Abstract

We developed an airborne compact rotational Raman lidar (CRL) for use on the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) aircraft to obtain two-dimensional (2D) temperature disman tributions. It obtained fine-scale 2D temperature distributions within 3 km below the aircraft for the first time during the PECAN (Plains Elevated Convection At Night) campaign in 2015. The CRL provided nighttime temperature measurements with a random error of <0.5 K within 800 m below aircraft at 45 m vertical and 1000 m horizontal resolution. The temperatures obtained by the CRL and a radiosonde agreed. Along with water vapor and aerosol measurements, the CRL provides critical parameters on the state of the lower atmosphere for a wide range of atmospheric research.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (4)

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. G. Blumberg, D. D. Turner, U. Löhnert, and S. Castleberry, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part II: actual retrieval performance in clear-sky and cloudy conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 54(11), 2305–2319 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Bruneau, J. Pelon, F. Blouzon, J. Spatazza, P. Genau, G. Buchholtz, N. Amarouche, A. Abchiche, and O. Aouji, “355-nm high spectral resolution airborne lidar LNG: system description and first results,” Appl. Opt. 54(29), 8776–8785 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wirth, and B. Weinzierl, “Towards an aerosol classification scheme for future EarthCARE lidar observations and implications for research needs: EarthCARE aerosol classification,” Atmos. Sci. Lett. 16(1), 77–82 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. C. Campbell, “A dryline in southeast Wyoming. Part II: airborne in situ and Raman lidar observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 142(8), 2961–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Cai, P. Wechsler, W. Kuestner, M. Burkhart, and W. Welch, “Compact airborne Raman lidar for profiling aerosol, water vapor and clouds,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20613–20621 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Turner and U. Löhnert, “Information content and uncertainties in the thermodynamic profiles and liquid cloud properties retrieved from the ground-based atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(3), 752–771 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

G. Maschwitz, U. Löhnert, S. Crewell, T. Rose, and D. Turner, “Investigation of ground-based microwave radiometer calibration techniques at 532 hPa,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2641–2658 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Long-term evaluation of temperature profiles measured by an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(8), 1616–1634 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51(34), 8111–8131 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Löhnert and O. Maier, “Operational profiling of temperature using ground-based microwave radiometry at Payerne: prospects and challenges,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1121–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Z. Wang, P. Wechsler, W. Kuestner, J. French, A. Rodi, B. Glover, M. Burkhart, and D. Lukens, “Wyoming Cloud Lidar: instrument description and applications,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13576–13587 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Löhnert, D. D. Turner, and S. Crewell, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part I: simulated retrieval performance in clear-sky conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(5), 1017–1032 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Isquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(8), 1437–1453 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

B. D. Sipprell and B. Geerts, “Finescale vertical structure and evolution of a preconvective dryline on 19 June 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 135(6), 2111–2134 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Crewell and U. Löhnert, “Accuracy of boundary layer temperature profiles retrieved with multifrequency multiangle microwave radiometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45(7), 2195–2201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Richardson, K. K. Droegemeier, and R. P. Davies-Jones, “The influence of horizontal environmental variability on numerically simulated convective storms. Part I: Variations in vertical shear,” Mon. Weather Rev. 135(10), 3429–3455 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Cimini, T. J. Hewison, L. Martin, J. Güldner, C. Gaffard, and F. S. Marzano, “Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based microwave radiometers during TUC,” Meteorol. Z. 15(51), 45–56 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. C. Liljegren, S.-A. Boukabara, K. Cady-Pereira, and S. A. Clough, “The effect of the half-width of the 22-GHz water vapor line on retrievals of temperature and water vapor profiles with a 12-channel microwave radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(5), 1102–1108 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, R. O. Lnuteson, H. Woolf, and H. E. Revercomb, “Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42(5), 584–597 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. F. Corfidi, “Cold pools and MCS propagation: Forecasting the motion of downwind-developing MCSs,” Weather Forecast. 18(6), 997–1017 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Crewell, H. Czekala, U. Löhnert, C. Simmer, T. Rose, R. Zimmermann, and R. Zimmermann, “Microwave radiometer for cloud carthography: A 22-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for atmospheric research,” Radio Sci. 36(4), 621–638 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Burris, W. Heaps, B. Gary, W. Hoegy, L. Lait, T. McGee, M. Gross, and U. Singh, “Lidar temperature measurements during the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE)/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (VOTE) Mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D3), 3505–3510 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

W. S. Heaps and J. Burris, “Airborne Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 35(36), 7128–7135 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Crook, “Sensitivity of moist convection forced by boundary layer processes to low-level thermodynamic fields,” Mon. Weather Rev. 124(8), 1767–1785 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

1983 (1)

1972 (1)

J. Cooney, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles by Raman backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11(1), 108–112 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abchiche, A.

