Abstract

Object visualization is influenced by the spectral distribution of an illuminant impinging upon it. In this paper, we proposed a color entropy evaluation method to provide the optimal illumination that best helps surgeons distinguish tissue features. The target-specific optimal illumination was obtained by maximizing the color entropy value of our sample tissue, whose spectral reflectance was measured using multispectral imaging. Sample images captured under optimal light were compared with that under commercial white light emitting diodes (3000K, 4000K and 5500K). Results showed images under the optimized illuminant had better visual performance such as more subtle details exhibited.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  19. A. L. Barbieri, G. F. D. Arruda, F. A. Rodrigues, O. M. Bruno, and L. D. F. Costa, “An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images,” Physica A 390(3), 512–518 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

A. J. Knulst, R. Mooijweer, F. W. Jansen, L. P. Stassen, and J. Dankelman, “Indicating shortcomings in surgical lighting systems,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 20(5), 267–275 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Barbieri, G. F. D. Arruda, F. A. Rodrigues, O. M. Bruno, and L. D. F. Costa, “An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images,” Physica A 390(3), 512–518 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, C. Boust, A. Rambaud, and A. Bricoune, “Color appearance under LED illumination: The Visual Judgment of Observers,” J. Light Visual Environment 32(2), 208–213 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

1998 (2)

C. Hensman, G. B. Hanna, T. Drew, H. Moseley, and A. Cuschieri, “Total radiated power, infrared output, and heat generation by cold light sources at the distal end of endoscopes and fiber optic bundle of light cables,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 335–337 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Kolmogorov, “On tables of random numbers,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 207(2), 387–395 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. F. Rothe, “Dynamics of complex systems,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 16(4), 10–11 (1997).
[PubMed]

Anbarjafari, G.

H. Demirel and G. Anbarjafari, “Satellite image resolution enhancement using complex wavelet transform,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 123–126 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arruda, G. F. D.

A. L. Barbieri, G. F. D. Arruda, F. A. Rodrigues, O. M. Bruno, and L. D. F. Costa, “An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images,” Physica A 390(3), 512–518 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, A. L.

A. L. Barbieri, G. F. D. Arruda, F. A. Rodrigues, O. M. Bruno, and L. D. F. Costa, “An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images,” Physica A 390(3), 512–518 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boust, C.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, C. Boust, A. Rambaud, and A. Bricoune, “Color appearance under LED illumination: The Visual Judgment of Observers,” J. Light Visual Environment 32(2), 208–213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bricoune, A.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, C. Boust, A. Rambaud, and A. Bricoune, “Color appearance under LED illumination: The Visual Judgment of Observers,” J. Light Visual Environment 32(2), 208–213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bruno, O. M.

A. L. Barbieri, G. F. D. Arruda, F. A. Rodrigues, O. M. Bruno, and L. D. F. Costa, “An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images,” Physica A 390(3), 512–518 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, P.-Q.

Chen, Y. T.

Chen, Y.-T.

Cheng, F.-H.

Chiang, C.-P.

Corell, D.

Costa, L. D. F.

A. L. Barbieri, G. F. D. Arruda, F. A. Rodrigues, O. M. Bruno, and L. D. F. Costa, “An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images,” Physica A 390(3), 512–518 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cuschieri, A.

C. Hensman, G. B. Hanna, T. Drew, H. Moseley, and A. Cuschieri, “Total radiated power, infrared output, and heat generation by cold light sources at the distal end of endoscopes and fiber optic bundle of light cables,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 335–337 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dam-Hansen, C.

Dankelman, J.

A. J. Knulst, R. Mooijweer, F. W. Jansen, L. P. Stassen, and J. Dankelman, “Indicating shortcomings in surgical lighting systems,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 20(5), 267–275 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demirel, H.

H. Demirel and G. Anbarjafari, “Satellite image resolution enhancement using complex wavelet transform,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 123–126 (2010).
[Crossref]

Drew, T.

C. Hensman, G. B. Hanna, T. Drew, H. Moseley, and A. Cuschieri, “Total radiated power, infrared output, and heat generation by cold light sources at the distal end of endoscopes and fiber optic bundle of light cables,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 335–337 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ezrati, J. J.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, C. Boust, A. Rambaud, and A. Bricoune, “Color appearance under LED illumination: The Visual Judgment of Observers,” J. Light Visual Environment 32(2), 208–213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Friis, D.

