Abstract

We theoretically investigate the sensing performance of the dielectric-metal core-shell resonators (DMCSRs) that support multipolar sharp magnetic and electric-based cavity plasmon resonances. We show that at the cavity resonances the ability of the DMCSRs to strongly confine the optical fields inside the cavity is robust against the existence of nano-openings in the metal shell layer. As a result, both the perfect DMCSRs having a complete metal shell layer and the non-perfect DMCSRs with nano-openings in the metal shell layers exhibit high refractive index sensitivities of 700 ~1200 nm/RIU. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such high refractive index sensitivities could be well maintained in an array of interconnected non-perfect DMCSRs. The narrow linewidths of the cavity plasmon resonances coupled with their high index sensitivities make the array of non-perfect DMCSRs possess high figure of merit (FOM) values up to ~88, approaching the theoretically estimated upper limit (FOM ≈108) for gold standard prism coupled surface-plasmon sensors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Himmelhaus and H. Takei, “Cap-shaped gold nanoparticles for an optical biosensor,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 63, 24–30 (2000).
  5. J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local Refractive Index Dependence of Plasmon Resonance Spectra from Individual Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, “Biomolecular Recognition Based on Single Gold Nanoparticle Light Scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, “Geometrical Parameters Controlling Sensitivity of Nanoshell Plasmon Resonances to Changes in Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(45), 17290–17294 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 827–832 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. Liao, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, “Biomedical applications of plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 1(2), 201–208 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly Tunable Infrared Extinction Properties of Gold Nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. N. A. Hatab, C.-H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J.-H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-Standing Optical Gold Bowtie Nanoantenna with Variable Gap Size for Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Li, J. Pan, P. Zhan, S. Zhu, N. Ming, Z. Wang, W. Han, X. Jiang, and J. Zi, “Surface plasmon coupling enhanced dielectric environment sensitivity in a quasi-three-dimensional metallic nanohole array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3546–3555 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry Breaking in Plasmonic Nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR Sensing and a Tunable Fano Resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(16), 4028–4034 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoclusters: Geometrical and Chemical Tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-Induced Fano Resonances of a Plasmonic Nanocube: A Route to Increased-Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Z. Yan, P. Gu, W. Bao, W. Du, Z. Chen, X. Xia, and Z. Wang, “Robust Plasmonic Fano Resonances in π-Shaped Nanostructures,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1159–1166 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Surface modes in plasmonic crystals induced by diffractive coupling of nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 80(20), 201401 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  32. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. J. Penninkhof, L. A. Sweatlock, A. Moroz, H. A. Atwater, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, “Optical cavity modes in gold shell colloids,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. J. Tang, Z. L. Wang, W. Y. Zhang, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, G. Sun, and P. Sheng, “Localized and delocalized surface-plasmon-mediated light tunneling through monolayer hexagonal-close-packed metallic nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 165401 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. E. Miroshnichenko, “Off-resonance field enhancement by spherical nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. A 81(5), 053818 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  36. P. Gu, M. Wan, Q. Shen, X. He, Z. Chen, P. Zhan, and Z. Wang, “Experimental observation of sharp cavity plasmon resonances in dielectric-metal core-shell resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141908 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. Sancho-Parramon and D. Jelovina, “Boosting Fano resonances in single layered concentric core-shell particles,” Nanoscale 6(22), 13555–13564 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the Plasmonic Properties of an Individual Nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23765–23771 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. P. Van Dorpe and J. Ye, “Semishells: Versatile Plasmonic Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5(9), 6774–6778 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding Plasmons in Nanoscale Voids,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  42. M. P. Jonsson, A. B. Dahlin, L. Feuz, S. Petronis, and F. Höök, “Locally Functionalized Short-Range Ordered Nanoplasmonic Pores for Bioanalytical Sensing,” Anal. Chem. 82(5), 2087–2094 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. A. L. Aden and M. Kerker, “Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two Concentric Spheres,” J. Appl. Phys. 22(10), 1242–1246 (1951).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

Z. Yan, P. Gu, W. Bao, W. Du, Z. Chen, X. Xia, and Z. Wang, “Robust Plasmonic Fano Resonances in π-Shaped Nanostructures,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1159–1166 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Gu, M. Wan, Q. Shen, X. He, Z. Chen, P. Zhan, and Z. Wang, “Experimental observation of sharp cavity plasmon resonances in dielectric-metal core-shell resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141908 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Sancho-Parramon and D. Jelovina, “Boosting Fano resonances in single layered concentric core-shell particles,” Nanoscale 6(22), 13555–13564 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-Induced Fano Resonances of a Plasmonic Nanocube: A Route to Increased-Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Van Dorpe and J. Ye, “Semishells: Versatile Plasmonic Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5(9), 6774–6778 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

