Abstract

Synthetic two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides such as tungsten disulphide (WS2), tungsten diselenide (WSe2), molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) as well as mixed molybdenum tungsten disulphide (Mo0.5W0.5S2) single crystals were grown by the chemical vapor transport method using halogens (bromine or chlorine) as transport agents. Multi-layer samples were cleaved from the single crystals, and their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were obtained from both open aperture and closed aperture Z-scan measurements using a picosecond mode-locked Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm, with pulse duration of 25 ps and 20 Hz repetition rate. Both WS2 and MoS2 exhibited nonlinear saturable absorption (SA), whereas WSe2 and Mo0.5W0.5S2 showed nonlinear two-photon absorption (2PA). A large 2PA coefficient β as high as + 1.91x10−8 cm/W was obtained for the Mo0.5W0.5S2, and an index of refraction coefficient γ = −2.47x10−9 cm2/W was obtained for the WSe2 sample.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

S. Bikorimana, P. Lama, A. Walser, R. Dorsinville, S. Anghel, A. Mitioglu, A. Micu, and L. Kulyuk, "Nonlinear optical responses in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide multilayer: WS2, WSe2, MoS2 and Mo0.5W0.5S2: publisher’s note," Opt. Express 24, 26998-26998 (2016)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-24-23-26998

3 October 2016: Corrections were made to the author affiliations and abstract.

8 November 2016: Corrections were made to the funding section.


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References

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2015 (7)

2014 (9)

E. M. Mannebach, K. A. N. Duerloo, L. A. Pellouchoud, M. J. Sher, S. Nah, Y. H. Kuo, Y. Yu, A. F. Marshall, L. Cao, E. J. Reed, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electronic and structural response of monolayer MoS2 under intense photoexcitation conditions,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10734–10742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, K. K. Antwi, S. Chua, and D. Chi, “Vapor-phase growth and characterization of Mo1-xWxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) atomic layers on 2-inch sapphire substrates,” Nanoscale 6(1), 624–629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jariwala, V. K. Sangwan, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Emerging device applications for semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1102–1120 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Ahuja, A. Dashora, H. Tiwari, D. C. Kothari, and K. Venugopalan, “Electronic and optical properties of MoS2–WS2 multi-layers: First principles study,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 92, 451–456 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Jiang, H. S. Park, and T. Rabczuk, “MoS2 nanoresonators: intrinsically better than graphene?” Nanoscale 6(7), 3618–3625 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, P. Böttger, X. Zhang, J. Börner, A. Liebig, M. Albrecht, C. Kloc, O. Gordan, D. R. Zahn, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4908–4916 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Štengl and J. Henych, “Strongly luminescent monolayered MoS2 prepared by effective ultrasound exfoliation,” Nanoscale 5(8), 3387–3394 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. Mas-Ballesté, C. Gómez-Navarro, J. Gómez-Herrero, and F. Zamora, “2D materials: to graphene and beyond,” Nanoscale 3(1), 20–30 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5111–5116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. 122(24), 4153–4156 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. O. Dumcenco, K. Y. Chen, Y. P. Wang, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Raman study of 2H-Mo1-x WxS2 layered mixed crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 506(2), 940–943 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, “Theoretical study on the closed-aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 431–437 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

1982 (1)

K. K. Kam and B. A. Parkinson, “Detailed photocurrent spectroscopy of the semiconducting group VIB transition metal dichalcogenides,” J. Phys. Chem. 86(4), 463–467 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ahuja, U.

U. Ahuja, A. Dashora, H. Tiwari, D. C. Kothari, and K. Venugopalan, “Electronic and optical properties of MoS2–WS2 multi-layers: First principles study,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 92, 451–456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

Antwi, K. K.

H. Liu, K. K. Antwi, S. Chua, and D. Chi, “Vapor-phase growth and characterization of Mo1-xWxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) atomic layers on 2-inch sapphire substrates,” Nanoscale 6(1), 624–629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, L. A.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bansil, A.

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Berkdemir, A.

N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Börner, J.

Böttger, P.

Boyd, R. W.

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M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb-and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(17482), 1–11 (2015).

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G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5111–5116 (2011).
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D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
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Duerloo, K. A. N.