Ackerman, T.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Adam, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Althausen, D.

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(8), 1437–1453 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6451–6462 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amarouche, N.

Ansmann, A.

Aouji, O.

Arshinov, Y. F.

Bandy, A.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bauer, H.-S.

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(8), 1437–1453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Begbie, R.

Behrendt, A.

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, A.

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Bergmaier, P. T.

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. C. Campbell, “A dryline in southeast Wyoming. Part II: airborne in situ and Raman lidar observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 142(8), 2961–2977 (2014).
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B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Blomquist, B.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Blumberg, W. G.

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Boukabara, S.-A.

J. C. Liljegren, S.-A. Boukabara, K. Cady-Pereira, and S. A. Clough, “The effect of the half-width of the 22-GHz water vapor line on retrievals of temperature and water vapor profiles with a 12-channel microwave radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(5), 1102–1108 (2005).
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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Buchholtz, G.

Buijs, H.

Burkhart, M.

Burnet, F.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Cadeddu, M. P.

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
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Cadirola, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
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Cady-Pereira, K.

J. C. Liljegren, S.-A. Boukabara, K. Cady-Pereira, and S. A. Clough, “The effect of the half-width of the 22-GHz water vapor line on retrievals of temperature and water vapor profiles with a 12-channel microwave radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(5), 1102–1108 (2005).
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Cai, Y.

Campbell, P. C.

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. C. Campbell, “A dryline in southeast Wyoming. Part II: airborne in situ and Raman lidar observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 142(8), 2961–2977 (2014).
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Campos, T.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Carr, F.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Castleberry, S.

W. G. Blumberg, D. D. Turner, U. Löhnert, and S. Castleberry, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part II: actual retrieval performance in clear-sky and cloudy conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 54(11), 2305–2319 (2015).
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Chai, S.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Ciganovich, N. C.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
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Cimini, D.

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R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Clark, R. D.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Clough, S. A.

J. C. Liljegren, S.-A. Boukabara, K. Cady-Pereira, and S. A. Clough, “The effect of the half-width of the 22-GHz water vapor line on retrievals of temperature and water vapor profiles with a 12-channel microwave radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(5), 1102–1108 (2005).
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Coniglio, M. C.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Connell, R.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
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Cook, A. L.

Cooney, J.

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Crewell, S.

G. Maschwitz, U. Löhnert, S. Crewell, T. Rose, and D. Turner, “Investigation of ground-based microwave radiometer calibration techniques at 532 hPa,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2641–2658 (2013).
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U. Löhnert, D. D. Turner, and S. Crewell, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part I: simulated retrieval performance in clear-sky conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(5), 1017–1032 (2009).
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S. Crewell and U. Löhnert, “Accuracy of boundary layer temperature profiles retrieved with multifrequency multiangle microwave radiometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45(7), 2195–2201 (2007).
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S. Crewell, H. Czekala, U. Löhnert, C. Simmer, T. Rose, R. Zimmermann, and R. Zimmermann, “Microwave radiometer for cloud carthography: A 22-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for atmospheric research,” Radio Sci. 36(4), 621–638 (2001).
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R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Crook, N. A.

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Czekala, H.

S. Crewell, H. Czekala, U. Löhnert, C. Simmer, T. Rose, R. Zimmermann, and R. Zimmermann, “Microwave radiometer for cloud carthography: A 22-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for atmospheric research,” Radio Sci. 36(4), 621–638 (2001).
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Davies-Jones, R. P.

Y. P. Richardson, K. K. Droegemeier, and R. P. Davies-Jones, “The influence of horizontal environmental variability on numerically simulated convective storms. Part I: Variations in vertical shear,” Mon. Weather Rev. 135(10), 3429–3455 (2007).
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Dedecker, R. G.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
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Demoz, B.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Demoz, B. B.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Di Girolamo, P.

