Abstract

We provide a proof of the technical feasibility of LOUPE, the first integral-field snapshot spectropolarimeter, designed to monitor the reflected flux and polarization spectrum of Earth. These are to be used as benchmark data for the retrieval of biomarkers and atmospheric and surface characteristics from future direct observations of exoplanets. We perform a design trade-off for an implementation in which LOUPE performs snapshot integral-field spectropolarimetry at visible wavelengths. We used off-the-shelf optics to construct a polarization modulator, in which polarization information is encoded into the spectrum as a wavelength-dependent modulation, while spatial resolution is maintained using a micro-lens array. The performance of this design concept is validated in a laboratory setup. Our proof-of-concept is capable of measuring a grid of 50 × 50 polarization spectra between 610 and 780 nm of a mock target planet - proving the merit of this design. The measurements are affected by systematic noise on the percent level, and we discuss how to mitigate this in future iterations. We conclude that LOUPE can be small and robust while meeting the science goals of this particular space application, and note the many potential applications that may benefit from our concept for doing snapshot integral-field spectropolarimetry.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

2 March 2017: A correction was made to the author listing.


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References

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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

N. Narita, T. Enomoto, S. Masaoka, and N. Kusakabe, “Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13977 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 53, 4187–4194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Briot, L. Arnold, S. Jacquemoud, and J. Schneider, “Present and future detection of terrestrial biomarkers on earthshine,” in proceedings of IAU Symposium 293, 65–67 (2014).

2013 (2)

N. Hagen and M. W. Kudenov, “Review of snapshot spectral imaging technologies,” Opt. Eng. 52, 090901 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Bazzon, H. M. Schmid, and D. Gisler, “Measurement of the earthshine polarization in the B, V, R, and I band as function of phase,” A&A 556, A117 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M. F. Sterzik, S. Bagnulo, and E. Palle, “Biosignatures as revealed by spectropolarimetry of earthshine,” Nature 483, 64–66 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, F. Snik, S. Bagnulo, W. B. Sparks, and C. U. Keller, “Observing the Earth as an exoplanet with LOUPE, the lunar observatory for unresolved polarimetry of Earth,” Planet. Space Sci. 74, 202–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. W. Kudenov and E. L. Dereniak, “Compact real-time birefringent imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 20, 17973–17986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, and J. W. Hovenier, “Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds,” A&A 548, A90 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. W. Kudenov, M. J. Escuti, E. L. Dereniak, and K. Oka, “White-light channeled imaging polarimeter using broadband polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2283–2293 (2011)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

E. Pallé, “Earthshine observations of an inhabited planet,” EAS Publication Series 41, 505–516 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Packham, M. Escuti, J. Ginn, C. Oh, I. Quijano, and G. Boreman, “Polarization gratings: a novel polarimetric component for astronomical instruments,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 1471–1482 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

E. Pallé and P. R. Goode, “The Lunar Terrestrial Observatory: observing the Earth using photometers on the Moon’s surface,” Adv. Space Res. 43, 1083–1089 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. W. Kudenov, M. E. L Jungwirth, E. L. Dereniak, and G. R. Gerhart, “White light Sagnac interferometer for snapshot linear polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express 17, 22520–22534 (2009)
[Crossref]

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral modulation for full linear polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1337–1346 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. D. Carroll, “A new definition of life,” Chirality 21, 354–358 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. M. Stam, “Spectropolarimetric signatures of Earth-like extrasolar planets,” A&A 482, 989–1007 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Hough, “Polarimetry: a powerful diagnostic tool in astronomy,” Astron. Geophys. 47, 31–35 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

E. L. Dereniak, “Infrared spectro-polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 5957202–211 (2005).

S. Seager, E. L. Turner, J. Schafer, and E. B. Ford, “Vegetation’s red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants,” Astrobiology 5, 372–390 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Jones, F. Iannarilli, and P. Kebabian, “Realization of quantitative-grade fieldable snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter,” Opt. Express 12, 6559–6573 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Stam, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Using polarimetry to detect and characterize Jupiter-like extrasolar planets,” A&A 428, 663–672 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

E. Duursma and M. Boisson, “Global oceanic and atmospheric oxygen stability considered in relation to the carbon cycle and to different time scales,” Oceanol. Acta 17, 117–141 (1994).

