Abstract

Optical feedback effects in lasers may be useful or problematic, depending on the type of application. When semiconductor lasers are operated using pulsed-mode excitation, their behavior under optical feedback depends on the electronic and thermal characteristics of the laser, as well as the nature of the external cavity. Predicting the behavior of a laser under both optical feedback and pulsed operation therefore requires a detailed model that includes laser-specific thermal and electronic characteristics. In this paper we introduce such a model for an exemplar bound-to-continuum terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL), illustrating its use in a selection of pulsed operation scenarios. Our results demonstrate significant interplay between electro-optical, thermal, and feedback phenomena, and that this interplay is key to understanding QCL behavior in pulsed applications. Further, our results suggest that for many types of QCL in interferometric applications, thermal modulation via low duty cycle pulsed operation would be an alternative to commonly used adiabatic modulation.

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2016 (2)

K. Bertling, T. Taimre, G. Agnew, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, S. Höfling, R. Weih, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, and A. D. Rakić, “Simple electrical modulation scheme for laser feedback imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1937–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

A. Hangauer and G. Wysocki, “Gain compression and linewidth enhancement factor in mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 21, 1200411 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, S. Ferréb, K. Schiresa, M. Carrasb, and F. Grillota, “Nonlinear dynamics of quantum cascade lasers with optical feedback,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937014 (2015).

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taimre, M. Nikolić, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (11)

T. Taimre and A. D. Rakić, “On the nature of Acket’s characteristic parameter C in semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53, 1001–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “High frequency modulation capabilities and quasi single-sideband emission from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 22, 23439–23455 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041112 (2014).
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M. Lindskog, J. M. Wolf, V. Trinite, V. Liverini, J. Faist, G. Maisons, M. Carras, R. Aidam, R. Ostendorf, and A. Wacker, “Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium green’s functions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Wacker, M. Lindskog, and D. O. Winge, “Nonequilibrium green’s function model for simulation of quantum cascade laser devices under operating conditions,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 19, 1200611 (2013).
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K. S. C. Yong, M. K. Haldar, and J. F. Webb, “An equivalent circuit for quantum cascade lasers,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34, 586–597 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, A. Scheuring, M. Salih, A. Stockhausen, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, S. Chowdhury, S. P. Khanna, M. Siegel, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Time-resolved measurement of pulse-to-pulse heating effects in a terahertz quantum cascade laser using an NbN superconducting detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient analysis of THz-QCL pulses using NbN and YBCO superconducting detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Matyas, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ~200 k with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20, 3866–3876 (2012).
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R. Teysseyre, F. Bony, J. Perchoux, and T. Bosch, “Laser dynamics in sawtoothlike self-mixing signals,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3771–3773 (2012).
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M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nature Photon. 6, 525–528 (2012).
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S. Donati and M. T. Fathi, “Transition from short-to-long cavity and from self-mixing to chaos in a delayed optical feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1352–1359 (2012).
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S. Donati and R. Horng, “The diagram of feedback regimes revisited,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 19, 1500309 (2012).
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T. V. Dinh, A. Valavanis, L. J. M. Lever, Z. Ikonić, and R. W. Kelsall, “Extended density-matrix model applied to silicon-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 235427 (2012).
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2011 (6)

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
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S. Donati, “Responsivity and noise of self-mixing photodetection schemes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 47, 1428–1433 (2011).
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Z. Chen, Z. Y. Tan, Y. J. Han, R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, H. Li, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Wireless communication demonstration at 4.1 THz using quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1002–1004 (2011).
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Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 17, 22–29 (2011).
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G. Chen, T. Yang, C. Peng, and R. Martini, “Self-consistent approach for quantum cascade laser characteristic simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 1086–1093 (2011).
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P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
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2010 (3)

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, D. Ban, M. Graf, S. R. Laframboise, Z. R. Wasilewski, and H. C. Liu, “Time-resolved thermal quenching of THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 396–404 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Cooper, A. Valavanis, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, and J. E. Cunningham, “Finite difference method for solving the schrödinger equation with band nonparabolicity in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113109 (2010).
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J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
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2009 (2)