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
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Dirkx, T. P.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
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Droegemeier, K. K.

Y. P. Richardson, K. K. Droegemeier, and R. P. Davies-Jones, “The influence of horizontal environmental variability on numerically simulated convective storms. Part I: Variations in vertical shear,” Mon. Weather Rev. 135(10), 3429–3455 (2007).
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Ellington, S. C.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
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Engelbart, D.

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(8), 1437–1453 (2008).
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Engelmann, R.

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(8), 1437–1453 (2008).
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Fabry, F.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Faloona, I.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Feltz, W.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Feltz, W. F.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
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W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, R. O. Lnuteson, H. Woolf, and H. E. Revercomb, “Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42(5), 584–597 (2003).
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Ferrare, R. A.

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Isquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
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B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Forno, R.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
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French, J.

Freudenthaler, V.

S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wirth, and B. Weinzierl, “Towards an aerosol classification scheme for future EarthCARE lidar observations and implications for research needs: EarthCARE aerosol classification,” Atmos. Sci. Lett. 16(1), 77–82 (2015).
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Friesen, D.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Gaffard, C.

D. Cimini, T. J. Hewison, L. Martin, J. Güldner, C. Gaffard, and F. S. Marzano, “Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based microwave radiometers during TUC,” Meteorol. Z. 15(51), 45–56 (2006).
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Gallus, W. A.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Garcia, R. K.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
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J. Burris, W. Heaps, B. Gary, W. Hoegy, L. Lait, T. McGee, M. Gross, and U. Singh, “Lidar temperature measurements during the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE)/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (VOTE) Mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D3), 3505–3510 (1998).
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Geerts, B.

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. C. Campbell, “A dryline in southeast Wyoming. Part II: airborne in situ and Raman lidar observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 142(8), 2961–2977 (2014).
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Genau, P.

Gerber, H.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Glover, B.

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

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Gross, M.

J. Burris, W. Heaps, B. Gary, W. Hoegy, L. Lait, T. McGee, M. Gross, and U. Singh, “Lidar temperature measurements during the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE)/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (VOTE) Mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D3), 3505–3510 (1998).
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Grzeschik, M.

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Güldner, J.

D. Cimini, T. J. Hewison, L. Martin, J. Güldner, C. Gaffard, and F. S. Marzano, “Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based microwave radiometers during TUC,” Meteorol. Z. 15(51), 45–56 (2006).
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Haghi, K.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Haimov, S.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Hair, J. W.

Hanesiak, J. M.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Hardesty, R. M.

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
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R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Harper, D. B.

Heaps, W.

J. Burris, W. Heaps, B. Gary, W. Hoegy, L. Lait, T. McGee, M. Gross, and U. Singh, “Lidar temperature measurements during the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE)/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (VOTE) Mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D3), 3505–3510 (1998).
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Heaps, W. S.

Hewison, T. J.

D. Cimini, T. J. Hewison, L. Martin, J. Güldner, C. Gaffard, and F. S. Marzano, “Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based microwave radiometers during TUC,” Meteorol. Z. 15(51), 45–56 (2006).
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Hilber, B.

Hoegy, W.

J. Burris, W. Heaps, B. Gary, W. Hoegy, L. Lait, T. McGee, M. Gross, and U. Singh, “Lidar temperature measurements during the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE)/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (VOTE) Mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D3), 3505–3510 (1998).
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Hoff, R. M.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Hostetler, C. A.

Hovis, F. E.

Howell, H. B.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
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W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, R. O. Lnuteson, H. Woolf, and H. E. Revercomb, “Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42(5), 584–597 (2003).
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H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, and L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27(15), 3210–3218 (1988).
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Isquierdo, L. R.

Jaenisch, V.

Killy, D. K.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Klein, P. M.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Klein, V.

Knupp, K.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Knupp, K. R.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Knuteson, R. O.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
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Koch, S.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Kosiba, K.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Kuestner, W.

Lait, L.

J. Burris, W. Heaps, B. Gary, W. Hoegy, L. Lait, T. McGee, M. Gross, and U. Singh, “Lidar temperature measurements during the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE)/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (VOTE) Mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D3), 3505–3510 (1998).
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Laporte, D. D.

Laursen, K.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Leblanc, T.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
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Lenschow, D. H.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Liljegren, J. C.

