Abstract

We present a semi-classical study of the effects of the Lorentz force on electrons during high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions driven by near- and mid-infrared lasers with wavelengths from 0.8 to 20 μm, and at intensities below 1015 W/cm2. The transverse extent of the longitudinal Lorentz drift is compared for both Gaussian focus and waveguide geometries. Both geometries exhibit a longitudinal electric field component that cancels the magnetic Lorentz drift in some regions of the focus, once each full optical cycle. We show that the Lorentz force contributes a super-Gaussian scaling which acts in addition to the dominant high harmonic flux scaling of λ-(5-6) due to quantum diffusion. We predict that the high harmonic yield will be reduced for driving wavelengths > 6 μm, and that the presence of dynamic spatial mode asymmetries results in the generation of both even and odd harmonic orders. Remarkably, we show that under realistic conditions, the recollision process can be controlled and does not shut off completely even for wavelengths >10 μm and recollision energies greater than 15 keV.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 270–275 (2007).
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2014 (2)

A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, B. W. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the Dipole Approximation in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 243001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space – time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. P. Hu, P. Xu, and S. N. Zhu, “Engineered quasi-phase-matching for laser techniques,” Photon. Res. 1(4), 171–185 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond High Harmonic keV X-Ray Waveforms Driven by Midinfrared Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the Strong-Field Approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9891–9903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 173001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Verschl, “Laser-Driven Recollisions Generalized to Relativistic Energies,” Laser Phys. 18(5), 598–607 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Optimizing quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating pulse trains,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2975–2977 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Palaniyappan, I. Ghebregziabher, A. DiChiara, J. MacDonald, and B. Walker, “Emergence from nonrelativistic strong-field rescattering to ultrastrong-field laser-atom physics: A semiclassical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 74(3), 033403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, S. Li, and W. Becker, “High-order harmonic generation in a tightly focused laser beam,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2163–2165 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics : Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Phys. Today 58(3), 39–46 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. Henrich, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Positronium in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(1), 013601 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “How to Use Lasers for Imaging Attosecond Dynamics of Nuclear Processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 013002 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. C. Chirilă, N. J. Kylstra, R. M. Potvliege, and C. J. Joachain, “Nondipole effects in photon emission by laser-driven ions,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 063411 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

A. V. Kim, M. Yu. Ryabikin, and A. M. Sergeev, “From femtosecond to attosecond pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 169, 58–66 (1999), Phys. Uspekhi 42(1), 54–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

T. Ditmire, K. Kulander, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, and M. D. Perry, “Calculation and measurement of high-order harmonic energy yields in helium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(2), 406–411 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic Rescattering in the Strong Field Tunneling Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(25), 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54(1), 742–745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(9), 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-Order Harmonic Generation from Atoms and Ions in the High Intensity Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(24), 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

L. Cicchitelli, H. Hora, and R. Postle, “Longitudinal field components for laser beams in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. A 41(7), 3727–3732 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1972 (1)

R. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8(11), 838–843 (1972).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Waveguides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abrams, R.

R. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8(11), 838–843 (1972).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(9), 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bahabad, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond High Harmonic keV X-Ray Waveforms Driven by Midinfrared Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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Becker, W.

Boyer, K.

Brabec, T.

N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “How to Use Lasers for Imaging Attosecond Dynamics of Nuclear Processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 013002 (2004).
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M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54(1), 742–745 (1996).
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Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, N.

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54(1), 742–745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-C.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chirila, C. C.

C. C. Chirilă, N. J. Kylstra, R. M. Potvliege, and C. J. Joachain, “Nondipole effects in photon emission by laser-driven ions,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 063411 (2002).
[Crossref]

Christov, I. P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
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H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics : Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Phys. Today 58(3), 39–46 (2005).
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Cicchitelli, L.