2008 (7)

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Absorption-sensitive diffuse reflection imaging of concealed powders using a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 16, 5997–6007 (2008).
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R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
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S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, “Thermal behavior investigation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139–1144 (2008).
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A. Hamadou, J. L. Thobel, and S. Lamari, “Modelling of temperature effects on the characteristics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5385–5388 (2008).
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G. C. Chen, G. H. Fan, and S. T. Li, “Spice simulation of a large-signal model for quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 645–653 (2008).
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S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, N. M. Hinchcliffe, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “The growth and measurement of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E 40, 1859–1861 (2008).
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C. A. Evans, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: Comparison of optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 680–685 (2008).
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2007 (4)

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
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B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature Photon. 1, 517–525 (2007).
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M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nature Photon. 1, 97–105 (2007).
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R. L. Tober, “Active region temperatures of quantum cascade lasers during pulsed excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044507 (2007).
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2006 (1)

A. Lops, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043109 (2006).
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2005 (2)

V. D. Jovanović, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, H. Page, X. Marcadet, C. Sirtori, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Mechanisms of dynamic range limitations in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers: Influence of injector doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211117 (2005).
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R. Martini and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade laser-based free space optical communications,” J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Rep. 2, 279–292 (2005).
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2003 (4)

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
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D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Self-consistent scattering model of carrier dynamics in GaAs-AlGaAs terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 15–17 (2003).
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C. Pflügl, M. Litzenberger, W. Schrenk, D. Pogany, E. Gornik, and G. Strasser, “Interferometric study of thermal dynamics in GaAs-based quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1664–1666 (2003).
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A. J. Borak, C. C. Phillips, and C. Sirtori, “Temperature transients and thermal properties of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4020–4022 (2003).
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2002 (1)

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
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2001 (1)

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
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1982 (2)

J. S. Blakemore, “Semiconducting and other major properties of gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, R123–R181 (1982).
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C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982).
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1980 (1)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
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1964 (1)

M. G. Holland, “Phonon scattering in semiconductors from thermal conductivity studies,” Phys. Rev. 134, A471–A480 (1964).
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Agnew, G.

K. Bertling, T. Taimre, G. Agnew, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, S. Höfling, R. Weih, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, and A. D. Rakić, “Simple electrical modulation scheme for laser feedback imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1937–1942 (2016).
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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
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Aidam, R.

M. Lindskog, J. M. Wolf, V. Trinite, V. Liverini, J. Faist, G. Maisons, M. Carras, R. Aidam, R. Ostendorf, and A. Wacker, “Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium green’s functions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alhathlool, R.

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. G.

Alton, J.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baillargeon, J. N.

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ban, D.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Matyas, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ~200 k with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20, 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, D. Ban, M. Graf, S. R. Laframboise, Z. R. Wasilewski, and H. C. Liu, “Time-resolved thermal quenching of THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 396–404 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, “Thermal behavior investigation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139–1144 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bartalini, S.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nature Photon. 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

F. P. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
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J. M. Hensley, J. Montoya, M. G. Allen, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Spectral behavior of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17, 20476–20483 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. D. Jovanović, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, H. Page, X. Marcadet, C. Sirtori, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Mechanisms of dynamic range limitations in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers: Influence of injector doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Beltram, F.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bertling, K.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Bertling, T. Taimre, G. Agnew, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, S. Höfling, R. Weih, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, and A. D. Rakić, “Simple electrical modulation scheme for laser feedback imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1937–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taimre, M. Nikolić, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blakemore, J. S.

J. S. Blakemore, “Semiconducting and other major properties of gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, R123–R181 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bony, F.

Borak, A. J.

A. J. Borak, C. C. Phillips, and C. Sirtori, “Temperature transients and thermal properties of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4020–4022 (2003).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

Bosch, T.

Boucherif, A.

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, “Thermal behavior investigation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139–1144 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, M.