J. C. Liljegren, S.-A. Boukabara, K. Cady-Pereira, and S. A. Clough, “The effect of the half-width of the 22-GHz water vapor line on retrievals of temperature and water vapor profiles with a 12-channel microwave radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(5), 1102–1108 (2005).
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Liu, B.

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. C. Campbell, “A dryline in southeast Wyoming. Part II: airborne in situ and Raman lidar observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 142(8), 2961–2977 (2014).
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B. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Cai, P. Wechsler, W. Kuestner, M. Burkhart, and W. Welch, “Compact airborne Raman lidar for profiling aerosol, water vapor and clouds,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20613–20621 (2014).
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Liu, D.

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
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Liu, Z.

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
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Lnuteson, R. O.

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, R. O. Lnuteson, H. Woolf, and H. E. Revercomb, “Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42(5), 584–597 (2003).
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Loehrer, S. M.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Löhnert, U.

W. G. Blumberg, D. D. Turner, U. Löhnert, and S. Castleberry, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part II: actual retrieval performance in clear-sky and cloudy conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 54(11), 2305–2319 (2015).
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D. D. Turner and U. Löhnert, “Information content and uncertainties in the thermodynamic profiles and liquid cloud properties retrieved from the ground-based atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(3), 752–771 (2014).
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G. Maschwitz, U. Löhnert, S. Crewell, T. Rose, and D. Turner, “Investigation of ground-based microwave radiometer calibration techniques at 532 hPa,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2641–2658 (2013).
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U. Löhnert and O. Maier, “Operational profiling of temperature using ground-based microwave radiometry at Payerne: prospects and challenges,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1121–1134 (2012).
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U. Löhnert, D. D. Turner, and S. Crewell, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part I: simulated retrieval performance in clear-sky conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(5), 1017–1032 (2009).
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S. Crewell and U. Löhnert, “Accuracy of boundary layer temperature profiles retrieved with multifrequency multiangle microwave radiometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45(7), 2195–2201 (2007).
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S. Crewell, H. Czekala, U. Löhnert, C. Simmer, T. Rose, R. Zimmermann, and R. Zimmermann, “Microwave radiometer for cloud carthography: A 22-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for atmospheric research,” Radio Sci. 36(4), 621–638 (2001).
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Lukens, D.

Mack, T. L.

Maier, O.

U. Löhnert and O. Maier, “Operational profiling of temperature using ground-based microwave radiometry at Payerne: prospects and challenges,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1121–1134 (2012).
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Malinowski, S. P.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Martin, L.

D. Cimini, T. J. Hewison, L. Martin, J. Güldner, C. Gaffard, and F. S. Marzano, “Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based microwave radiometers during TUC,” Meteorol. Z. 15(51), 45–56 (2006).
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Marzano, F. S.

D. Cimini, T. J. Hewison, L. Martin, J. Güldner, C. Gaffard, and F. S. Marzano, “Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based microwave radiometers during TUC,” Meteorol. Z. 15(51), 45–56 (2006).
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Maschwitz, G.

G. Maschwitz, U. Löhnert, S. Crewell, T. Rose, and D. Turner, “Investigation of ground-based microwave radiometer calibration techniques at 532 hPa,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2641–2658 (2013).
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Mattis, I.

McDermid, S.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

McFarquhar, G. M.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

McGee, T.

J. Burris, W. Heaps, B. Gary, W. Hoegy, L. Lait, T. McGee, M. Gross, and U. Singh, “Lidar temperature measurements during the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE)/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (VOTE) Mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D3), 3505–3510 (1998).
[Crossref]

McIntire, G.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mielke, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mitev, V. M.

Moore, J. A.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Morley, B.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Müller, D.

Nehrir, A. R.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Newsom, R. K.

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Long-term evaluation of temperature profiles measured by an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(8), 1616–1634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parker, M. D.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Parsons, D.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Pelon, J.

Petters, M. D.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pinto, J. O.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Rabenhorst, S.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rauber, R. M.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Reichardt, J.

Revercomb, H. E.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, R. O. Lnuteson, H. Woolf, and H. E. Revercomb, “Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42(5), 584–597 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, and L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27(15), 3210–3218 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, Y. P.