E. M. Mannebach, K. A. N. Duerloo, L. A. Pellouchoud, M. J. Sher, S. Nah, Y. H. Kuo, Y. Yu, A. F. Marshall, L. Cao, E. J. Reed, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electronic and structural response of monolayer MoS2 under intense photoexcitation conditions,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10734–10742 (2014).
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D. O. Dumcenco, K. Y. Chen, Y. P. Wang, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Raman study of 2H-Mo1-x WxS2 layered mixed crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 506(2), 940–943 (2010).
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Eda, G.

G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5111–5116 (2011).
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Elías, A. L.

N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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Fal’ko, V. I.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5111–5116 (2011).
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Galli, G.

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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Gan, X.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(7965), 7965 (2015).
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K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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George, M.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
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Ghosh, S.

N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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Goldberger, J. E.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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Gomathi, A.

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. 122(24), 4153–4156 (2010).
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Grigorieva, I. V.

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
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Guo, C.

Guo, S.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, “Theoretical study on the closed-aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 431–437 (2001).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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Gurudas, U.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107 (2008).
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Gutiérrez, H. R.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(7965), 7965 (2015).
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Hasan, T.

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb-and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(17482), 1–11 (2015).

Hayashi, T.

N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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Heinz, T. F.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heiroth, S.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107 (2008).
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D. Jariwala, V. K. Sangwan, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Emerging device applications for semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1102–1120 (2014).
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Hong, S. S.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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Hou, L.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, “Theoretical study on the closed-aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 431–437 (2001).
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Howe, R. C. T.

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb-and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(17482), 1–11 (2015).

Hu, G.

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb-and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(17482), 1–11 (2015).

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb-and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(17482), 1–11 (2015).

Hu, J.

Hu, Z.

Hua, S.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(7965), 7965 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
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K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
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Shen, Z. X.

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
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E. M. Mannebach, K. A. N. Duerloo, L. A. Pellouchoud, M. J. Sher, S. Nah, Y. H. Kuo, Y. Yu, A. F. Marshall, L. Cao, E. J. Reed, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electronic and structural response of monolayer MoS2 under intense photoexcitation conditions,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10734–10742 (2014).
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Shi, L.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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V. Štengl and J. Henych, “Strongly luminescent monolayered MoS2 prepared by effective ultrasound exfoliation,” Nanoscale 5(8), 3387–3394 (2013).
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Strano, M. S.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
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Van Stryland, E. W.

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U. Ahuja, A. Dashora, H. Tiwari, D. C. Kothari, and K. Venugopalan, “Electronic and optical properties of MoS2–WS2 multi-layers: First principles study,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 92, 451–456 (2014).
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G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5111–5116 (2011).
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K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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Wang, H.

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
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B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
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K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Wang, K.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
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Wang, Y.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(7965), 7965 (2015).
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D. O. Dumcenco, K. Y. Chen, Y. P. Wang, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Raman study of 2H-Mo1-x WxS2 layered mixed crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 506(2), 940–943 (2010).
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Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107 (2008).
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A. Jakubowicz, D. Mahalu, M. Wolf, A. Wold, and R. Tenne, “WSe2: Optical and electrical properties as related to surface passivation of recombination centers,” Phys. Rev. B 40(5), 2992–3000 (1989).
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A. Jakubowicz, D. Mahalu, M. Wolf, A. Wold, and R. Tenne, “WSe2: Optical and electrical properties as related to surface passivation of recombination centers,” Phys. Rev. B 40(5), 2992–3000 (1989).
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R. I. Woodward and E. J. Kelleher, “2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 1440–1456 (2015).
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Xiao, Q.

Xu, W. C.

Xu, Z.

Yamaguchi, H.

G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5111–5116 (2011).
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Yan, H.

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
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Yan, P.

Yang, H.

Yoon, Y.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
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E. M. Mannebach, K. A. N. Duerloo, L. A. Pellouchoud, M. J. Sher, S. Nah, Y. H. Kuo, Y. Yu, A. F. Marshall, L. Cao, E. J. Reed, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electronic and structural response of monolayer MoS2 under intense photoexcitation conditions,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10734–10742 (2014).
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Zahn, D. R.

Zamora, F.

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K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb-and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(17482), 1–11 (2015).

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(7965), 7965 (2015).
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Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

X. Zheng, Y. Zhang, R. Chen, X. Cheng, Z. Xu, and T. Jiang, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2.,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15616–15623 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(7965), 7965 (2015).
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Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X.

Zheng, Z.

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb-and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(17482), 1–11 (2015).

Zhou, B.

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
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Zou, Y.

