the optical cross-correlation measurement is plotted in black, and the noise floor determined by measuring the output of the photo-detector when the input is blocked is plotted in red. The numerical simulated and analytical results are plotted in gray and dashed orange, respectively. Bottom: Integrated RMS timing jitter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Relative intensity noise (RIN) coupled timing jitter. (a) Measured RIN spectra (top) and integrated RIN (bottom) at the output of laser oscillator and preamplifier. (b) Spectral density of RIN-coupled timing jitter via various mechanisms.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Pulse evolution in perspective of pulse duration and optical spectral width in one cavity round trip.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Impact of FBG filtering on timing jitter characteristics of picosecond fiber laser. (a) Simulated timing jitter spectra for the picosecond fiber laser with different FBG bandwidth. The inset shows the integrated timing jitter as a function of FBG bandwidth. (b) The simulated timing jitter spectra versus the corresponding analytically predicted timing jitter spectra of the direct contribution from ASE noise.

Equations (3)

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U z + i 2 β 2 2 U T 2 β 3 6 3 U T 3 = 1 2 g U + i γ | U | 2 U + S ,
S ˜ ( z , ω ) S ˜ ( z , ω ) = h ω 2 π 1 1 + ( ω ω 0 ) 2 / Δ ω 2 θ ( e g l 1 ) l δ ( z z ) δ ( ω ω ) ,
S Δ t ( f ) = 2 k 1 ( 2 π f ) 2 h ω θ 2 π E p 2 g T r t τ p 2 ,

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