Y. P. Richardson, K. K. Droegemeier, and R. P. Davies-Jones, “The influence of horizontal environmental variability on numerically simulated convective storms. Part I: Variations in vertical shear,” Mon. Weather Rev. 135(10), 3429–3455 (2007).
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Riede, A.

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(8), 1437–1453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rodi, A.

Rogers, D. C.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rose, T.

G. Maschwitz, U. Löhnert, S. Crewell, T. Rose, and D. Turner, “Investigation of ground-based microwave radiometer calibration techniques at 532 hPa,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2641–2658 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Crewell, H. Czekala, U. Löhnert, C. Simmer, T. Rose, R. Zimmermann, and R. Zimmermann, “Microwave radiometer for cloud carthography: A 22-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for atmospheric research,” Radio Sci. 36(4), 621–638 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rush, K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Russell, L.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Russo, F.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Savic-Jovcic, V.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Schlüssel, P.

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
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Schumacher, R. S.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Serikov, I. B.

Short, J. F.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
[Crossref]

Simmer, C.

S. Crewell, H. Czekala, U. Löhnert, C. Simmer, T. Rose, R. Zimmermann, and R. Zimmermann, “Microwave radiometer for cloud carthography: A 22-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for atmospheric research,” Radio Sci. 36(4), 621–638 (2001).
[Crossref]

Singh, U.

J. Burris, W. Heaps, B. Gary, W. Hoegy, L. Lait, T. McGee, M. Gross, and U. Singh, “Lidar temperature measurements during the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE)/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (VOTE) Mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D3), 3505–3510 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sipprell, B. D.

B. D. Sipprell and B. Geerts, “Finescale vertical structure and evolution of a preconvective dryline on 19 June 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 135(6), 2111–2134 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sisterson, D.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Smith, W. L.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, R. O. Lnuteson, H. Woolf, and H. E. Revercomb, “Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42(5), 584–597 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, and L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27(15), 3210–3218 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snider, J. R.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Spatazza, J.

Sromovsky, L. A.

Stein, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stevens, B.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Straub, D.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Szumowski, M. J.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takagi, H.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tesche, M.

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(8), 1437–1453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thornton, D. C.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tobin, D. C.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
[Crossref]

Trepte, C.

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
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Tschudi, M.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Turner, D.

G. Maschwitz, U. Löhnert, S. Crewell, T. Rose, and D. Turner, “Investigation of ground-based microwave radiometer calibration techniques at 532 hPa,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2641–2658 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Turner, D. D.

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. G. Blumberg, D. D. Turner, U. Löhnert, and S. Castleberry, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part II: actual retrieval performance in clear-sky and cloudy conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 54(11), 2305–2319 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. D. Turner and U. Löhnert, “Information content and uncertainties in the thermodynamic profiles and liquid cloud properties retrieved from the ground-based atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(3), 752–771 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Long-term evaluation of temperature profiles measured by an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(8), 1616–1634 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Löhnert, D. D. Turner, and S. Crewell, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part I: simulated retrieval performance in clear-sky conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(5), 1017–1032 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Twohy, C.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vali, G.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Van Baelen, J.

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
[Crossref]

van Zanten, M. C.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Venable, D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Veselovskii, I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vömel, H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wandinger, U.

Wang, X.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Wang, Z.

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. C. Campbell, “A dryline in southeast Wyoming. Part II: airborne in situ and Raman lidar observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 142(8), 2961–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Cai, P. Wechsler, W. Kuestner, M. Burkhart, and W. Welch, “Compact airborne Raman lidar for profiling aerosol, water vapor and clouds,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20613–20621 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, P. Wechsler, W. Kuestner, J. French, A. Rodi, B. Glover, M. Burkhart, and D. Lukens, “Wyoming Cloud Lidar: instrument description and applications,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13576–13587 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wechsler, P.

Weckwerth, T.

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Weckwerth, T. M.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Weinzierl, B.

S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wirth, and B. Weinzierl, “Towards an aerosol classification scheme for future EarthCARE lidar observations and implications for research needs: EarthCARE aerosol classification,” Atmos. Sci. Lett. 16(1), 77–82 (2015).
[Crossref]

Welch, W.

B. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Cai, P. Wechsler, W. Kuestner, M. Burkhart, and W. Welch, “Compact airborne Raman lidar for profiling aerosol, water vapor and clouds,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20613–20621 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Isquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wetzel, M.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Winker, D.