L. Cicchitelli, H. Hora, and R. Postle, “Longitudinal field components for laser beams in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. A 41(7), 3727–3732 (1990).
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Cohen, O.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Cohen, A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Optimizing quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating pulse trains,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2975–2977 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space – time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “How to Use Lasers for Imaging Attosecond Dynamics of Nuclear Processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 013002 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
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DiChiara, A.

S. Palaniyappan, I. Ghebregziabher, A. DiChiara, J. MacDonald, and B. Walker, “Emergence from nonrelativistic strong-field rescattering to ultrastrong-field laser-atom physics: A semiclassical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 74(3), 033403 (2006).
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DiMauro, L. F.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
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B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(9), 1227–1230 (1994).
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Ding, C.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditmire, T.

Dollar, F.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
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Frolov, M. V.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 173001 (2008).
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K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space – time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, B. W. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the Dipole Approximation in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 243001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galloway, B.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gariepy, G.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space – time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gerrity, M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghebregziabher, I.

S. Palaniyappan, I. Ghebregziabher, A. DiChiara, J. MacDonald, and B. Walker, “Emergence from nonrelativistic strong-field rescattering to ultrastrong-field laser-atom physics: A semiclassical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 74(3), 033403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.

B. Henrich, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Positronium in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(1), 013601 (2004).
[Crossref]

Henrich, B.

B. Henrich, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Positronium in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(1), 013601 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hernández-García, C.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond High Harmonic keV X-Ray Waveforms Driven by Midinfrared Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herne, C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hickstein, D. D.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hogle, C. W.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hora, H.

L. Cicchitelli, H. Hora, and R. Postle, “Longitudinal field components for laser beams in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. A 41(7), 3727–3732 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, X. P.

Huang, P.-C.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huismans, Y.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54(1), 742–745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jara, H.

Jaron-Becker, A.

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond High Harmonic keV X-Ray Waveforms Driven by Midinfrared Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaron-Becker, A. A.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joachain, C. J.

C. C. Chirilă, N. J. Kylstra, R. M. Potvliege, and C. J. Joachain, “Nondipole effects in photon emission by laser-driven ions,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 063411 (2002).
[Crossref]

Johann, U.

Johnsson, P.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond High Harmonic keV X-Ray Waveforms Driven by Midinfrared Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Cohen, A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Optimizing quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating pulse trains,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2975–2977 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics : Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Phys. Today 58(3), 39–46 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Keister, K. E.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keitel, C. H.

B. Henrich, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Positronium in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(1), 013601 (2004).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, B. W. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the Dipole Approximation in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 243001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, A. V.

A. V. Kim, M. Yu. Ryabikin, and A. M. Sergeev, “From femtosecond to attosecond pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 169, 58–66 (1999), Phys. Uspekhi 42(1), 54–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. T.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space – time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kirkwood, S. E.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space – time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krause, J. L.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-Order Harmonic Generation from Atoms and Ions in the High Intensity Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(24), 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulander, K.

Kulander, K. C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic Rescattering in the Strong Field Tunneling Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(25), 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(9), 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-Order Harmonic Generation from Atoms and Ions in the High Intensity Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(24), 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kylstra, N. J.

C. C. Chirilă, N. J. Kylstra, R. M. Potvliege, and C. J. Joachain, “Nondipole effects in photon emission by laser-driven ions,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 063411 (2002).
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L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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Li, S.

Lin, Q.

Ludwig, A.

A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, B. W. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the Dipole Approximation in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 243001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk, T. S.

Lytle, A. L.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Cohen, A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Optimizing quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating pulse trains,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2975–2977 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacDonald, J.

S. Palaniyappan, I. Ghebregziabher, A. DiChiara, J. MacDonald, and B. Walker, “Emergence from nonrelativistic strong-field rescattering to ultrastrong-field laser-atom physics: A semiclassical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 74(3), 033403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Manakov, N. L.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 173001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mancuso, C.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
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Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Waveguides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Maurer, J.