M. P. Jonsson, A. B. Dahlin, L. Feuz, S. Petronis, and F. Höök, “Locally Functionalized Short-Range Ordered Nanoplasmonic Pores for Bioanalytical Sensing,” Anal. Chem. 82(5), 2087–2094 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, “Off-resonance field enhancement by spherical nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. A 81(5), 053818 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoclusters: Geometrical and Chemical Tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Hatab, C.-H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J.-H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-Standing Optical Gold Bowtie Nanoantenna with Variable Gap Size for Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, J. Pan, P. Zhan, S. Zhu, N. Ming, Z. Wang, W. Han, X. Jiang, and J. Zi, “Surface plasmon coupling enhanced dielectric environment sensitivity in a quasi-three-dimensional metallic nanohole array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3546–3555 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(16), 4028–4034 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Surface modes in plasmonic crystals induced by diffractive coupling of nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 80(20), 201401 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. J. Tang, Z. L. Wang, W. Y. Zhang, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, G. Sun, and P. Sheng, “Localized and delocalized surface-plasmon-mediated light tunneling through monolayer hexagonal-close-packed metallic nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 165401 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the Plasmonic Properties of an Individual Nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23765–23771 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. J. Penninkhof, L. A. Sweatlock, A. Moroz, H. A. Atwater, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, “Optical cavity modes in gold shell colloids,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123105 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry Breaking in Plasmonic Nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR Sensing and a Tunable Fano Resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly Tunable Infrared Extinction Properties of Gold Nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding Plasmons in Nanoscale Voids,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 827–832 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liao, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, “Biomedical applications of plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 1(2), 201–208 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, “Geometrical Parameters Controlling Sensitivity of Nanoshell Plasmon Resonances to Changes in Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(45), 17290–17294 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local Refractive Index Dependence of Plasmon Resonance Spectra from Individual Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, “Biomolecular Recognition Based on Single Gold Nanoparticle Light Scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Himmelhaus and H. Takei, “Cap-shaped gold nanoparticles for an optical biosensor,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 63, 24–30 (2000).

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

A. L. Aden and M. Kerker, “Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two Concentric Spheres,” J. Appl. Phys. 22(10), 1242–1246 (1951).
[Crossref]

Abdelsalam, M.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding Plasmons in Nanoscale Voids,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aden, A. L.

A. L. Aden and M. Kerker, “Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two Concentric Spheres,” J. Appl. Phys. 22(10), 1242–1246 (1951).
[Crossref]

Alegret, J.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Penninkhof, L. A. Sweatlock, A. Moroz, H. A. Atwater, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, “Optical cavity modes in gold shell colloids,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

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J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local Refractive Index Dependence of Plasmon Resonance Spectra from Individual Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
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L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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Yan, Z.

Z. Yan, P. Gu, W. Bao, W. Du, Z. Chen, X. Xia, and Z. Wang, “Robust Plasmonic Fano Resonances in π-Shaped Nanostructures,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1159–1166 (2015).
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Yanik, A. A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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Zhan, P.

P. Gu, M. Wan, Q. Shen, X. He, Z. Chen, P. Zhan, and Z. Wang, “Experimental observation of sharp cavity plasmon resonances in dielectric-metal core-shell resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141908 (2015).
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Y. Li, J. Pan, P. Zhan, S. Zhu, N. Ming, Z. Wang, W. Han, X. Jiang, and J. Zi, “Surface plasmon coupling enhanced dielectric environment sensitivity in a quasi-three-dimensional metallic nanohole array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3546–3555 (2010).
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Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-Induced Fano Resonances of a Plasmonic Nanocube: A Route to Increased-Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. Y.

C. J. Tang, Z. L. Wang, W. Y. Zhang, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, G. Sun, and P. Sheng, “Localized and delocalized surface-plasmon-mediated light tunneling through monolayer hexagonal-close-packed metallic nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 165401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

N. A. Hatab, C.-H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J.-H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-Standing Optical Gold Bowtie Nanoantenna with Variable Gap Size for Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
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Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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Zhou, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
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Zhou, Z.-K.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
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Zhu, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
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Zhu, S.

Zhu, S. N.

C. J. Tang, Z. L. Wang, W. Y. Zhang, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, G. Sun, and P. Sheng, “Localized and delocalized surface-plasmon-mediated light tunneling through monolayer hexagonal-close-packed metallic nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 165401 (2009).
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Zi, J.

