Abstract

We developed an efficient, tailored optimization method for attopulse generation using a light-field-synthesizer [M. Hassan et al., Nature 530, 66 (2016)]. We adapted genetic optimization of single-cycle and sub-cycle waveforms to attosecond pulse generation and achieved significantly improved convergence to many target attosecond pulse shapes. Importantly, we show that the single-atom approach (based on strong field approximation) gives similar results to the more complex and numerically intensive 3D model of the attopulse generation process and that spectrally tunable attosecond pulses can be produced with a light-field synthesizer.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Dombi, V. S. Yakovlev, K. O’Keeffe, T. Fuji, M. Lezius, and G. Tempea, “Pulse compression with time-domain optimized chirped mirrors,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10888–10894 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Tailoring harmonic radiation to different applications using a genetic algorithm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34(24), 5041–5054 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. A. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and H. Rabitz, “Learning from learning algorithms: Application to attosecond dynamics of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043404 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. E. Balogh, B. Bódi, V. Tosa, E. Goulielmakis, K. Varju, and P. Dombi, “Genetic optimization of attosecond-pulse generation in light-field synthesizers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 023855 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. Moulet, V. Tosa, and E. Goulielmakis, “Coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays generated by subcycle optical drivers: a feasibility study,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6189–6192 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3891–3893 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7(10), 781–784 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Suman, G. Monaco, M. G. Pelizzo, D. L. Windt, and P. Nicolosi, “Realization and characterization of an XUV multilayer coating for attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7922–7932 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

E. Balogh, B. Bódi, V. Tosa, E. Goulielmakis, K. Varju, and P. Dombi, “Genetic optimization of attosecond-pulse generation in light-field synthesizers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 023855 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Moulet, V. Tosa, and E. Goulielmakis, “Coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays generated by subcycle optical drivers: a feasibility study,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6189–6192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7(10), 781–784 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Suman, G. Monaco, M. G. Pelizzo, D. L. Windt, and P. Nicolosi, “Realization and characterization of an XUV multilayer coating for attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7922–7932 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80(1), 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Kitzler, K. O’Keeffe, and M. Lezius, “Attosecond control of electronic motion using light wave synthesis,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 57–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. A. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and H. Rabitz, “Learning from learning algorithms: Application to attosecond dynamics of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043404 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. B. Yedder, C. Le Bris, O. Atabek, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Optimal control of attosecond pulse synthesis from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 041802 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Tailoring harmonic radiation to different applications using a genetic algorithm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34(24), 5041–5054 (2001).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alahmed, Z. A.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atabek, O.

A. B. Yedder, C. Le Bris, O. Atabek, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Optimal control of attosecond pulse synthesis from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 041802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balogh, E.

E. Balogh, B. Bódi, V. Tosa, E. Goulielmakis, K. Varju, and P. Dombi, “Genetic optimization of attosecond-pulse generation in light-field synthesizers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 023855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. B. Yedder, C. Le Bris, O. Atabek, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Optimal control of attosecond pulse synthesis from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 041802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and H. Rabitz, “Learning from learning algorithms: Application to attosecond dynamics of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043404 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bódi, B.

E. Balogh, B. Bódi, V. Tosa, E. Goulielmakis, K. Varju, and P. Dombi, “Genetic optimization of attosecond-pulse generation in light-field synthesizers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 023855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burgdörfer, J.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Calegari, F.

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7(10), 781–784 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chelkowski, S.

A. B. Yedder, C. Le Bris, O. Atabek, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Optimal control of attosecond pulse synthesis from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 041802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chini, M.

Chipperfield, L. E.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christov, I.

R. A. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and H. Rabitz, “Learning from learning algorithms: Application to attosecond dynamics of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043404 (2004).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dennhardt, B.

Dombi, P.

E. Balogh, B. Bódi, V. Tosa, E. Goulielmakis, K. Varju, and P. Dombi, “Genetic optimization of attosecond-pulse generation in light-field synthesizers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 023855 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dombi, V. S. Yakovlev, K. O’Keeffe, T. Fuji, M. Lezius, and G. Tempea, “Pulse compression with time-domain optimized chirped mirrors,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10888–10894 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fiess, M.

Fuji, T.

Gaarde, M. B.

L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Tailoring harmonic radiation to different applications using a genetic algorithm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34(24), 5041–5054 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, J.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garg, M.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80(1), 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goulielmakis, E.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Balogh, B. Bódi, V. Tosa, E. Goulielmakis, K. Varju, and P. Dombi, “Genetic optimization of attosecond-pulse generation in light-field synthesizers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 023855 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Moulet, V. Tosa, and E. Goulielmakis, “Coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays generated by subcycle optical drivers: a feasibility study,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6189–6192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grguraš, I.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guggenmos, A.

Gullikson, E. M.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hassan, M. T.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kakehata, M.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. A. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and H. Rabitz, “Learning from learning algorithms: Application to attosecond dynamics of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043404 (2004).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitzler, M.

M. Kitzler, K. O’Keeffe, and M. Lezius, “Attosecond control of electronic motion using light wave synthesis,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 57–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Tailoring harmonic radiation to different applications using a genetic algorithm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34(24), 5041–5054 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Bris, C.