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[Crossref]

Apituley, A.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arnold, L.

D. Briot, L. Arnold, S. Jacquemoud, and J. Schneider, “Present and future detection of terrestrial biomarkers on earthshine,” in proceedings of IAU Symposium 293, 65–67 (2014).

Bagnulo, S.

M. F. Sterzik, S. Bagnulo, and E. Palle, “Biosignatures as revealed by spectropolarimetry of earthshine,” Nature 483, 64–66 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, F. Snik, S. Bagnulo, W. B. Sparks, and C. U. Keller, “Observing the Earth as an exoplanet with LOUPE, the lunar observatory for unresolved polarimetry of Earth,” Planet. Space Sci. 74, 202–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bazzon, A.

A. Bazzon, H. M. Schmid, and D. Gisler, “Measurement of the earthshine polarization in the B, V, R, and I band as function of phase,” A&A 556, A117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boer, J.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boisson, M.

E. Duursma and M. Boisson, “Global oceanic and atmospheric oxygen stability considered in relation to the carbon cycle and to different time scales,” Oceanol. Acta 17, 117–141 (1994).

Boreman, G.

C. Packham, M. Escuti, J. Ginn, C. Oh, I. Quijano, and G. Boreman, “Polarization gratings: a novel polarimetric component for astronomical instruments,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 1471–1482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bréon, F. M.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

Briot, D.

D. Briot, L. Arnold, S. Jacquemoud, and J. Schneider, “Present and future detection of terrestrial biomarkers on earthshine,” in proceedings of IAU Symposium 293, 65–67 (2014).

Buriez, J. C.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cairns, B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

Canovas, H.

M. Rodenhuis, H. Canovas, S. V. Jeffers, M. de Juan Ovelar, M. Min, L. Homs, and C. U. Keller, “The extreme polarimeter: design, performance, first results and upgrades,” Proc. SPIE84469I (2012).
[Crossref]

Carroll, J. D.

J. D. Carroll, “A new definition of life,” Chirality 21, 354–358 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

Couvert, P.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

DasSarma, P.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

DasSarma, S.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

de Juan Ovelar, M.

M. Rodenhuis, H. Canovas, S. V. Jeffers, M. de Juan Ovelar, M. Min, L. Homs, and C. U. Keller, “The extreme polarimeter: design, performance, first results and upgrades,” Proc. SPIE84469I (2012).
[Crossref]

Dereniak, E. L.

Deuzé, J. L.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Di Noia, A.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Doutriaux-Boucher, M.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dubovik, O.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ducos, F.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duursma, E.

E. Duursma and M. Boisson, “Global oceanic and atmospheric oxygen stability considered in relation to the carbon cycle and to different time scales,” Oceanol. Acta 17, 117–141 (1994).

Enomoto, T.

N. Narita, T. Enomoto, S. Masaoka, and N. Kusakabe, “Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13977 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Escuti, M.

C. Packham, M. Escuti, J. Ginn, C. Oh, I. Quijano, and G. Boreman, “Polarization gratings: a novel polarimetric component for astronomical instruments,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 1471–1482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Escuti, M. J.

Fafaul, B. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ford, E. B.

S. Seager, E. L. Turner, J. Schafer, and E. B. Ford, “Vegetation’s red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants,” Astrobiology 5, 372–390 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

François, P.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gerhart, G. R.

Germer, T.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ginn, J.

C. Packham, M. Escuti, J. Ginn, C. Oh, I. Quijano, and G. Boreman, “Polarization gratings: a novel polarimetric component for astronomical instruments,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 1471–1482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gisler, D.

A. Bazzon, H. M. Schmid, and D. Gisler, “Measurement of the earthshine polarization in the B, V, R, and I band as function of phase,” A&A 556, A117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goloub, P.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goode, P. R.