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041112 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breuil, N.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burnett, A.

Burnett, A. D.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
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Cao, J. C.

Z. Chen, Z. Y. Tan, Y. J. Han, R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, H. Li, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Wireless communication demonstration at 4.1 THz using quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1002–1004 (2011).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
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Carras, M.

M. Lindskog, J. M. Wolf, V. Trinite, V. Liverini, J. Faist, G. Maisons, M. Carras, R. Aidam, R. Ostendorf, and A. Wacker, “Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium green’s functions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 103106 (2014).
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Carrasb, M.

L. Jumpertz, S. Ferréb, K. Schiresa, M. Carrasb, and F. Grillota, “Nonlinear dynamics of quantum cascade lasers with optical feedback,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937014 (2015).

Chakraborty, S.

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Absorption-sensitive diffuse reflection imaging of concealed powders using a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 16, 5997–6007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, N. M. Hinchcliffe, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “The growth and measurement of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E 40, 1859–1861 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. W. I.

Chen, G.

G. Chen, T. Yang, C. Peng, and R. Martini, “Self-consistent approach for quantum cascade laser characteristic simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 1086–1093 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. C.

G. C. Chen, G. H. Fan, and S. T. Li, “Spice simulation of a large-signal model for quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 645–653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, Z. Y. Tan, Y. J. Han, R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, H. Li, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Wireless communication demonstration at 4.1 THz using quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1002–1004 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, S.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient analysis of THz-QCL pulses using NbN and YBCO superconducting detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, A. Scheuring, M. Salih, A. Stockhausen, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, S. Chowdhury, S. P. Khanna, M. Siegel, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Time-resolved measurement of pulse-to-pulse heating effects in a terahertz quantum cascade laser using an NbN superconducting detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Columbo, L. L.

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041112 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Consolino, L.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nature Photon. 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cooper, J.

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cooper, J. D.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient analysis of THz-QCL pulses using NbN and YBCO superconducting detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. D. Cooper, A. Valavanis, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, and J. E. Cunningham, “Finite difference method for solving the schrödinger equation with band nonparabolicity in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Cooper, A. Valavanis, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, and J. E. Cunningham, “Finite difference method for solving the schrödinger equation with band nonparabolicity in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dabbicco, M.

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041112 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, A. Scheuring, M. Salih, A. Stockhausen, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, S. Chowdhury, S. P. Khanna, M. Siegel, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Time-resolved measurement of pulse-to-pulse heating effects in a terahertz quantum cascade laser using an NbN superconducting detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient analysis of THz-QCL pulses using NbN and YBCO superconducting detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, N. M. Hinchcliffe, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “The growth and measurement of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E 40, 1859–1861 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, G.

De Natale, P.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nature Photon. 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dean, P.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Bertling, T. Taimre, G. Agnew, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, S. Höfling, R. Weih, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, and A. D. Rakić, “Simple electrical modulation scheme for laser feedback imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1937–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, A. Scheuring, M. Salih, A. Stockhausen, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, S. Chowdhury, S. P. Khanna, M. Siegel, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Time-resolved measurement of pulse-to-pulse heating effects in a terahertz quantum cascade laser using an NbN superconducting detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient analysis of THz-QCL pulses using NbN and YBCO superconducting detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Absorption-sensitive diffuse reflection imaging of concealed powders using a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 16, 5997–6007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Destic, F.

Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 17, 22–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, S. S.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dinh, T. V.

T. V. Dinh, A. Valavanis, L. J. M. Lever, Z. Ikonić, and R. W. Kelsall, “Extended density-matrix model applied to silicon-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 235427 (2012).
[Crossref]

Donati, S.