A. B. Yedder, C. Le Bris, O. Atabek, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Optimal control of attosecond pulse synthesis from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 041802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lemell, Ch.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

M. Kitzler, K. O’Keeffe, and M. Lezius, “Attosecond control of electronic motion using light wave synthesis,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 57–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Dombi, V. S. Yakovlev, K. O’Keeffe, T. Fuji, M. Lezius, and G. Tempea, “Pulse compression with time-domain optimized chirped mirrors,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10888–10894 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luu, T. T.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monaco, G.

Moulet, A.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Moulet, V. Tosa, and E. Goulielmakis, “Coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays generated by subcycle optical drivers: a feasibility study,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6189–6192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

R. A. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and H. Rabitz, “Learning from learning algorithms: Application to attosecond dynamics of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043404 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nicolosi, P.

Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7(10), 781–784 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nisoli, M.

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Keeffe, K.

M. Kitzler, K. O’Keeffe, and M. Lezius, “Attosecond control of electronic motion using light wave synthesis,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 57–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Dombi, V. S. Yakovlev, K. O’Keeffe, T. Fuji, M. Lezius, and G. Tempea, “Pulse compression with time-domain optimized chirped mirrors,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10888–10894 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pabst, S.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pelizzo, M. G.

Pervak, V.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabitz, H.

R. A. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and H. Rabitz, “Learning from learning algorithms: Application to attosecond dynamics of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043404 (2004).
[Crossref]

Raskazovskaya, O.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. S.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roos, L.

L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Tailoring harmonic radiation to different applications using a genetic algorithm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34(24), 5041–5054 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sansone, G.

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Santra, R.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skantzakis, E.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7(10), 781–784 (2011).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80(1), 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suman, M.

Tempea, G.

Tisch, J. W. G.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torizuka, K.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tosa, V.

E. Balogh, B. Bódi, V. Tosa, E. Goulielmakis, K. Varju, and P. Dombi, “Genetic optimization of attosecond-pulse generation in light-field synthesizers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 023855 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Moulet, V. Tosa, and E. Goulielmakis, “Coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays generated by subcycle optical drivers: a feasibility study,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6189–6192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7(10), 781–784 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7(10), 781–784 (2011).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varju, K.

E. Balogh, B. Bódi, V. Tosa, E. Goulielmakis, K. Varju, and P. Dombi, “Genetic optimization of attosecond-pulse generation in light-field synthesizers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 023855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vozzi, C.

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Windt, D. L.

Winterfeldt, C.

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80(1), 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wirth, A.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, V. S. Yakovlev, K. O’Keeffe, T. Fuji, M. Lezius, and G. Tempea, “Pulse compression with time-domain optimized chirped mirrors,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10888–10894 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yedder, A. B.

A. B. Yedder, C. Le Bris, O. Atabek, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Optimal control of attosecond pulse synthesis from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 041802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, K.

Zheltikov, A. M.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhokhov, P.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Kitzler, K. O’Keeffe, and M. Lezius, “Attosecond control of electronic motion using light wave synthesis,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 57–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Tailoring harmonic radiation to different applications using a genetic algorithm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34(24), 5041–5054 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7(10), 781–784 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530(7588), 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,” New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

E. Balogh, B. Bódi, V. Tosa, E. Goulielmakis, K. Varju, and P. Dombi, “Genetic optimization of attosecond-pulse generation in light-field synthesizers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 023855 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and H. Rabitz, “Learning from learning algorithms: Application to attosecond dynamics of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043404 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. B. Yedder, C. Le Bris, O. Atabek, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Optimal control of attosecond pulse synthesis from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 041802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80(1), 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flowchart of the simulations and optimization. The colored curves show the pulses in each interferometer channel resulting in a synthesized pulse “HHG driver”. Optimization is performed for the SA response, and a full 3D simulation is only performed for selected drivers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Importance of fitness choice, comparing two formulas with the corresponding, optimized attopulses. (a) shows optimization for FWHM attopulse length (dashed) with side-pulses. However, by combining FWHM with the width at 10% of the peak, satellites are suppressed (black) without compromising pulse length. (b) shows the optimized driver pulse shapes for each case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution towards local optima with the two different versions of the genetic code. The standard implementation of the genetic algorithm (dashed blue-red) tends to find lower fitness values in 70-130 generations than the improved one (green-black) after only 40 generations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the SA optimization and full 3D propagation. Double attosecond pulses with (a) 300 as and (b) 700 as delays. Results of the SFA SA calculations (red), and the macroscopic 3D propagation in a 0.6 mm gas jet with 20 mbar pressure (black).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrally tunable attosecond pulses. (a) Driver electric field determined by the genetic algorithm to produce a broad quasi-continuum. (b) Spectrum of XUV radiation (amplitude and phase) generated by the laser field plotted in (a). Shaded regions indicate the chosen spectral ranges. (c) Single attosecond pulse shapes produced by filtering the XUV radiation in spectral regions that are centered at the photon energy indicated.

Equations (2)

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x(t)=i t d t ( π ε+i(t t )/2 ) 3 2 d ( p s ( t ,t)A(t))×d( p s ( t ,t)A( t ))E( t )exp(i S s ( t ,t))+cc
R pop 2 = n,i ( g(n,i) g 0 (i) ) 2 | min. g 0 (i)

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