E. Pallé and P. R. Goode, “The Lunar Terrestrial Observatory: observing the Earth using photometers on the Moon’s surface,” Adv. Space Res. 43, 1083–1089 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hagen, N.

N. Hagen and M. W. Kudenov, “Review of snapshot spectral imaging technologies,” Opt. Eng. 52, 090901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hansen, J. E.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[Crossref]

Harten, G.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hasekamp, O. P.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heikamp, S.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heinsbroek, R. C.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Herman, M.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Homs, L.

M. Rodenhuis, H. Canovas, S. V. Jeffers, M. de Juan Ovelar, M. Min, L. Homs, and C. U. Keller, “The extreme polarimeter: design, performance, first results and upgrades,” Proc. SPIE84469I (2012).
[Crossref]

Hooker, R. J.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hough, J.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hough, “Polarimetry: a powerful diagnostic tool in astronomy,” Astron. Geophys. 47, 31–35 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hovenier, J. W.

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, and J. W. Hovenier, “Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds,” A&A 548, A90 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. M. Stam, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Using polarimetry to detect and characterize Jupiter-like extrasolar planets,” A&A 428, 663–672 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[Crossref]

Iannarilli, F.

Itchkawich, T.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jacquemoud, S.

D. Briot, L. Arnold, S. Jacquemoud, and J. Schneider, “Present and future detection of terrestrial biomarkers on earthshine,” in proceedings of IAU Symposium 293, 65–67 (2014).

Jeffers, S. V.

M. Rodenhuis, H. Canovas, S. V. Jeffers, M. de Juan Ovelar, M. Min, L. Homs, and C. U. Keller, “The extreme polarimeter: design, performance, first results and upgrades,” Proc. SPIE84469I (2012).
[Crossref]

Jones, S.

Jungwirth, M. E. L

Karalidi, T.

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, and J. W. Hovenier, “Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds,” A&A 548, A90 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, F. Snik, S. Bagnulo, W. B. Sparks, and C. U. Keller, “Observing the Earth as an exoplanet with LOUPE, the lunar observatory for unresolved polarimetry of Earth,” Planet. Space Sci. 74, 202–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral modulation for full linear polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1337–1346 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, T.

Kebabian, P.

Keller, C. U.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 53, 4187–4194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, F. Snik, S. Bagnulo, W. B. Sparks, and C. U. Keller, “Observing the Earth as an exoplanet with LOUPE, the lunar observatory for unresolved polarimetry of Earth,” Planet. Space Sci. 74, 202–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral modulation for full linear polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1337–1346 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Snik and C. U. Keller, “Astronomical polarimetry: polarized views of stars and planets,” in Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems: Volume 2: Astronomical Techniques, Software and DataHoward E. Bond, ed. (SpringerNetherlands, 2013).
[Crossref]

C. U. Keller, “Design of a polarimeter for extrasolar planetary systems characterization,” Proc. SPIE62690T (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rodenhuis, H. Canovas, S. V. Jeffers, M. de Juan Ovelar, M. Min, L. Homs, and C. U. Keller, “The extreme polarimeter: design, performance, first results and upgrades,” Proc. SPIE84469I (2012).
[Crossref]

Kolokolova, L.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kopp, G.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kudenov, M. W.

Kusakabe, N.

N. Narita, T. Enomoto, S. Masaoka, and N. Kusakabe, “Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13977 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Labonnote, L. C.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lifermann, A.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Macchetto, F.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

Manset, N.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

Maring, H. B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martin, W.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

Masaoka, S.

N. Narita, T. Enomoto, S. Masaoka, and N. Kusakabe, “Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13977 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mijling, B.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Min, M.

M. Rodenhuis, H. Canovas, S. V. Jeffers, M. de Juan Ovelar, M. Min, L. Homs, and C. U. Keller, “The extreme polarimeter: design, performance, first results and upgrades,” Proc. SPIE84469I (2012).
[Crossref]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

Narita, N.

N. Narita, T. Enomoto, S. Masaoka, and N. Kusakabe, “Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13977 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, C.

