Abstract

Characterization of micro/nano-textured surfaces is time consuming using scanning probe and electron microscopy techniques. Scatterometry, where the intensity of scattered light is used as a ‘fingerprint’ to reconstruct a surface, is a fast and robust method for characterization of gratings. However, most scatterometry techniques are measuring the averaged signal over an area equal to the spot size of the light source. In this paper we present the imaging scatterometry technique, which is capable of locally measuring topographic parameters of gratings spanning an area down to a few µm2 with nm accuracy. The imaging scatterometer can easily find areas of interest on the cm scale and measure multiple segments simultaneously. We demonstrate two imaging scatterometers, one built into an optical microscope and one in a split configuration. The two scatterometers are targeted characterization of mm2 and cm2 areas, respectively, and both setups are validated using nano-textured samples.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (4)

M. H. Madsen, P.-E. Hansen, M. Zalkovskij, M. Karamehmedović, and J. Garnæs, “Fast characterization of moving samples with nano-textured surfaces,” Optica 2(4), 301 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Peterhänsel, H. Laamanen, J. Lehtolahti, M. Kuittinen, W. Osten, and J. Tervo, “Human color vision provides nanoscale accuracy in thin-film thickness characterization,” Optica 2(7), 627 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Leach, C. Evans, L. He, A. Davies, A. Duparré, A. Henning, C. W. Jones, and D. O’Connor, “Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3(1), 013001 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2011 (2)

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Saito, “Material design and structural color inspired by biomimetic approach,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 12(6), 064709 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Roach, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Progess in superhydrophobic surface development,” Soft Matter 4(2), 224–240 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 764–771 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

C. Raymond, “Overview of scatterometry applications in high volume silicon manufacturing,” Charact. Metrol. ULSI Technol. 2005(788), 394–402 (2005).

2001 (1)

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14(2), 97–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Agersnap, N.

Andén, T.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Andkjær, J.

Asinovski, L.

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 764–771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bao, J.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14(2), 97–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Beaglehole, D.

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 764–771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bilenberg, B.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Borsetto, F.

Clarkson, M. T.

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 764–771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, A.

R. Leach, C. Evans, L. He, A. Davies, A. Duparré, A. Henning, C. W. Jones, and D. O’Connor, “Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3(1), 013001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Diemer, M.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Døssing, M.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Duparré, A.

R. Leach, C. Evans, L. He, A. Davies, A. Duparré, A. Henning, C. W. Jones, and D. O’Connor, “Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3(1), 013001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Essendrop, S.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Evans, C.

R. Leach, C. Evans, L. He, A. Davies, A. Duparré, A. Henning, C. W. Jones, and D. O’Connor, “Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3(1), 013001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Friis, K. S.

Ganesh, V. A.

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779 (2011).
[Crossref]

Garnæs, J.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

M. H. Madsen, P.-E. Hansen, M. Zalkovskij, M. Karamehmedović, and J. Garnæs, “Fast characterization of moving samples with nano-textured surfaces,” Optica 2(4), 301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garnaes, J.

Gaylord, T. K.

Grann, E. B.

Hansen, P.-E.

He, L.

R. Leach, C. Evans, L. He, A. Davies, A. Duparré, A. Henning, C. W. Jones, and D. O’Connor, “Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3(1), 013001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Henning, A.

R. Leach, C. Evans, L. He, A. Davies, A. Duparré, A. Henning, C. W. Jones, and D. O’Connor, “Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3(1), 013001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Holm, J.

Jakatdar, N.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14(2), 97–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Johansen, V. E.

Johansson, A. C.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Jones, C. W.

R. Leach, C. Evans, L. He, A. Davies, A. Duparré, A. Henning, C. W. Jones, and D. O’Connor, “Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3(1), 013001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karamehmedovic, M.

Kinoshita, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, A.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Kristiansen, T. T.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Kühle, A.

Kuittinen, M.

Laamanen, H.

Leach, R.

R. Leach, C. Evans, L. He, A. Davies, A. Duparré, A. Henning, C. W. Jones, and D. O’Connor, “Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3(1), 013001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lehtolahti, J.

Madsen, M. H.

M. H. Madsen, P.-E. Hansen, M. Zalkovskij, M. Karamehmedović, and J. Garnæs, “Fast characterization of moving samples with nano-textured surfaces,” Optica 2(4), 301 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, N. J.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Minzari, D.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, J.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

Nair, A. S.

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779 (2011).
[Crossref]

Newton, M. I.

P. Roach, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Progess in superhydrophobic surface development,” Soft Matter 4(2), 224–240 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, T.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Niu, X.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14(2), 97–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, D.

R. Leach, C. Evans, L. He, A. Davies, A. Duparré, A. Henning, C. W. Jones, and D. O’Connor, “Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3(1), 013001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Osten, W.

Peterhänsel, S.

Pommet, D. A.

Ramakrishna, S.

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raut, H. K.

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raymond, C.

