Abstract

The measurement of near-wall flow in a plane close to the wall is achieved using the wave-guiding feature of transparent flexible micro-pillars which are attached in a 2D array to a surface and bend with the flow. Optical detection of bending from below the surface and application of auto-correlation methods provide mean and fluctuating part of the components of the wall-parallel velocity components. In addition, the wall-normal fluid motion is determined from spatial gradients in the array. The data provide the three-component velocity vector field in a plane close to the wall as well as their statistics.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Raffel, C. Willert, S. Werley, and J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry PIV: A Practical Guide (Springer 2007).
  2. C. Brücker, J. Spatz, and W. Schröder, “Feasibility study of wall shear stress imaging using micro-structured surfaces with flexible micro-pillars,” Exp. Fluids 39, 464–474 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Brücker, “Evidence of rare backflow and skin-friction critical points in near-wall turbulence using micropillar imaging,” Phys. Fluids 27(3), 031705 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Paek and J. Kim, “Microsphere-assisted fabrication of high aspect-ratio elastomeric micropillars and waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3324 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. Skupsch, T. Klotz, H. Chaves, and C. Brücker, “Channelling optics for high quality imaging of sensory hair,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(4), 045001 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. Brücker, R. Wagner, and M. Köhler, “Measurements of wall-shear stress fields on the piston crown in an IC engine flow using fluorescent labelled micro-pillar imaging,” in Proc. 18th Int. Symp Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2016).
  7. A. M. Gambaruto, D. J. Doorley, and T. Yamaguchi, “Wall shear stress and near wall convective transport. Comparisons with vascular remodeling in a peripheral graft anasthomosis,” J. Comput. Phys. 229(14), 5339–5356 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Scharnowski, R. Hain, and C. J. Kähler, “Estimation of Reynolds stresses from PIV measurements with single-pixel resolution,” in Proc. 15th Int. Symp. Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2010).

2015 (1)

C. Brücker, “Evidence of rare backflow and skin-friction critical points in near-wall turbulence using micropillar imaging,” Phys. Fluids 27(3), 031705 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Paek and J. Kim, “Microsphere-assisted fabrication of high aspect-ratio elastomeric micropillars and waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3324 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

C. Skupsch, T. Klotz, H. Chaves, and C. Brücker, “Channelling optics for high quality imaging of sensory hair,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(4), 045001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. M. Gambaruto, D. J. Doorley, and T. Yamaguchi, “Wall shear stress and near wall convective transport. Comparisons with vascular remodeling in a peripheral graft anasthomosis,” J. Comput. Phys. 229(14), 5339–5356 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Brücker, J. Spatz, and W. Schröder, “Feasibility study of wall shear stress imaging using micro-structured surfaces with flexible micro-pillars,” Exp. Fluids 39, 464–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brücker, C.

C. Brücker, “Evidence of rare backflow and skin-friction critical points in near-wall turbulence using micropillar imaging,” Phys. Fluids 27(3), 031705 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Skupsch, T. Klotz, H. Chaves, and C. Brücker, “Channelling optics for high quality imaging of sensory hair,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(4), 045001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Brücker, J. Spatz, and W. Schröder, “Feasibility study of wall shear stress imaging using micro-structured surfaces with flexible micro-pillars,” Exp. Fluids 39, 464–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Brücker, R. Wagner, and M. Köhler, “Measurements of wall-shear stress fields on the piston crown in an IC engine flow using fluorescent labelled micro-pillar imaging,” in Proc. 18th Int. Symp Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2016).

Chaves, H.

C. Skupsch, T. Klotz, H. Chaves, and C. Brücker, “Channelling optics for high quality imaging of sensory hair,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(4), 045001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doorley, D. J.

A. M. Gambaruto, D. J. Doorley, and T. Yamaguchi, “Wall shear stress and near wall convective transport. Comparisons with vascular remodeling in a peripheral graft anasthomosis,” J. Comput. Phys. 229(14), 5339–5356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gambaruto, A. M.

A. M. Gambaruto, D. J. Doorley, and T. Yamaguchi, “Wall shear stress and near wall convective transport. Comparisons with vascular remodeling in a peripheral graft anasthomosis,” J. Comput. Phys. 229(14), 5339–5356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hain, R.

S. Scharnowski, R. Hain, and C. J. Kähler, “Estimation of Reynolds stresses from PIV measurements with single-pixel resolution,” in Proc. 15th Int. Symp. Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2010).

Kähler, C. J.

S. Scharnowski, R. Hain, and C. J. Kähler, “Estimation of Reynolds stresses from PIV measurements with single-pixel resolution,” in Proc. 15th Int. Symp. Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2010).

Kim, J.

J. Paek and J. Kim, “Microsphere-assisted fabrication of high aspect-ratio elastomeric micropillars and waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3324 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klotz, T.