ACS Nano (2)

I. M. Pryce, Y. A. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. A. Atwater, “Compliant Metamaterials for Resonantly Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Refractive Index Sensing,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8167–8174 (2011).
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P. Van Dorpe and J. Ye, “Semishells: Versatile Plasmonic Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5(9), 6774–6778 (2011).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

M. P. Jonsson, A. B. Dahlin, L. Feuz, S. Petronis, and F. Höök, “Locally Functionalized Short-Range Ordered Nanoplasmonic Pores for Bioanalytical Sensing,” Anal. Chem. 82(5), 2087–2094 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Gu, M. Wan, Q. Shen, X. He, Z. Chen, P. Zhan, and Z. Wang, “Experimental observation of sharp cavity plasmon resonances in dielectric-metal core-shell resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141908 (2015).
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J. J. Penninkhof, L. A. Sweatlock, A. Moroz, H. A. Atwater, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, “Optical cavity modes in gold shell colloids,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123105 (2008).
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N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(16), 4028–4034 (2009).
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K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
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F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, “Geometrical Parameters Controlling Sensitivity of Nanoshell Plasmon Resonances to Changes in Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(45), 17290–17294 (2004).
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Nano Lett. (16)

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
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H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 827–832 (2006).
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J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local Refractive Index Dependence of Plasmon Resonance Spectra from Individual Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
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G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, “Biomolecular Recognition Based on Single Gold Nanoparticle Light Scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
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A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
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R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly Tunable Infrared Extinction Properties of Gold Nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
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E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
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A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
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N. A. Hatab, C.-H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J.-H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-Standing Optical Gold Bowtie Nanoantenna with Variable Gap Size for Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoclusters: Geometrical and Chemical Tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
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F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry Breaking in Plasmonic Nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR Sensing and a Tunable Fano Resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-Induced Fano Resonances of a Plasmonic Nanocube: A Route to Increased-Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
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R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding Plasmons in Nanoscale Voids,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2094–2100 (2007).
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J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the Plasmonic Properties of an Individual Nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
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Nanomedicine (Lond.) (1)

H. Liao, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, “Biomedical applications of plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 1(2), 201–208 (2006).
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Nanoscale (1)

J. Sancho-Parramon and D. Jelovina, “Boosting Fano resonances in single layered concentric core-shell particles,” Nanoscale 6(22), 13555–13564 (2014).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2381 (2013).
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Nat. Mater. (3)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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Plasmonics (1)

Z. Yan, P. Gu, W. Bao, W. Du, Z. Chen, X. Xia, and Z. Wang, “Robust Plasmonic Fano Resonances in π-Shaped Nanostructures,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1159–1166 (2015).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Calculated absorption efficiency spectrum of a DMCSR consisting of a spherical cavity (radius: R = 500 nm; refractive index of the material inside the cavity: n = 1.57) wrapped by a gold shell layer (thickness: t = 50 nm). The inset schematically shows the structure of the DMCSR. (b) Electric field intensity enhancement distributions of the four cavity plasmon resonances. The dashed lines represent the enhancement factor of 10. (c) Calculated absorption efficiency spectra of the DMCSRs with different refractive indices of the material inside the cavity. The spectra are vertically shifted with respect to each other by 0.3 for clarity. (d) Relationship between the resonance wavelength and the refractive index (solid symbols). Sensitivities are obtained using a linear fitting (dashed lines).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of the non-perfect DMCSR having six nano-windows (opening angle: γ) that are arranged along the same equator and equally spaced with angular separation between two adjacent nano-windows equal to 60°. (b) Calculated absorption efficiency spectra of the non-perfect DMCSRs at the electric field orientation angle of φ = 0° for varying the opening angles. The spectra are vertically shifted by 0.22 for clarity. (c) Extracted linewidths of multipolar cavity plasmon resonances for the non-perfect DMCSRs with different opening angles. (d) Calculated absorption efficiency spectra of the non-perfect DMCSR with an opening angle of γ = 20° at three different electric field orientation angles of φ = 0°, 15° and 30°. The spectra are vertically shifted by 0.3 for clarity. (e) Electric field intensity enhancement distributions of the cavity plasmon resonances supported by the non-perfect DMCSR with an opening angle of γ = 20° at φ = 0°. The dashed lines represent the enhancement factor of 10.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated absorption efficiency spectra of the non-perfect DMCSRs with the same structural parameters R = 500 nm and t = 50 nm but different refractive indices of the material inside the cavity. The spectra are vertically shifted by 0.36 for clarity. (b) Relationship between the resonance wavelength and the refractive index (solid symbols). Sensitivities are obtained using a linear fitting (dashed lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic illustration of an array of non-perfect DMCSRs that are hexagonally close-packed and connected with each other via the nano-windows (left side). The simulated domain is a cuboid containing one complete and four separate one-quarter of the non-perfect DMCSRs (right side). (b) Calculated zeroth-order normal-incidence transmission spectra of the array of non-perfect DMCSRs with the same structural parameters of R = 500 nm, t = 50 nm, and γ = 20° but different core refractive indices. The spectra are vertically shifted by 0.36 for clarity. (c) Electric field intensity enhancement distributions of the cavity plasmon resonances supported by the array of non-perfect DMCSRs with the core refractive index of n = 1.55. The dashed lines represent the enhancement factor of 10. (d) Relationship between the resonance wavelength and the refractive index (solid symbols). Sensitivities are obtained using a linear fitting (dashed lines). (e) Calculated transmission spectra of the array of non-perfect DMCSRs with different radii of the cavity. The spectra are vertically shifted with respect to each other by 0.45. The arrows indicate the spectral positions of TE1 and TM3.

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