C. Packham, M. Escuti, J. Ginn, C. Oh, I. Quijano, and G. Boreman, “Polarization gratings: a novel polarimetric component for astronomical instruments,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 1471–1482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oka, K.

Packham, C.

C. Packham, M. Escuti, J. Ginn, C. Oh, I. Quijano, and G. Boreman, “Polarization gratings: a novel polarimetric component for astronomical instruments,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 1471–1482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Palle, E.

M. F. Sterzik, S. Bagnulo, and E. Palle, “Biosignatures as revealed by spectropolarimetry of earthshine,” Nature 483, 64–66 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pallé, E.

E. Pallé, “Earthshine observations of an inhabited planet,” EAS Publication Series 41, 505–516 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Pallé and P. R. Goode, “The Lunar Terrestrial Observatory: observing the Earth using photometers on the Moon’s surface,” Adv. Space Res. 43, 1083–1089 (2009).
[Crossref]

Parol, F.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

Quijano, I.

C. Packham, M. Escuti, J. Ginn, C. Oh, I. Quijano, and G. Boreman, “Polarization gratings: a novel polarimetric component for astronomical instruments,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 1471–1482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reid, I.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

Riedi, J.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rietjens, J. H. H.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 53, 4187–4194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Robb, F.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rodenhuis, M.

M. Rodenhuis, H. Canovas, S. V. Jeffers, M. de Juan Ovelar, M. Min, L. Homs, and C. U. Keller, “The extreme polarimeter: design, performance, first results and upgrades,” Proc. SPIE84469I (2012).
[Crossref]

Schafer, J.

S. Seager, E. L. Turner, J. Schafer, and E. B. Ford, “Vegetation’s red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants,” Astrobiology 5, 372–390 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, H. M.

A. Bazzon, H. M. Schmid, and D. Gisler, “Measurement of the earthshine polarization in the B, V, R, and I band as function of phase,” A&A 556, A117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J.

D. Briot, L. Arnold, S. Jacquemoud, and J. Schneider, “Present and future detection of terrestrial biomarkers on earthshine,” in proceedings of IAU Symposium 293, 65–67 (2014).

Schueler, C. F.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seager, S.

S. Seager, E. L. Turner, J. Schafer, and E. B. Ford, “Vegetation’s red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants,” Astrobiology 5, 372–390 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sèze, G.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smit, J. M.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 53, 4187–4194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

Snik, F.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 53, 4187–4194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, F. Snik, S. Bagnulo, W. B. Sparks, and C. U. Keller, “Observing the Earth as an exoplanet with LOUPE, the lunar observatory for unresolved polarimetry of Earth,” Planet. Space Sci. 74, 202–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral modulation for full linear polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1337–1346 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Snik and C. U. Keller, “Astronomical polarimetry: polarized views of stars and planets,” in Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems: Volume 2: Astronomical Techniques, Software and DataHoward E. Bond, ed. (SpringerNetherlands, 2013).
[Crossref]

Sparks, W.

W. Sparks, J. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. Robb, N. Manset, I. Reid, F. Macchetto, and W. Martin, “Circular polarization in scattered light as a possible biomarker,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771–1779 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sparks, W. B.

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, F. Snik, S. Bagnulo, W. B. Sparks, and C. U. Keller, “Observing the Earth as an exoplanet with LOUPE, the lunar observatory for unresolved polarimetry of Earth,” Planet. Space Sci. 74, 202–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stam, D. M.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, F. Snik, S. Bagnulo, W. B. Sparks, and C. U. Keller, “Observing the Earth as an exoplanet with LOUPE, the lunar observatory for unresolved polarimetry of Earth,” Planet. Space Sci. 74, 202–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, and J. W. Hovenier, “Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds,” A&A 548, A90 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. M. Stam, “Spectropolarimetric signatures of Earth-like extrasolar planets,” A&A 482, 989–1007 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. M. Stam, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Using polarimetry to detect and characterize Jupiter-like extrasolar planets,” A&A 428, 663–672 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sterzik, M. F.