S. Donati and R. Horng, “The diagram of feedback regimes revisited,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 19, 1500309 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Donati and M. T. Fathi, “Transition from short-to-long cavity and from self-mixing to chaos in a delayed optical feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1352–1359 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Donati, “Responsivity and noise of self-mixing photodetection schemes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 47, 1428–1433 (2011).
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G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
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Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
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J. D. Cooper, A. Valavanis, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, and J. E. Cunningham, “Finite difference method for solving the schrödinger equation with band nonparabolicity in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113109 (2010).
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C. A. Evans, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: Comparison of optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 680–685 (2008).
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D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
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D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Self-consistent scattering model of carrier dynamics in GaAs-AlGaAs terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 15–17 (2003).
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A. Valavanis, P. Dean, A. Scheuring, M. Salih, A. Stockhausen, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, S. Chowdhury, S. P. Khanna, M. Siegel, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Time-resolved measurement of pulse-to-pulse heating effects in a terahertz quantum cascade laser using an NbN superconducting detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061120 (2013).
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A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient analysis of THz-QCL pulses using NbN and YBCO superconducting detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 172–179 (2013).
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K. Bertling, T. Taimre, G. Agnew, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, S. Höfling, R. Weih, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, and A. D. Rakić, “Simple electrical modulation scheme for laser feedback imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1937–1942 (2016).
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S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
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H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
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J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
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P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
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H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
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Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
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T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
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A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
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P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
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P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. A. Evans, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: Comparison of optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 680–685 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. D. Jovanović, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, H. Page, X. Marcadet, C. Sirtori, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Mechanisms of dynamic range limitations in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers: Influence of injector doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211117 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Self-consistent scattering model of carrier dynamics in GaAs-AlGaAs terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 15–17 (2003).
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L. Jumpertz, S. Ferréb, K. Schiresa, M. Carrasb, and F. Grillota, “Nonlinear dynamics of quantum cascade lasers with optical feedback,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937014 (2015).

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K. Bertling, T. Taimre, G. Agnew, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, S. Höfling, R. Weih, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, and A. D. Rakić, “Simple electrical modulation scheme for laser feedback imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1937–1942 (2016).
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S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kelsall, R. W.

T. V. Dinh, A. Valavanis, L. J. M. Lever, Z. Ikonić, and R. W. Kelsall, “Extended density-matrix model applied to silicon-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 235427 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Self-consistent scattering model of carrier dynamics in GaAs-AlGaAs terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 15–17 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S. P.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, A. Scheuring, M. Salih, A. Stockhausen, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, S. Chowdhury, S. P. Khanna, M. Siegel, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Time-resolved measurement of pulse-to-pulse heating effects in a terahertz quantum cascade laser using an NbN superconducting detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient analysis of THz-QCL pulses using NbN and YBCO superconducting detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, N. M. Hinchcliffe, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “The growth and measurement of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E 40, 1859–1861 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Absorption-sensitive diffuse reflection imaging of concealed powders using a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 16, 5997–6007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kliese, R.

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
[Crossref]

Koeth, J.

K. Bertling, T. Taimre, G. Agnew, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, S. Höfling, R. Weih, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, and A. D. Rakić, “Simple electrical modulation scheme for laser feedback imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1937–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kundu, I.

Lachab, M.

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, N. M. Hinchcliffe, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “The growth and measurement of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E 40, 1859–1861 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Absorption-sensitive diffuse reflection imaging of concealed powders using a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 16, 5997–6007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laframboise, S. R.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Matyas, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ~200 k with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20, 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, D. Ban, M. Graf, S. R. Laframboise, Z. R. Wasilewski, and H. C. Liu, “Time-resolved thermal quenching of THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 396–404 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, “Thermal behavior investigation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139–1144 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lamari, S.

A. Hamadou, S. Lamari, and J. L. Thobel, “Dynamic modeling of a midinfrared quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 093116 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Hamadou, J. L. Thobel, and S. Lamari, “Modelling of temperature effects on the characteristics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5385–5388 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lever, L. J. M.

T. V. Dinh, A. Valavanis, L. J. M. Lever, Z. Ikonić, and R. W. Kelsall, “Extended density-matrix model applied to silicon-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 235427 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Z. Chen, Z. Y. Tan, Y. J. Han, R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, H. Li, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Wireless communication demonstration at 4.1 THz using quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1002–1004 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L. H.