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wirth, M.

S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wirth, and B. Weinzierl, “Towards an aerosol classification scheme for future EarthCARE lidar observations and implications for research needs: EarthCARE aerosol classification,” Atmos. Sci. Lett. 16(1), 77–82 (2015).
[Crossref]

Woolf, H.

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, R. O. Lnuteson, H. Woolf, and H. E. Revercomb, “Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42(5), 584–597 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wulfmeyer, V.

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(8), 1437–1453 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. M. Hoff, R. M. Hardesty, F. Carr, T. Weckwerth, S. Koch, A. Benedetti, S. Crewell, D. Cimini, D. Turner, W. Feltz, B. Demoz, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Sisterson, T. Ackerman, F. Fabry, and K. Knupp, “Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service,” http://nldr.library.ucar.edu/repository/collections/TECH-NOTE-000-000-000-853 .

Wuman, J.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Xing, S. Z.

S. Z. Xing and J. C. Bergquist, “Thermal shifts of the spectral lines in the 4F3/2 to 4Z11./2 manifold of an Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(9), 1829–1832 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, C. L.

B. Geerts, D. Parsons, C. L. Ziegler, T. M. Weckwerth, D. D. Turner, J. Wuman, K. Kosiba, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, M. D. Parker, R. S. Schumacher, M. C. Coniglio, K. Haghi, M. I. Biggerstaff, P. M. Klein, W. A. Gallus, B. B. Demoz, K. R. Knupp, R. A. Ferrare, A. R. Nehrir, R. D. Clark, X. Wang, J. M. Hanesiak, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Moore, “The 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.submitted.

Zimmermann, R.

S. Crewell, H. Czekala, U. Löhnert, C. Simmer, T. Rose, R. Zimmermann, and R. Zimmermann, “Microwave radiometer for cloud carthography: A 22-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for atmospheric research,” Radio Sci. 36(4), 621–638 (2001).
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S. Crewell, H. Czekala, U. Löhnert, C. Simmer, T. Rose, R. Zimmermann, and R. Zimmermann, “Microwave radiometer for cloud carthography: A 22-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for atmospheric research,” Radio Sci. 36(4), 621–638 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zuev, V. E.

Zus, F.

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
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Appl. Opt. (7)

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, and L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27(15), 3210–3218 (1988).
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I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6451–6462 (2002).
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J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51(34), 8111–8131 (2012).
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Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, V. E. Zuev, and V. M. Mitev, “Atmospheric temperature measurements using a pure rotational Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22(19), 2984–2990 (1983).
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J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Isquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
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D. Bruneau, J. Pelon, F. Blouzon, J. Spatazza, P. Genau, G. Buchholtz, N. Amarouche, A. Abchiche, and O. Aouji, “355-nm high spectral resolution airborne lidar LNG: system description and first results,” Appl. Opt. 54(29), 8776–8785 (2015).
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W. S. Heaps and J. Burris, “Airborne Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 35(36), 7128–7135 (1996).
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Atmos. Meas. Tech. (2)

U. Löhnert and O. Maier, “Operational profiling of temperature using ground-based microwave radiometry at Payerne: prospects and challenges,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1121–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Maschwitz, U. Löhnert, S. Crewell, T. Rose, and D. Turner, “Investigation of ground-based microwave radiometer calibration techniques at 532 hPa,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2641–2658 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Sci. Lett. (1)

S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wirth, and B. Weinzierl, “Towards an aerosol classification scheme for future EarthCARE lidar observations and implications for research needs: EarthCARE aerosol classification,” Atmos. Sci. Lett. 16(1), 77–82 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, K. Laursen, D. K. Killy, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Z. Xing and J. C. Bergquist, “Thermal shifts of the spectral lines in the 4F3/2 to 4Z11./2 manifold of an Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(9), 1829–1832 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

J. C. Liljegren, S.-A. Boukabara, K. Cady-Pereira, and S. A. Clough, “The effect of the half-width of the 22-GHz water vapor line on retrievals of temperature and water vapor profiles with a 12-channel microwave radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(5), 1102–1108 (2005).
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S. Crewell and U. Löhnert, “Accuracy of boundary layer temperature profiles retrieved with multifrequency multiangle microwave radiometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45(7), 2195–2201 (2007).
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J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, R. O. Lnuteson, H. Woolf, and H. E. Revercomb, “Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42(5), 584–597 (2003).
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J. Cooney, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles by Raman backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11(1), 108–112 (1972).
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J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. (3)

