Abstract

Nanoscale plasmonic phenomena observed in single and bi-layers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) on silicon dioxide (SiO2) are reported. A scattering type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) with a broadband synchrotron radiation (SR) infrared source was used. We also present complementary optical mapping using tunable CO2-laser radiation. Specifically, there is a correlation of the topography of well-defined MoS2 islands grown by chemical vapor deposition, as determined by atomic force microscopy, with the infrared (IR) signature of MoS2. The influence of MoS2 islands on the SiO2 phonon resonance is discussed. The results reveal the plasmonic character of the MoS2 structures and their interaction with the SiO2 phonons leading to an enhancement of the hybridized surface plasmon-phonon mode. A theoretical analysis shows that, in the case of monolayer islands, the coupling of the MoS2 optical plasmon mode to the SiO2 surface phonons does not affect the infrared spectrum significantly. For two-layer MoS2, the coupling of the extra inter-plane acoustic plasmon mode with the SiO2 surface transverse phonon leads to a remarkable increase of the surface phonon peak at 794 cm−1. This is in agreement with the experimental data. These results show the capability of the s-SNOM technique to study local multiple excitations in complex non-homogeneous structures.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Piotr Patoka, Georg Ulrich, Ariana E. Nguyen, Ludwig Bartels, Peter A. Dowben, Volodymyr Turkowski, Talat S. Rahman, Peter Hermann, Bernd Kästner, Arne Hoehl, Gerhard Ulm, and Eckart Rühl, "Nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in CVD-grown MoS2 monolayer revealed by ultra-broadband synchrotron radiation based nano-FTIR spectroscopy and near-field microscopy: publisher’s note," Opt. Express 24, 4600-4600 (2016)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-24-5-4600

22 February 2016: A correction was made to the acknowledgments.


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2015 (1)

S. Butun, S. Tongay, and K. Aydin, “Enhanced light emission from large-area monolayer MoS₂ using plasmonic nanodisc arrays,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2700–2704 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (18)

Ž. Bonačić Lošić, “Coupling of plasmon and dipolar modes in a monolayer of MoS2,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 28(12), 1450099 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Plechinger, J. Mann, E. Preciado, D. Barroso, A. Nguyen, J. Eroms, C. Schüller, L. Bartels, and T. Korn, “A direct comparison of CVD-grown and exfoliated MoS2 using optical spectroscopy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 064008 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, C. Chakraborty, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Integrated nanophotonics based on nanowire plasmons and atomically thin material,” Optica 1(3), 149–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, D. A. Chenet, Y. Ye, K. O’Brien, J. C. Hone, and X. Zhang, “Edge Nonlinear Optics on a MoS₂ Atomic Monolayer,” Science 344(6183), 488–490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kumar, A. Rae, and D. Roy, “Accurate measurement of enhancement factor in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy through elimination of far-field artefacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 123106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, X. Ling, L. Yu, S. Huang, A. L. Hsu, Y.-H. Lee, J. Kong, M. S. Dresselhaus, and T. Palacios, “Dielectric screening of excitons and trions in single-layer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5569–5576 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Andersen, K. W. Jacobsen, and K. S. Thygesen, “Plasmons on the edge of MoS2 nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 90(16), 161410 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mann, Q. Ma, P. M. Odenthal, M. Isarraraz, D. Le, E. Preciado, D. Barroso, K. Yamaguchi, G. von Son Palacio, A. Nguyen, T. Tran, M. Wurch, A. Nguyen, V. Klee, S. Bobek, D. Sun, T. F. Heinz, T. S. Rahman, R. Kawakami, and L. Bartels, “2-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides with tunable direct band gaps: MoS₂(₁-x) Se₂x monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 26(9), 1399–1404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Stauber, “Plasmonics in Dirac systems: from graphene to topological insulators,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 26(12), 123201 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, A. S. Rodin, W. Bao, E. G. Iwinski, Z. Zhao, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, S. Amarie, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast and nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in exfoliated graphene revealed by infrared pump-probe nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 894–900 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hermann, A. Hoehl, G. Ulrich, C. Fleischmann, A. Hermelink, B. Kästner, P. Patoka, A. Hornemann, B. Beckhoff, E. Rühl, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of semiconductor materials using synchrotron radiation-based near-field infrared microscopy and nano-FTIR spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17948–17958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Bechtel, E. A. Muller, R. L. Olmon, M. C. Martin, and M. B. Raschke, “Ultrabroadband infrared nanospectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(20), 7191–7196 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Peragut, J.-B. Brubach, P. Roy, and Y. De Wilde, “Infrared near-field imaging and spectroscopy based on thermal or synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251118 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Govyadinov, S. Mastel, F. Golmar, A. Chuvilin, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Recovery of permittivity and depth from near-field data as a step toward infrared nanotomography,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6911–6921 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. McLeod, P. Kelly, M. D. Goldflam, Z. Gainsforth, A. J. Westphal, G. Dominguez, M. H. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Model for quantitative tip-enhcanced spectroscopy and the extraction of nanoscale-resolved optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 085136 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton diffusion in monolayer and bulk MoSe2.,” Nanoscale 6(9), 4915–4919 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (9)