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, S. T.

G. C. Chen, G. H. Fan, and S. T. Li, “Spice simulation of a large-signal model for quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 645–653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. L.

K. Bertling, T. Taimre, G. Agnew, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, S. Höfling, R. Weih, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, and A. D. Rakić, “Simple electrical modulation scheme for laser feedback imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1937–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Taimre, M. Nikolić, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lindskog, M.

M. Lindskog, J. M. Wolf, V. Trinite, V. Liverini, J. Faist, G. Maisons, M. Carras, R. Aidam, R. Ostendorf, and A. Wacker, “Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium green’s functions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Wacker, M. Lindskog, and D. O. Winge, “Nonequilibrium green’s function model for simulation of quantum cascade laser devices under operating conditions,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 19, 1200611 (2013).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, A. Scheuring, M. Salih, A. Stockhausen, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, S. Chowdhury, S. P. Khanna, M. Siegel, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Time-resolved measurement of pulse-to-pulse heating effects in a terahertz quantum cascade laser using an NbN superconducting detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient analysis of THz-QCL pulses using NbN and YBCO superconducting detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, N. M. Hinchcliffe, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “The growth and measurement of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E 40, 1859–1861 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Absorption-sensitive diffuse reflection imaging of concealed powders using a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 16, 5997–6007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D. Jovanović, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, H. Page, X. Marcadet, C. Sirtori, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Mechanisms of dynamic range limitations in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers: Influence of injector doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Litzenberger, M.

C. Pflügl, M. Litzenberger, W. Schrenk, D. Pogany, E. Gornik, and G. Strasser, “Interferometric study of thermal dynamics in GaAs-based quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1664–1666 (2003).
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Liu, H. C.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Matyas, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ~200 k with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20, 3866–3876 (2012).
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Z. Chen, Z. Y. Tan, Y. J. Han, R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, H. Li, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Wireless communication demonstration at 4.1 THz using quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1002–1004 (2011).
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S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, D. Ban, M. Graf, S. R. Laframboise, Z. R. Wasilewski, and H. C. Liu, “Time-resolved thermal quenching of THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 396–404 (2010).
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S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, “Thermal behavior investigation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139–1144 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liverini, V.

M. Lindskog, J. M. Wolf, V. Trinite, V. Liverini, J. Faist, G. Maisons, M. Carras, R. Aidam, R. Ostendorf, and A. Wacker, “Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium green’s functions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 103106 (2014).
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Lops, A.

A. Lops, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lui, H. S.

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, H.

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, “Thermal behavior investigation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139–1144 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mahler, L.

J. M. Hensley, J. Montoya, M. G. Allen, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Spectral behavior of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17, 20476–20483 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maineult, W.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maisons, G.

M. Lindskog, J. M. Wolf, V. Trinite, V. Liverini, J. Faist, G. Maisons, M. Carras, R. Aidam, R. Ostendorf, and A. Wacker, “Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium green’s functions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marcadet, X.

V. D. Jovanović, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, H. Page, X. Marcadet, C. Sirtori, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Mechanisms of dynamic range limitations in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers: Influence of injector doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Martini, R.

G. Chen, T. Yang, C. Peng, and R. Martini, “Self-consistent approach for quantum cascade laser characteristic simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 1086–1093 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Martini and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade laser-based free space optical communications,” J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Rep. 2, 279–292 (2005).
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R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matyas, A.

Mezzapesa, F. P.

F. P. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041112 (2014).
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F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
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J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
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Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 17, 22–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Montoya, J.

Nikodem, M.

Nikolic, M.

T. Taimre, M. Nikolić, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Norgia, M.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
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Ostendorf, R.

M. Lindskog, J. M. Wolf, V. Trinite, V. Liverini, J. Faist, G. Maisons, M. Carras, R. Aidam, R. Ostendorf, and A. Wacker, “Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium green’s functions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Page, H.

V. D. Jovanović, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, H. Page, X. Marcadet, C. Sirtori, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Mechanisms of dynamic range limitations in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers: Influence of injector doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paiella, R.