M. F. Sterzik, S. Bagnulo, and E. Palle, “Biosignatures as revealed by spectropolarimetry of earthshine,” Nature 483, 64–66 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanré, D.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tinbergen, J.

J. Tinbergen, Astronomical Polarimetry (Cambridge University Press, 1996).
[Crossref]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
[Crossref]

Turner, E. L.

S. Seager, E. L. Turner, J. Schafer, and E. B. Ford, “Vegetation’s red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants,” Astrobiology 5, 372–390 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Harten, G.

Vanbauce, C.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vesperini, M.

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Viollier, M.

F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
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Volten, H.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
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Vonk, J.

F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
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D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
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D. M. Stam, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Using polarimetry to detect and characterize Jupiter-like extrasolar planets,” A&A 428, 663–672 (2004).
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D. M. Stam, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Using polarimetry to detect and characterize Jupiter-like extrasolar planets,” A&A 428, 663–672 (2004).
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T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, and J. W. Hovenier, “Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds,” A&A 548, A90 (2012).
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D. M. Stam, “Spectropolarimetric signatures of Earth-like extrasolar planets,” A&A 482, 989–1007 (2008).
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A. Bazzon, H. M. Schmid, and D. Gisler, “Measurement of the earthshine polarization in the B, V, R, and I band as function of phase,” A&A 556, A117 (2013).
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F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, M. Vesperini, G. Sèze, P. Couvert, M. Viollier, and F. M. Bréon, “Review of capabilities of multi-angle and polarization cloud measurements from POLDER,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1080–1088 (2004).
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E. Pallé and P. R. Goode, “The Lunar Terrestrial Observatory: observing the Earth using photometers on the Moon’s surface,” Adv. Space Res. 43, 1083–1089 (2009).
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Astrobiology (1)