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
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P. Hermann, A. Hoehl, P. Patoka, F. Huth, E. Rühl, and G. Ulm, “Near-field imaging and nano-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy using broadband synchrotron radiation,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2913–2919 (2013).
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J. Mann, D. Sun, Q. Ma, J.-R. Chen, E. Preciado, T. Ohta, B. Diaconescu, K. Yamaguchi, T. Tran, M. Wurch, K. Magnone, T. F. Heinz, G. L. Kellogg, R. Kawakami, and L. Bartels, “Facile growth of monolayer MoS2 film areas on SiO2,” Eur. Phys. J. B 86(5), 226 (2013).
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A. Molina-Sánchez, D. Sangalli, K. Hummer, A. Marini, and L. Wirtz, “Effect of spin-orbit interaction on the optical spectra of single-layer, double-layer, and bulk MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 88(4), 045412 (2013).
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F. Bonaccorso, P.-H. Tan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Multiwall nanotubes, multilayers, and hybrid nanostructures: new frontiers for technology and Raman spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 7(3), 1838–1844 (2013).
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L. M. Malard, T. V. Alencar, A. P. M. Barboza, K. F. Mak, and A. M. de Paula, “Observation of intense second harmonic generation from MoS2 atomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 201401 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, S. Najmaei, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and H. Zhao, “Second harmonic microscopy of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 161403 (2013).
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A. Scholz, T. Stauber, and J. Schliemann, “Plasmons and screening in a monolayer of MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 88(3), 035135 (2013).
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A. M. van der Zande, P. Y. Huang, D. A. Chenet, T. C. Berkelbach, Y. You, G.-H. Lee, T. F. Heinz, D. R. Reichman, D. A. Muller, and J. C. Hone, “Grains and grain boundaries in highly crystalline monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Mater. 12(6), 554–561 (2013).
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2012 (9)

Q. Yue, J. Kang, Z. Shao, X. Zhang, S. Chang, G. Wang, S. Qin, and J. Li, “Mechanical and electronic properties of monolayer MoS2 under elastic strain,” Phys. Lett. A 376(12-13), 1166–1170 (2012).
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H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. Yap, B. Tay, T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(7), 1385–1390 (2012).
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A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
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Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Stauber and G. Gómez-Santos, “Plasmons and near-field amplification in double-layer graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075410 (2012).
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R. E. V. Profumo, R. Asgari, M. Polini, and A. H. MacDonald, “Double-layer graphene and topological insulator thin-film plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 085443 (2012).
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M. Ishikawa, M. Katsura, S. Nakashima, Y. Ikemoto, and H. Okamura, “Broadband near-field mid-infrared spectroscopy and application to phonon resonances in quartz,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11064–11072 (2012).
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2011 (7)

A. Molina-Sánchez and L. Wirtz, “Phonons in single-layer and few-layer MoS2 and WS2,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 155413 (2011).
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S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
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Y. Ikemoto, T. Moriwaki, T. Kinoshita, M. Ishikawa, S. Nakashima, and H. Okamura, “Near-field spectroscopy with infrared synchrotron radiation source,” J. Surf. Sci. Nanotech. 9, 63–66 (2011).
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J. Feikes, M. von Hartrott, M. Ries, P. Schmid, G. Wüstefeld, A. Hoehl, R. Klein, R. Müller, and G. Ulm, “Metrology Light Source: The first electron storage ring optimized for generating coherent THz radiation,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14(3), 030705 (2011).
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M.-W. Lin, C. Ling, Y. Zhang, H. J. Yoon, M.-M. C. Cheng, L. A. Agapito, N. Kioussis, N. Widjaja, and Z. Zhou, “Room-temperature high on/off ratio in suspended graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors,” Nanotechnology 22(26), 265201 (2011).
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S. Das Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 407–470 (2011).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
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2010 (7)