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peng, C.

G. Chen, T. Yang, C. Peng, and R. Martini, “Self-consistent approach for quantum cascade laser characteristic simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 1086–1093 (2011).
[Crossref]

Perchoux, J.

Petitjean, Y.

Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 17, 22–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Petruzzella, M.

F. P. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pflügl, C.

C. Pflügl, M. Litzenberger, W. Schrenk, D. Pogany, E. Gornik, and G. Strasser, “Interferometric study of thermal dynamics in GaAs-based quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1664–1666 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phillips, C. C.

A. J. Borak, C. C. Phillips, and C. Sirtori, “Temperature transients and thermal properties of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4020–4022 (2003).
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Pogany, D.

C. Pflügl, M. Litzenberger, W. Schrenk, D. Pogany, E. Gornik, and G. Strasser, “Interferometric study of thermal dynamics in GaAs-based quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1664–1666 (2003).
[Crossref]

Prow, T. W.

Rakic, A. D.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Bertling, T. Taimre, G. Agnew, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, S. Höfling, R. Weih, M. Kamp, M. von Edlinger, J. Koeth, and A. D. Rakić, “Simple electrical modulation scheme for laser feedback imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 1937–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz radar cross-section characterisation using laser feedback interferometry with quantum cascade laser,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1774–1776 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Keeley, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Three-dimensional terahertz imaging using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 994–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taimre, M. Nikolić, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taimre and A. D. Rakić, “On the nature of Acket’s characteristic parameter C in semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53, 1001–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

F. P. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. P. Mezzapesa, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Hensley, J. Montoya, M. G. Allen, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Spectral behavior of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17, 20476–20483 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. D. Jovanović, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, H. Page, X. Marcadet, C. Sirtori, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Mechanisms of dynamic range limitations in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers: Influence of injector doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Salih, M.

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Williams, B. S.

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A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
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A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: A method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
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P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent three-dimensional terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
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Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
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A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “High frequency modulation capabilities and quasi single-sideband emission from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 22, 23439–23455 (2014).
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Z. Chen, Z. Y. Tan, Y. J. Han, R. Zhang, X. G. Guo, H. Li, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Wireless communication demonstration at 4.1 THz using quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1002–1004 (2011).
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IEEE Sens. J. (2)

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A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
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IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (2)