A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, B. W. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the Dipole Approximation in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 243001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayer, B. W.

A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, B. W. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the Dipole Approximation in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 243001 (2014).
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McIntyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

Milosevic, N.

N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “How to Use Lasers for Imaging Attosecond Dynamics of Nuclear Processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 013002 (2004).
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Mücke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond High Harmonic keV X-Ray Waveforms Driven by Midinfrared Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Cohen, A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Optimizing quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating pulse trains,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2975–2977 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics : Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Phys. Today 58(3), 39–46 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Naumov, A.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space – time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

Palaniyappan, S.

S. Palaniyappan, I. Ghebregziabher, A. DiChiara, J. MacDonald, and B. Walker, “Emergence from nonrelativistic strong-field rescattering to ultrastrong-field laser-atom physics: A semiclassical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 74(3), 033403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Hernández, J. A.

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond High Harmonic keV X-Ray Waveforms Driven by Midinfrared Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the Strong-Field Approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9891–9903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

Phillips, C. R.

A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, B. W. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the Dipole Approximation in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 243001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plaja, L.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond High Harmonic keV X-Ray Waveforms Driven by Midinfrared Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the Strong-Field Approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9891–9903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, D.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond High Harmonic keV X-Ray Waveforms Driven by Midinfrared Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(3), 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

Postle, R.

L. Cicchitelli, H. Hora, and R. Postle, “Longitudinal field components for laser beams in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. A 41(7), 3727–3732 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potvliege, R. M.

C. C. Chirilă, N. J. Kylstra, R. M. Potvliege, and C. J. Joachain, “Nondipole effects in photon emission by laser-driven ions,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 063411 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranitovic, P.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

Roso, L.

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ryabikin, M. Yu.

A. V. Kim, M. Yu. Ryabikin, and A. M. Sergeev, “From femtosecond to attosecond pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 169, 58–66 (1999), Phys. Uspekhi 42(1), 54–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

Salières, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(9), 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-Order Harmonic Generation from Atoms and Ions in the High Intensity Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(24), 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Waveguides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

A. V. Kim, M. Yu. Ryabikin, and A. M. Sergeev, “From femtosecond to attosecond pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 169, 58–66 (1999), Phys. Uspekhi 42(1), 54–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic Rescattering in the Strong Field Tunneling Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(25), 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(9), 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiner, A. D.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space – time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sidorenko, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starace, A. F.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Wavelength Scaling of High-Harmonic Yield: Threshold Phenomena and Bound State Symmetry Dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 173001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, J.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, X.-M.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toshima, N.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
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Verschl, M.