ACS Nano (4)

D. Jariwala, V. K. Sangwan, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Emerging device applications for semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1102–1120 (2014).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Mannebach, K. A. N. Duerloo, L. A. Pellouchoud, M. J. Sher, S. Nah, Y. H. Kuo, Y. Yu, A. F. Marshall, L. Cao, E. J. Reed, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electronic and structural response of monolayer MoS2 under intense photoexcitation conditions,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10734–10742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. 122(24), 4153–4156 (2010).
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Appl. Sci. (1)

R. I. Woodward and E. J. Kelleher, “2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 1440–1456 (2015).
[Crossref]

Comput. Mater. Sci. (1)

U. Ahuja, A. Dashora, H. Tiwari, D. C. Kothari, and K. Venugopalan, “Electronic and optical properties of MoS2–WS2 multi-layers: First principles study,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 92, 451–456 (2014).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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J. Alloys Compd. (1)

D. O. Dumcenco, K. Y. Chen, Y. P. Wang, Y. S. Huang, and K. K. Tiong, “Raman study of 2H-Mo1-x WxS2 layered mixed crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 506(2), 940–943 (2010).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107 (2008).
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G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5111–5116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (5)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the Z-Scan experimental setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a-d) Illustrate the SEM images of the cross sections of the multilayer WS2, WSe2, MoS2 and Mo0.5W0.5S2 samples, with layers that are 20, 22, 25, and 22 μm thick, respectively. (e-h) show the SEM images of the top surface of each of the TMD multilayer samples.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a-d) Show a microscopic view of the interface between the substrate and each of the multilayer TDM samples WS2, WSe2, MoS2 and Mo0.5W0.5S2. (e-h) show photographs of the multilayer WS2, WSe2, MoS2 and Mo0.5W0.5S2 samples transferred on to the glass substrates in preparation for Z-scan characterization.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption spectra of the glass substrate and TMD multilayer samples (WS2, WSe2, MoS2 and Mo0.5W0.5S2).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Illustrates the normalized transmittance Z-scan measurements (dotted lines) and the theoretical results (solid lines) from the TMD multilayer samples of WS2, MoS2,WSe2, and Mo0.5W0.5S2 with an incident irradiance at the focus of around 0.023 GW/cm2, 0.0566 GW/cm2, 0.085 GW/cm2 and 0.0085 GW/cm2, respectively. (a) and (b) are open aperture (OA) data showing saturable absorption (SA) in WS2, and MoS2, respectively. (e) and (f) are open aperture (OA) data showing two-photon absorption (2PA) in WSe2, and Mo0.5W0.5S2. (c) and (d) are the division of closed aperture (CA) by open aperture (OA) data showing self-focusing in WS2 and MoS2, respectively. (g) and (f) are the division of closed aperture (CA) by open aperture(OA) data showing self-defocusing in WSe2 and Mo0.5W0.5S2, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Shows the normalized transmittance open aperture measurements and corresponding nonlinear absorption coefficients of the TMD multilayer samples of WS2, MoS2, WSe2, and Mo0.5W0.5S2 at different incident irradiance levels, I (GW/cm 2). (a, b) and (c, d) are the open aperture (OA) results and nonlinear absorption coefficients, β (cm/GW), showing saturable absorption (SA) in WS2, and MoS2, respectively. (a) WS2 shows reverse saturable absorption (RSA) above 0.2071 GW/cm2. (e, f) and (g, h) are the open aperture (OA) results and nonlinear absorption coefficients, β (cm/GW), showing two-photon absorption (2PA) in WSe2, and Mo0.5W0.5S2, respectively. The fitting curves (solid lines) of the OA Z-scan measurements in (a, c, e, and g) and the β (cm/GW) values shown in (b, d, f, and h) were obtained using Eq. (4).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Nonlinear Absorption and Nonlinear Refraction Coefficients of the TMD Multilayer Samples at 1064nm Excitation Wavelength

Equations (5)

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χ ( 3 ) = χ R ( 3 ) + i χ Im ( 3 ) .
χ R ( 3 ) = 2 n o 2 ε 0 c γ .
χ Im ( 3 ) = n o 2 ε 0 c 2 β ω .
T n o r m ( z , S = 1 ) = m = 0 ( β I o L e f f / 1 + z 2 z o 2 ) m ( 1 + m ) 3 2 .
T ( z , Δ Φ o ) 1 4 Δ Φ o z / z o [ ( z / z o ) 2 + 9 ] [ ( z / z o ) 2 + 1 ] .

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