S. Seager, E. L. Turner, J. Schafer, and E. B. Ford, “Vegetation’s red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants,” Astrobiology 5, 372–390 (2005).
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J. Hough, “Polarimetry: a powerful diagnostic tool in astronomy,” Astron. Geophys. 47, 31–35 (2006).
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D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the a-train: the parasol mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677 (2007).
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F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, J. M. Smit, J. Vonk, D. M. Stam, G. Harten, J. Boer, and C. U. Keller, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).
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T. Karalidi, D. M. Stam, F. Snik, S. Bagnulo, W. B. Sparks, and C. U. Keller, “Observing the Earth as an exoplanet with LOUPE, the lunar observatory for unresolved polarimetry of Earth,” Planet. Space Sci. 74, 202–207 (2012).
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F. Snik and C. U. Keller, “Astronomical polarimetry: polarized views of stars and planets,” in Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems: Volume 2: Astronomical Techniques, Software and DataHoward E. Bond, ed. (SpringerNetherlands, 2013).
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J. Tinbergen, Astronomical Polarimetry (Cambridge University Press, 1996).
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C. U. Keller, “Design of a polarimeter for extrasolar planetary systems characterization,” Proc. SPIE62690T (2006).
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M. Rodenhuis, H. Canovas, S. V. Jeffers, M. de Juan Ovelar, M. Min, L. Homs, and C. U. Keller, “The extreme polarimeter: design, performance, first results and upgrades,” Proc. SPIE84469I (2012).
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G. van Harten, Spectropolarimetry for planetary exploration, (Leiden University Press, 2014).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic layout of LOUPE. Light enters through the aperture on the left. The three different beams are three examples of the N × N beams generated by the MLA, each of which will see a slightly different direction on the sky. Spectral dispersion is not shown.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A read-out of the grid of micro-apertures, overlaid with a schematic illustration of how micro-spectra are stacked to fill the detector array. By rotating the grid of micro-lenses by an angle α with respect to the spectral dispersion direction, the micro-spectra can be stacked side-by-side. The smaller α can be made without lateral overlap, the more space there is in the dispersion direction for an increase in bandwidth or spectral resolution. The width of the spectra is determined by the magnification of the micro-apertures onto the detector, or the point-spread function of the re-imaging achromats, whichever dominates. The suppression of aberrations is therefore crucial to stack the micro-spectra efficiently.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Step-wise reduction of a single micro-spectrum from the two calibration channels (i.e. fully polarized input either in the horizontal or vertical direction). The top panel shows both channels of a single micro-spectrum after dark subtraction, background correction and extraction. In the middle panel, the two have been modulated such that the transmission in both channels is equalized. The bottom panel shows the extracted polarization modulations as described by Eq. (3). In order to obtain a polarization measurement from these, we fit the modulation (Eq. (3)) to a ±15 nm range around each point. The measured amplitudes are then divided by the modulation amplitudes of the respective (fully polarized) calibration micro-spectra, the result of which yields PL for each point. Note that the wavelength range is cut during the analysis. On the one hand, this is because of low signal-to-noise of the calibration spectra. On the other, chromatic aberrations deteriorate the spectral resolution towards shorter wavelengths, causing the polarization modulation to become unresolved. Also note that the efficiency of the spectral polarization modulation-optics at producing the polarization modulation (amplitude of the modulation), diminishes long-ward of 700 nm. This is due to the break-down of the linear polarizer at red wavelengths.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A readout of a single LOUPE exposure while observing the Styrofoam test-sphere, illuminated to simulate a planet at close to 90° phase. Microspectra #1 to 3 are separately shown in figure 5, for illustrative purposes. Significant linear polarization is caused in this scattering configuration as evidenced by the fact that the polarization modulation can be observed by eye in the zoomed-in section in the upper-right.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Top panel: The three micro-spectra selected in figure 4 after extraction, wavelength calibration and transmission correction. Middle panel: The angle of polarization ϕL relative to the phase of the calibration spectra. The increased scatter in retrieved polarization angle of micro-spectrum #3 is reminiscent of the fact that the modulation is dominated by noise because the amplitude is low. Bottom panel: PL is obtained by combining the two polarization channels of each according to Eq. (3) (only one channel is shown in the top panel), fitting the amplitude as a function of wavelength, and dividing the measured amplitudes by the corresponding amplitudes measured in the fully-polarized calibration micro-spectrum. Note that the wavelength-range is reduced at the edges, because the fit at the edge of the spectrum generates a measurement of PL at the center of the fitting range, and that the measurement of PL is smoothed with a box-window that matches the size of the fitting range around each point.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of a measurement obtained by LOUPE versus a higher resolution image obtained using a standard linear polarizer. The target is the Styrophome sphere, illuminated from a right angle. The top panels show the raw intensity image of the linear polarimeter (upper-left, arbitrary colour scale), and the average of the intensity in the micro-spectra between 600 and 700nm, as determined for each micro-spectrum obtained by LOUPE (upper-right). The bottom panels show the resulting distribution of PL on the sphere as measured by subtracting the two channels taken with linear polarimeter (bottom-left), and the average of PL measured by LOUPE, also between 600 and 700nm (bottom-right). The control measurement of PL in the bottom-left panel was blurred and down-sampled to the same angular resolution and grid-size as the measurement by LOUPE in the bottom-right panel. The colour scale is the same for both lower panels, which shows that LOUPE is able to reproduce the global variations in PL, at the same qualitative level. The crosses in the right panels denote the locations of micro-spectra. This grid is slanted because the MLA is rotated with respect to the detector array. Only micro-spectra with sufficient flux were extracted and analysed.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Stacking using a square MLA (left), compared to a hexagonal MLA (right). The red and blue spectra denote the two polarization channels. For mictro-spectra with these dimensions, a hexagonal MLA grid allows for more efficient stacking than a square MLA grid.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The dual beam concept for LOUPE. The red and black beams emerging from the Savart plate represent the two orthogonal polarization channels. Dispersion is not shown.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ± ( λ ) = 1 2 S 0 ( λ ) × [ 1 ± P L ( λ ) cos ( 2 π δ ( λ ) λ + 2 ϕ L ( λ ) ) ]
S + + S = S 0 ( λ )
S + S S + + S = P L ( λ ) cos ( 2 π δ ( λ ) λ + 2 π ϕ L ( λ ) )

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