C. Raymond, “Overview of scatterometry applications in high volume silicon manufacturing,” Charact. Metrol. ULSI Technol. 2005(788), 394–402 (2005).

Roach, P.

P. Roach, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Progess in superhydrophobic surface development,” Soft Matter 4(2), 224–240 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saito, A.

A. Saito, “Material design and structural color inspired by biomimetic approach,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 12(6), 064709 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shirtcliffe, N. J.

P. Roach, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Progess in superhydrophobic surface development,” Soft Matter 4(2), 224–240 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sigmund, O.

Smistrup, K.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Spanos, C. J.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14(2), 97–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taboryski, R.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, P. T.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Tervo, J.

Thamdrup, L. H.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoshioka, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zalkovskij, M.

M. Zalkovskij, L. H. Thamdrup, K. Smistrup, T. Andén, A. C. Johansson, N. J. Mikkelsen, M. H. Madsen, J. Garnæs, T. T. Kristiansen, M. Diemer, M. Døssing, D. Minzari, P. T. Tang, A. Kristensen, R. Taboryski, S. Essendrop, T. Nielsen, and B. Bilenberg, “Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding,” Proc. SPIE 9423, 94230T (2015).
[Crossref]

M. H. Madsen, P.-E. Hansen, M. Zalkovskij, M. Karamehmedović, and J. Garnæs, “Fast characterization of moving samples with nano-textured surfaces,” Optica 2(4), 301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Charact. Metrol. ULSI Technol. (1)

C. Raymond, “Overview of scatterometry applications in high volume silicon manufacturing,” Charact. Metrol. ULSI Technol. 2005(788), 394–402 (2005).

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. (1)

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14(2), 97–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Optica (2)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

L. Asinovski, D. Beaglehole, and M. T. Clarkson, “Imaging ellipsometry: quantitative analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 764–771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characterization of small areas of interest using the imaging scatterometry technique. With the microscope/camera system an area, refererred to as the field-of-view, is selected on the sample. A series of images are then obtained of this field-of-view. In the post-processing, an area-of-interest within the acquired images are selected. The area of interest should contain a periodic array of similar structures. Each structure can be described by model parameters, e.g. height and diameter for holes etched in silicon, which is used to calculate the diffraction efficiencies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The imaging scatterometry method combines the flexibility of optical microscopy with the accuracy of scatterometers. (A) Visual inspection of a multi-patterned sample with 1D gratings. (B) AFM topography image of the intersection of four areas with different 1D gratings. (C) Sketch of a 1D grating with indication of parameters used in the scatterometry model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setups for imaging scatterometry. (A) Sketch of system built into an optical microscope. The light is filtered on the input side using a monochromator. The insert shows the intersection of 4 fields of a multi-structured sample obtained at λ = 540 nm. (B) Sketch of a split configuration system with filtering on the output side. The insert shows 16 fields of a multi-structured sample obtained at λ = 440 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaging scatterometry data obtained in the microscope configuration. (A) Pixel based diffraction efficiency image of four areas with different gratings. The analyzed areas are marked with white squares and have the size of (12 ⨯ 12) µm2. (B) Illustration of the pixel based multi-dimensional analysis of the diffraction efficiency images. (C) Wavelength dependent diffraction efficiencies and best fit for the pixels indicated in (A). The ± denotes the 95% confidence limits of the fitted parameters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Imaging scatterometry with a split configuration scatterometer. (A) Reference, (B) sample, (C) dark images obtained with the same settings of the camera. (D) Computed diffraction efficiency for each pixel. The pixels have been binned (2 ⨯ 2) for noise reduction giving an effective pixel size of (300 ⨯ 300) µm2. Only the diffraction efficiencies of the pixels within the white box are valid, as a reference sample with structures outside this area has been used. (E) Wavelength dependent diffraction efficiencies and best fit for the area with a pitch of 800 nm and grating orientation parallel to the polarization of the light. The analyzed pixel is indicated in (D) with a very small white rectangle. Scale bar in (A-D) is 1 cm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Imaging scatterometry of holes etched in silicon in a quadratic 2D pattern with a pitch of 300 nm. (A) Diffraction efficiency image at λ = 530 nm. Three areas patterned with the same pattern are analyzed simultaneously. Only a single pixel, indicated with the very small white squares and corresponding to 4 µm ⨯ 4 µm, are analyzed for each of the fields. A defect in the substrate besides the patterned areas, indicated with the arrow, can be observed. (B) AFM topography image of holes etched in silicon positioned in a 2D array with periods of 300 nm. (C) Profile extracted at the position of the dashed line in (B). The average depth of the holes are found to (141.1 ± 1.0) nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Tabel 1 Comparison of imaging scatterometry and reference measurements obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). AFM and SEM measurements of the 1D gratings are retrieved from [12].

Equations (2)

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η(λ)= I sample ' (λ) I dark ' (λ) I ref ' (λ) I dark ' (λ) R(λ),
χ 2 = 1 N i=1 N [ η i f( Ω i ,α) δ η i ] 2

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