M. Verschl, “Laser-Driven Recollisions Generalized to Relativistic Energies,” Laser Phys. 18(5), 598–607 (2008).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D. M.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space – time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X.-M. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. E. Keister, C. W. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. J. J. Vrakking, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Electron Multiple Scattering and Tunneling Distance in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Palaniyappan, I. Ghebregziabher, A. DiChiara, J. MacDonald, and B. Walker, “Emergence from nonrelativistic strong-field rescattering to ultrastrong-field laser-atom physics: A semiclassical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 74(3), 033403 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic Rescattering in the Strong Field Tunneling Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(25), 5031–5034 (1996).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Field components of a Gaussian free focus (in the waveguide case, the fields are similar but the guided beam does not diverge). The Gaussian mode envelope is depicted in red, the transverse fields Ey and Bx oscillate like the purple regions, and the longitudinal field Ez is depicted by the green regions. The longitudinal displacements due to the v×B force (δv×B) , the longitudinal electric field (δEz) , and the total Lorentz force (δL) are shown in two locations in the focus, where the net displacement changes in magnitude. Top-right: Visualization of the electron wavepacket drift. Quantum diffusion of the electron wavepacket enables recollision in spite of significant Lorentz drift [7].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total Lorentz drift magnitude (red) and diffused electron wavepacket width (blue) as a function of driving laser wavelength. The electron is assumed to be ionized at 18°, and the laser intensities used are those that maximize phase-matched HHG flux in Helium. | δL |symm is calculated at the spatial location along the polarization axis where | δv×B |=| δEz |. The lines intersect at λ = 7.4 μm and 175 Å, after which the Lorentz drift exceeds the wavepacket width. The inset shows the RPR for adjacent ½-cycles where | δL |symm is calculated, indicating a harmonic efficiency that is modulated in the time domain with λ-periodicity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatially-resolved Lorentz displacements and resulting recombination probability ratio (RPR) for a Gaussian focus with λL=10 μm (IL=2.77× 10 14 W/cm 2 , wL=50μm, φ0=18°). (a) δEz, (b) δv×B, (c) δL, (d) RPR. The outer dashed circles represent the inside wall of a waveguide that this Gaussian mode would couple to optimally. The middle and inner dashed circles in (d) represent the radii within which 1Up and 2Up HHG can be generated, corresponding to 2.5 keV and 5.1 keV, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatially-resolved Lorentz displacements and resulting recombination probability ratio (RPR) for a EH11 waveguide mode with λL=10 μm (IL=2.77× 10 14 W/cm 2 , I.D.=150μm, φ0=18°). (a) δEz, (b) δv×B, (c) δL, (d) RPR. The middle and inner dashed circles in (d) represent the radii within which 1Up and 2Up HHG are generated, corresponding to 2.5 keV and 5.1 keV, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy of the harmonic emitted at the location of drift cancellation, corresponding to RPR = 1. The color scale corresponds to energies in terms of the ponderomotive potential UpILλ L 2 , while the dashed lines indicate energy contours in keV. The cutoff ionization phase φ0=18° is used. The Gaussian focus geometry is shown in (a), while the waveguide geometry is shown in (b). The vertical axes of both plots give comparable mode sizes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatially-resolved, phase-integrated recombination probability ratio (RPR) for all harmonics vs plateua and cutoff harmonics. Plots (a) and (c) correspond to a Gaussian focus geometry, while plots (b) and (d) correspond to a waveguide geometry. All harmonic energies contribute in (a) and (b), while only energies above 1Up contribute in (c) and (d). For all cases, the driving laser has wavelength λL=10μm, spot radius wL=50μm (I.D.=150μm), and peak intensity IL=2.77× 10 14 W/cm 2 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Predicted HHG spectrum near 1Up using a driving laser with λL=10μm, wL=50μm, and IL=2.77× 10 14 W/cm 2 . The moderate spatial and temporal asymmetry of the Lorentz drift gives rise to even harmonics with a two-lobed structure along the polarization direction.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Lorentz Displacement Results for Selected Laser Wavelengthsa

Equations (8)

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y(t)= e E L m e ω L 2 [ ω L tsin( φ 0 )+cos( ω L t+ φ 0 )cos( φ 0 ) ]
z v×B (t)= e 2 E L 2 8 m e 2 ω L 3 c [ 4 ω L t2 ω L tcos(2 φ 0 )sin(2 ω L t+2 φ 0 ) 4sin( ω L t)+4sin( ω L t+2 φ 0 )3sin(2 φ 0 ) ]
δ v×B λ L 3 I L
z Ez (t)= e E z m e ω L 2 [ ω L tcos( φ 0 )sin( ω L t+ φ 0 )+sin( φ 0 ) ]
δ Ez λ L 3 I L 1/2 w L 1
P R = R d 3 r ψ d (r,t= τ f ) ψ b (r)
RPR= P R ( δ L )/ P R (0)= | ψ d ( δ L , τ f ) | | ψ d (0, τ f ) |
RPR~exp[ ( δ L σ ) 2 ]~exp[ ( { λ L D } 1.62 ) 2 ]~exp[ ( λ L [μm] 8.7 ) 3.24 ]

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