C. Lee, H. Yan, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and S. Ryu, “Anomalous lattice vibrations of single- and few-layer MoS2.,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2695–2700 (2010).
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P. Avouris, “Graphene: electronic and photonic properties and devices,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4285–4294 (2010).
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L. Ci, L. Song, C. Jin, D. Jariwala, D. Wu, Y. Li, A. Srivastava, Z. F. Wang, K. Storr, L. Balicas, F. Liu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Atomic layers of hybridized boron nitride and graphene domains,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 430–435 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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R. Balog, B. Jørgensen, L. Nilsson, M. Andersen, E. Rienks, M. Bianchi, M. Fanetti, E. Laegsgaard, A. Baraldi, S. Lizzit, Z. Sljivancanin, F. Besenbacher, B. Hammer, T. G. Pedersen, P. Hofmann, and L. Hornekaer, “Bandgap opening in graphene induced by patterned hydrogen adsorption,” Nat. Mater. 9(4), 315–319 (2010).
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E. H. Hwang, R. Sensarma, and S. Das Sarma, “Plasmon-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 82(19), 195406 (2010).
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A. J. Huber, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared spectroscopic near-field mapping of single nanotransistors,” Nanotechnology 21(23), 235702 (2010).
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2009 (1)

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
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2008 (2)

M. Polini, R. Asgari, G. Borghi, Y. Barlas, T. Pereg-Barnea, and A. H. MacDonald, “Plasmons and the spectral function of graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081411 (2008).
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P. Nemes-Incze, Z. Osváth, K. Kamarás, and L. P. Biró, “Anomalies in thickness measurements of graphene and few layer graphite crystals by tapping mode atomic force microscopy,” Carbon 46(11), 1435–1442 (2008).
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2007 (2)

M. Y. Han, B. Özyilmaz, Y. Zhang, and P. Kim, “Energy band-gap engineering of graphene nanoribbons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 206805 (2007).
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S. Y. Zhou, G.-H. Gweon, A. V. Fedorov, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, D.-H. Lee, F. Guinea, A. H. Castro Neto, and A. Lanzara, “Substrate-induced bandgap opening in epitaxial graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(10), 770–775 (2007).
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2006 (2)

Y.-W. Son, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, “Energy gaps in graphene nanoribbons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 216803 (2006).
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N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free Near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
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2001 (1)

F. Maugé, J. Lamotte, N. S. Nesterenko, O. Manoilova, and A. A. Tsyganenko, “FT-IR study of surface properties of unsupported MoS2,” Catal. Today 70(1-3), 271–284 (2001).
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2000 (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
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1999 (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
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1996 (1)

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1995 (3)

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1969 (1)

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18(73), 193–335 (1969).
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1966 (1)

R. F. Frindt, “Single crystals of MoS2 several molecular layers thick,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(4), 1928–1929 (1966).
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1961 (1)

W. G. Spitzer and D. A. Kleinman, “Infrared lattice bands of quartz,” Phys. Rev. 121(5), 1324–1335 (1961).
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Adam, S.

S. Das Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 407–470 (2011).
[Crossref]

Agapito, L. A.

M.-W. Lin, C. Ling, Y. Zhang, H. J. Yoon, M.-M. C. Cheng, L. A. Agapito, N. Kioussis, N. Widjaja, and Z. Zhou, “Room-temperature high on/off ratio in suspended graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors,” Nanotechnology 22(26), 265201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

N. Kumar, S. Najmaei, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and H. Zhao, “Second harmonic microscopy of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 161403 (2013).
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L. Ci, L. Song, C. Jin, D. Jariwala, D. Wu, Y. Li, A. Srivastava, Z. F. Wang, K. Storr, L. Balicas, F. Liu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Atomic layers of hybridized boron nitride and graphene domains,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 430–435 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alencar, T. V.