W. G. Blumberg, D. D. Turner, U. Löhnert, and S. Castleberry, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part II: actual retrieval performance in clear-sky and cloudy conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 54(11), 2305–2319 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. Löhnert, D. D. Turner, and S. Crewell, “Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part I: simulated retrieval performance in clear-sky conditions,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(5), 1017–1032 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. D. Turner and U. Löhnert, “Information content and uncertainties in the thermodynamic profiles and liquid cloud properties retrieved from the ground-based atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(3), 752–771 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (4)

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer: Part II, Instrument performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(12), 1777–1789 (2004).
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M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(8), 1437–1453 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Long-term evaluation of temperature profiles measured by an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(8), 1616–1634 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the updated receiver box in the CRL.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmission curves of the filters in the low-J and high-J channels. The rotational Raman backscattering spectra of N2 and O2 at 300 and 250 K and the elastic backscattering spectra are shown for comparison.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Rotational Raman signal ratio profiles Q(z) measured by the CRL during two flat legs at altitudes of 2.5 and 3.1 km. (b) g(r) determined from measurements shown in (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Determination of calibration coefficients from a linear regression.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Distribution of temperature measured by the CRL on June 30, 2015. (b) Calibration uncertainty, (c) total uncertainty, and (d)–(f) random uncertainties that arose from random noises in the lidar signals using different horizontal (ΔX) and vertical (ΔZ) resolutions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Comparison of temperature profiles from the radiosonde (blue line), the Rosemount 102 probe on the UWKA (red line), and the 10-s average CRL measurement with a 45-m vertical resolution (black line). (b) Difference between the radiosonde and CRL temperature measurements (solid line), and 1σ error of CRL measured temperature (dash line).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) UWKA track in a mesoscale convective system (MCS). CRL measurements of (b) aerosol lidar scattering ratio (LSR), (c) water vapor mixing ratio, and (d) temperature distributions with 500-m horizontal and 30-m vertical resolution around an MCS observed on July 1, 2015. (e) Comparison of temperature measurements by a Rosemount 102 probe and the CRL on the UWKA. (f) Air vertical velocity measurement on the UWKA.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Main System Parameters of the CRL

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Table 2 Optical Characteristics of the Interference Filters in the CRL

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Table 3 Approximate Range of the CRL Temperature Measurement with a Random Uncertainty of <0.5 K Under Different Horizontal (ΔX) and Vertical (ΔZ) Resolutions

Equations (9)

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P H (r)= C H O H (r) r 2 N(r)[ i= O 2 , N 2 J i η i t H ( J i ) ( dσ dΩ ) π ( J i ) ] e [ τ( λ 0 ,r)+τ( λ H ,r) ] ,
P L (r)= C L O L (r) r 2 N(r)[ i= O 2 , N 2 J i η i t L ( J i ) ( dσ dΩ ) π ( J i ) ] e [ τ( λ 0 ,r)+τ( λ L ,r) ] ,
Q(r) P H (r) P L (r) = C H C L O H O L i= O 2 , N 2 J i η i t H ( J i ) ( dσ dΩ ) π ( J i ) i= O 2 , N 2 J i η i t L ( J i ) ( dσ dΩ ) π ( J i ) ,
i= O 2 , N 2 J i η i t H ( J i ) ( dσ dΩ ) π ( J i ) i= O 2 , N 2 J i η i t L ( J i ) ( dσ dΩ ) π ( J i ) =exp( A+ B T ).
Q(r)=Cg(r)exp[ A+ B T(r) ],
T(r)= [ 1 B ln( Q(r) g(r) ) lnC+A B ] 1 = [ aln( Q(r) g(r) )+b ] 1 ,
δP(r)= δ P 1s (r) N×M ,
1 T(z) =alnQ(z)+b,
[ δT(r) T(r) ] 2 = [ T(r) ] 2 [ ( a δ P H (r) P H (r) ) 2 + ( a δ P L (r) P L (r) ) 2 + ( a δg(r) g(r) ) 2 + ( ln( Q(r) g(r) )δa ) 2 + ( δb ) 2 ],

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