C. Skupsch, T. Klotz, H. Chaves, and C. Brücker, “Channelling optics for high quality imaging of sensory hair,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(4), 045001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhler, M.

C. Brücker, R. Wagner, and M. Köhler, “Measurements of wall-shear stress fields on the piston crown in an IC engine flow using fluorescent labelled micro-pillar imaging,” in Proc. 18th Int. Symp Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2016).

Paek, J.

J. Paek and J. Kim, “Microsphere-assisted fabrication of high aspect-ratio elastomeric micropillars and waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3324 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scharnowski, S.

S. Scharnowski, R. Hain, and C. J. Kähler, “Estimation of Reynolds stresses from PIV measurements with single-pixel resolution,” in Proc. 15th Int. Symp. Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2010).

Schröder, W.

C. Brücker, J. Spatz, and W. Schröder, “Feasibility study of wall shear stress imaging using micro-structured surfaces with flexible micro-pillars,” Exp. Fluids 39, 464–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

Skupsch, C.

C. Skupsch, T. Klotz, H. Chaves, and C. Brücker, “Channelling optics for high quality imaging of sensory hair,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(4), 045001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spatz, J.

C. Brücker, J. Spatz, and W. Schröder, “Feasibility study of wall shear stress imaging using micro-structured surfaces with flexible micro-pillars,” Exp. Fluids 39, 464–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wagner, R.

C. Brücker, R. Wagner, and M. Köhler, “Measurements of wall-shear stress fields on the piston crown in an IC engine flow using fluorescent labelled micro-pillar imaging,” in Proc. 18th Int. Symp Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2016).

Yamaguchi, T.

A. M. Gambaruto, D. J. Doorley, and T. Yamaguchi, “Wall shear stress and near wall convective transport. Comparisons with vascular remodeling in a peripheral graft anasthomosis,” J. Comput. Phys. 229(14), 5339–5356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Exp. Fluids (1)

C. Brücker, J. Spatz, and W. Schröder, “Feasibility study of wall shear stress imaging using micro-structured surfaces with flexible micro-pillars,” Exp. Fluids 39, 464–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

A. M. Gambaruto, D. J. Doorley, and T. Yamaguchi, “Wall shear stress and near wall convective transport. Comparisons with vascular remodeling in a peripheral graft anasthomosis,” J. Comput. Phys. 229(14), 5339–5356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Paek and J. Kim, “Microsphere-assisted fabrication of high aspect-ratio elastomeric micropillars and waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3324 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Fluids (1)

C. Brücker, “Evidence of rare backflow and skin-friction critical points in near-wall turbulence using micropillar imaging,” Phys. Fluids 27(3), 031705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Skupsch, T. Klotz, H. Chaves, and C. Brücker, “Channelling optics for high quality imaging of sensory hair,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(4), 045001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

C. Brücker, R. Wagner, and M. Köhler, “Measurements of wall-shear stress fields on the piston crown in an IC engine flow using fluorescent labelled micro-pillar imaging,” in Proc. 18th Int. Symp Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2016).

S. Scharnowski, R. Hain, and C. J. Kähler, “Estimation of Reynolds stresses from PIV measurements with single-pixel resolution,” in Proc. 15th Int. Symp. Appl. Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (2010).

M. Raffel, C. Willert, S. Werley, and J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry PIV: A Practical Guide (Springer 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Set-up of the subcutaneous recording of the pillar tip deflection using fluorescent labelled tips of the transparent pillars and their wave-guidance properties. The blue arrow indicates the relevant measure of tip displacement Q relative to the no-flow situation that is captured by the imaging system below the wall.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sketch of the fluorescent labelled pillar tips (left) and picture as seen from top onto the regular array mounted as an insert in a flat transparent plate (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Image after stark contrast enhancement as seen from below the bottom of the transparent wall with the pillars in flow (flow is from bottom to top right). The blue lines indicate the grid of the pillars’ base. The image demonstrates that a spot appears at the base and the tip. A: section of one single sensor and corresponding autocorrelation map (right) after subtraction of the central peak; B: section of 3x2 sensor field and corresponding autocorrelation map (right).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Instantaneous velocity-field at a wall-normal distance of 400 micron to the piston head indicating strong wall-normal motion at a crank angle of CA = 20°. The vectors indicate the tip bending relative to the pillar base on the regular grid of micro-pillars. Applying Eq. (3) reveals a strong wall-normal fluid motion towards the wall as indicated by the diverging vectors with a stagnation point near the center of the field.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Evolution of the local wall-normal velocity component uz over the intake cycle.

Equations (3)

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τ W = μ u z | z=0 =f( Q )
u =1/μ τ W δ n +O( δ n 2 )
u n = 1 2 μ( τ W ) δ n 2 +O( δ n 3 )

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