L. M. Malard, T. V. Alencar, A. P. M. Barboza, K. F. Mak, and A. M. de Paula, “Observation of intense second harmonic generation from MoS2 atomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 201401 (2013).
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Alonso-González, P.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Amarie, S.

M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, A. S. Rodin, W. Bao, E. G. Iwinski, Z. Zhao, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, S. Amarie, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast and nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in exfoliated graphene revealed by infrared pump-probe nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 894–900 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andersen, K.

K. Andersen, K. W. Jacobsen, and K. S. Thygesen, “Plasmons on the edge of MoS2 nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 90(16), 161410 (2014).
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Andersen, M.

R. Balog, B. Jørgensen, L. Nilsson, M. Andersen, E. Rienks, M. Bianchi, M. Fanetti, E. Laegsgaard, A. Baraldi, S. Lizzit, Z. Sljivancanin, F. Besenbacher, B. Hammer, T. G. Pedersen, P. Hofmann, and L. Hornekaer, “Bandgap opening in graphene induced by patterned hydrogen adsorption,” Nat. Mater. 9(4), 315–319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asgari, R.

R. E. V. Profumo, R. Asgari, M. Polini, and A. H. MacDonald, “Double-layer graphene and topological insulator thin-film plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 085443 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Polini, R. Asgari, G. Borghi, Y. Barlas, T. Pereg-Barnea, and A. H. MacDonald, “Plasmons and the spectral function of graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081411 (2008).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Avouris, “Graphene: electronic and photonic properties and devices,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4285–4294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

S. Butun, S. Tongay, and K. Aydin, “Enhanced light emission from large-area monolayer MoS₂ using plasmonic nanodisc arrays,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2700–2704 (2015).
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Bachelot, R.

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Baillargeat, D.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. Yap, B. Tay, T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(7), 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balicas, L.

L. Ci, L. Song, C. Jin, D. Jariwala, D. Wu, Y. Li, A. Srivastava, Z. F. Wang, K. Storr, L. Balicas, F. Liu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Atomic layers of hybridized boron nitride and graphene domains,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 430–435 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balog, R.

R. Balog, B. Jørgensen, L. Nilsson, M. Andersen, E. Rienks, M. Bianchi, M. Fanetti, E. Laegsgaard, A. Baraldi, S. Lizzit, Z. Sljivancanin, F. Besenbacher, B. Hammer, T. G. Pedersen, P. Hofmann, and L. Hornekaer, “Bandgap opening in graphene induced by patterned hydrogen adsorption,” Nat. Mater. 9(4), 315–319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, A. S. Rodin, W. Bao, E. G. Iwinski, Z. Zhao, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, S. Amarie, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast and nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in exfoliated graphene revealed by infrared pump-probe nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 894–900 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baraldi, A.

R. Balog, B. Jørgensen, L. Nilsson, M. Andersen, E. Rienks, M. Bianchi, M. Fanetti, E. Laegsgaard, A. Baraldi, S. Lizzit, Z. Sljivancanin, F. Besenbacher, B. Hammer, T. G. Pedersen, P. Hofmann, and L. Hornekaer, “Bandgap opening in graphene induced by patterned hydrogen adsorption,” Nat. Mater. 9(4), 315–319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barboza, A. P. M.

L. M. Malard, T. V. Alencar, A. P. M. Barboza, K. F. Mak, and A. M. de Paula, “Observation of intense second harmonic generation from MoS2 atomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 201401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barlas, Y.

M. Polini, R. Asgari, G. Borghi, Y. Barlas, T. Pereg-Barnea, and A. H. MacDonald, “Plasmons and the spectral function of graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081411 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barroso, D.

G. Plechinger, J. Mann, E. Preciado, D. Barroso, A. Nguyen, J. Eroms, C. Schüller, L. Bartels, and T. Korn, “A direct comparison of CVD-grown and exfoliated MoS2 using optical spectroscopy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 064008 (2014).
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J. Mann, Q. Ma, P. M. Odenthal, M. Isarraraz, D. Le, E. Preciado, D. Barroso, K. Yamaguchi, G. von Son Palacio, A. Nguyen, T. Tran, M. Wurch, A. Nguyen, V. Klee, S. Bobek, D. Sun, T. F. Heinz, T. S. Rahman, R. Kawakami, and L. Bartels, “2-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides with tunable direct band gaps: MoS₂(₁-x) Se₂x monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 26(9), 1399–1404 (2014).
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Bartels, L.