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P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
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P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, S. Chakraborty, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Absorption-sensitive diffuse reflection imaging of concealed powders using a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 16, 5997–6007 (2008).
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S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 1–9 (2016).
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J. Faist, “Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Oxford University Press, 2013.
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Band structure and electron wavefunction moduli squared of the exemplar device showing upper lasing level (ULL) and lower lasing level (LLL), along with mini-band extraction states (dashed lines), under an applied electric field of 2.4 kV/cm (corresponding terminal voltage of 2.784 V).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Free-running L–I–V characteristics of exemplar 2.59 THz BTC QCL. Main figure: laboratory measured characteristic at four cold finger temperatures. Inset: Modeled characteristic at the same temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-mirror optical feedback model. The internal cavity is the QCL active region with length Lin, refractive index nin, and round-trip propagation time τin. Light leaves the internal cavity through the partially transmissive mirror M2, traverses the external cavity of length Lext and refractive index next and is reflected back toward the QCL at target M3. The proportion of light reflected by the target is the reflectivity R of M3 and the phase change introduced by M3 is θR. The round-trip propagation time in the external cavity is τext. A portion of the reflected light, dictated by the re-injection loss ε, re-enters the laser through M2 and mixes with the field inside the laser cavity, altering the operating state of the laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laboratory measured change in emission frequency with cold finger temperature, under static (cw) conditions. This characteristic is a result of change in both cavity length and refractive index change with temperature. Circles are the actual data points, with the curve to guide the eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse response on the timescale of laser and optical feedback dynamics. External cavity length used was 1.704 m (round-trip time τext = 11.3 ns), cold finger temperature was set to 10 K, and the stimulus was a 100 ns rectangular current pulse of amplitude 450 mA. Part (a) shows the complete response for different target reflectivities (blue traces), with sudden changes in optical output occurring at multiples of the external cavity round-trip time, indicated by labels (i) and (ii). The amplitude of external cavity oscillation is seen to diminish at lower target reflectivities (dashed blue trace). Responses for a length increment of about half a wavelength in the external cavity are shown in red. The self-mixing signal (i.e. deviation of traces from the black “no feedback” line) is indicative of the target reflectivity. Part (b) is a zoom of the startup response, showing a turn-on delay of τd = 550 ps and overshoot but no relaxation oscillation. The zoom in part (c) illustrates the turn-off characteristic, an exponential decay consistent with the photon lifetime τp in the active region. Separation of the four traces is still present but not visible in (c) due to the large abscissa scale. Acket’s parameter for the solid blue and red traces (R = 0.7) is C = 2.90.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pulse response on the timescale of laser thermal dynamics. Part (a) indicates the region of operation on the free-running L–I curves for constant lattice temperatures. For the rectangular excitation pulse, the operating trajectory is a vertical (i.e. constant current) line beginning at a lattice temperature of 45 K and ending slightly below 55 K. The excitation pulse of magnitude 465 mA and resulting lattice temperature response are shown in (b). Optical power output (blue) is shown in (c), and for reference the optical output power under free-running conditions is shown in black. The magenta trace is the thermally induced change in free-running emission frequency. Inset in the figure, the orange trace shows the self-mixing signal, i.e. the difference between the black and blue traces.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pulse response on the timescale of laser thermal dynamics. Part (a) indicates the region of operation on the free-running L–I curves for constant lattice temperatures. For the rectangular excitation pulse, the operating trajectory is a vertical (i.e. constant current) line beginning at a lattice temperature of 45 K and ending at about 55 K. The excitation current pulse of magnitude 510 mA and resulting lattice temperature response are shown in (b). Optical power output (blue) is shown in (c), and for reference the optical output power under free-running conditions is shown in black. The magenta trace is the thermally induced change in free-running emission frequency. Inset in the figure, the orange trace shows the self-mixing signal, i.e. the difference between the black and blue traces.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Meaning of symbols used in Eqs. (1)(5). Values for variables dependent on temperature and voltage are given at the instant t = 1 µs in the example below, at which time T = 46.1 K and V = 2.94 V.

Equations (6)

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d S ( t ) d t = 1 τ p S ( t ) + M β sp τ sp ( T , V ) N 3 ( t ) + M G ( T , V ) ( N 3 ( t ) N 2 ( t ) ) S ( t ) + 2 κ τ in ( S ( t ) ( t τ ext ( t ) ) ) 1 2 cos ( ω th τ ext + φ ( t ) φ ( t τ ext ) ) , Feedback Team
d φ ( t ) d t = α 2 ( G ( N 3 ( t ) N 2 ( t ) ) 1 τ p ) κ τ in ( S ( t τ ext ( t ) ) S ( t ) ) 1 2 sin ( ω th τ ext + φ ( t ) φ ( t τ ext ) ) , Feedback Team
d N 3 ( t ) d t = G ( T , V ) ( N 3 ( t ) N 2 ( t ) ) S ( t ) 1 τ 3 ( T , V ) N 3 ( t ) + η 3 ( T , V ) q I ( t ) ,
d N 2 ( t ) d t = + G ( T , V ) ( N 3 ( t ) N 2 ( t ) ) S ( t ) + ( 1 τ 32 ( T , V ) + 1 τ sp ( T , V ) ) N 3 ( t ) 1 τ 21 ( T , V ) N 2 ( t ) + η 2 ( T , V ) q I ( t ) ,
d T ( t ) d t = 1 m c p ( T ) ( I ( t ) V ( T ( t ) , I ( t ) ) ( T ( t ) T 0 ( t ) ) R th ( T ) ) .
κ = ε ( 1 R 2 ) R R 2 .

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