J. Mann, Q. Ma, P. M. Odenthal, M. Isarraraz, D. Le, E. Preciado, D. Barroso, K. Yamaguchi, G. von Son Palacio, A. Nguyen, T. Tran, M. Wurch, A. Nguyen, V. Klee, S. Bobek, D. Sun, T. F. Heinz, T. S. Rahman, R. Kawakami, and L. Bartels, “2-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides with tunable direct band gaps: MoS₂(₁-x) Se₂x monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 26(9), 1399–1404 (2014).
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G. Plechinger, J. Mann, E. Preciado, D. Barroso, A. Nguyen, J. Eroms, C. Schüller, L. Bartels, and T. Korn, “A direct comparison of CVD-grown and exfoliated MoS2 using optical spectroscopy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 064008 (2014).
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J. Mann, D. Sun, Q. Ma, J.-R. Chen, E. Preciado, T. Ohta, B. Diaconescu, K. Yamaguchi, T. Tran, M. Wurch, K. Magnone, T. F. Heinz, G. L. Kellogg, R. Kawakami, and L. Bartels, “Facile growth of monolayer MoS2 film areas on SiO2,” Eur. Phys. J. B 86(5), 226 (2013).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

A. S. McLeod, P. Kelly, M. D. Goldflam, Z. Gainsforth, A. J. Westphal, G. Dominguez, M. H. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Model for quantitative tip-enhcanced spectroscopy and the extraction of nanoscale-resolved optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 085136 (2014).
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M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, A. S. Rodin, W. Bao, E. G. Iwinski, Z. Zhao, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, S. Amarie, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast and nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in exfoliated graphene revealed by infrared pump-probe nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 894–900 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. B represents the IR beam (SR or laser), P is a periscope-like mirror arrangement, BS denotes the ZnSe beam splitter, PM is a parabolic mirror, I corresponds to the translating mirror of the Michelson interferometer, D stands for the MCT detector, AFM is the atomic force microscope in the other arm of the interferometer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 MoS2 monolayer structures on a SiO2 substrate: (a) AFM topography image of various triangularly shaped MoS2 flakes. The red arrow denotes the direction and the position of the cross section scan shown in (b); (b) line scan across the edge of a MoS2 flake. The structure is approximately (0.8 ± 0.1) nm thick, which corresponds to a monolayer of MoS2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The near-field intensity maps recorded at higher harmonics (Sn, 1 ≤ n ≤ 5) of the tip’s oscillation frequency using a CO2 laser at 959.39 cm−1: (a)-(e) illustrates the signals detected at S1-S5 respectively; (f) schematic presentation of the probed volume for different harmonics (reproduced according to [55]).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Nano-FTIR spectra of 1L-MoS2 derived by Fourier transformation at the 4th harmonic of the interferograms recorded at the positions marked in the inset. The blue and red curves were acquired at positions A and B, respectively. They originate from 1L-MoS2 that is deposited on 300 nm thick SiO2. Position C corresponds to the bare SiO2 substrate (green curve). Each spectrum represents the average of two interferograms gathered successively at the same positions; they were normalized to the Si response S4 (1L-MoS2 or SiO2)/S4(Si). ωSP1 and ωSP2 denote the frequencies of the SiO2 phonon modes; (b) Theoretical results for the magnitude of the 4th s-SNOM scattering harmonics of SiO2, 1L-MoS2-SiO2, and 2L-MoS2-SiO2 systems. It was assumed that the system’s carrier concentration is 0.01 electron per MoS2 unit cell (see text for further details).

Equations (5)

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0 2 π e i n ϕ d ϕ 1 G ( b + Δ z ( 1 cos ϕ ) , ω ) a 3 ,
G ( z d , ω ) = 0 d q q 2 e 2 q z d r p ( q , ω ) ,
r p ( q , ω ) = ε 1 k 0 ε 0 k 1 + 4 π k 0 k 1 σ ω ε 1 k 0 + ε 0 k 1 + 4 π k 0 k 1 σ ω ,
ω P l ( q ) = ω 0 q ( 1 + 3 4 q q T F ) ,
ω P l ( q ) = ω P l 1 L ( q ) 1 ± e | q | d ,

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