Hanna, G. B.

C. Hensman, G. B. Hanna, T. Drew, H. Moseley, and A. Cuschieri, “Total radiated power, infrared output, and heat generation by cold light sources at the distal end of endoscopes and fiber optic bundle of light cables,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 335–337 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hensman, C.

C. Hensman, G. B. Hanna, T. Drew, H. Moseley, and A. Cuschieri, “Total radiated power, infrared output, and heat generation by cold light sources at the distal end of endoscopes and fiber optic bundle of light cables,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 335–337 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, F. W.

A. J. Knulst, R. Mooijweer, F. W. Jansen, L. P. Stassen, and J. Dankelman, “Indicating shortcomings in surgical lighting systems,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 20(5), 267–275 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knulst, A. J.

A. J. Knulst, R. Mooijweer, F. W. Jansen, L. P. Stassen, and J. Dankelman, “Indicating shortcomings in surgical lighting systems,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 20(5), 267–275 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolmogorov, A. N.

A. N. Kolmogorov, “On tables of random numbers,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 207(2), 387–395 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. C.

Lee, M.-H.

Lin, J.-T.

Mahler, E.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, C. Boust, A. Rambaud, and A. Bricoune, “Color appearance under LED illumination: The Visual Judgment of Observers,” J. Light Visual Environment 32(2), 208–213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mooijweer, R.

A. J. Knulst, R. Mooijweer, F. W. Jansen, L. P. Stassen, and J. Dankelman, “Indicating shortcomings in surgical lighting systems,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 20(5), 267–275 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moseley, H.

C. Hensman, G. B. Hanna, T. Drew, H. Moseley, and A. Cuschieri, “Total radiated power, infrared output, and heat generation by cold light sources at the distal end of endoscopes and fiber optic bundle of light cables,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 335–337 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, H.

Park, J.-I.

Petersen, P. M.

Rambaud, A.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, C. Boust, A. Rambaud, and A. Bricoune, “Color appearance under LED illumination: The Visual Judgment of Observers,” J. Light Visual Environment 32(2), 208–213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues, F. A.

A. L. Barbieri, G. F. D. Arruda, F. A. Rodrigues, O. M. Bruno, and L. D. F. Costa, “An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images,” Physica A 390(3), 512–518 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rothe, C. F.

C. F. Rothe, “Dynamics of complex systems,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 16(4), 10–11 (1997).
[PubMed]

Seo, B.-K.

Seo, D.-K.

Shao, S.-J.

Shen, H.-L.

Stassen, L. P.

A. J. Knulst, R. Mooijweer, F. W. Jansen, L. P. Stassen, and J. Dankelman, “Indicating shortcomings in surgical lighting systems,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 20(5), 267–275 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, W. S.

Tsuei, C. H.

Viénot, F.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, C. Boust, A. Rambaud, and A. Bricoune, “Color appearance under LED illumination: The Visual Judgment of Observers,” J. Light Visual Environment 32(2), 208–213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. C.

Wang, H.-C.

Xin, J. H.

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

C. F. Rothe, “Dynamics of complex systems,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 16(4), 10–11 (1997).
[PubMed]

IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. (1)

H. Demirel and G. Anbarjafari, “Satellite image resolution enhancement using complex wavelet transform,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7(1), 123–126 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Light Visual Environment (1)

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, C. Boust, A. Rambaud, and A. Bricoune, “Color appearance under LED illumination: The Visual Judgment of Observers,” J. Light Visual Environment 32(2), 208–213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. (1)

A. J. Knulst, R. Mooijweer, F. W. Jansen, L. P. Stassen, and J. Dankelman, “Indicating shortcomings in surgical lighting systems,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 20(5), 267–275 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physica A (1)

A. L. Barbieri, G. F. D. Arruda, F. A. Rodrigues, O. M. Bruno, and L. D. F. Costa, “An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images,” Physica A 390(3), 512–518 (2011).
[Crossref]

Surg. Endosc. (1)

C. Hensman, G. B. Hanna, T. Drew, H. Moseley, and A. Cuschieri, “Total radiated power, infrared output, and heat generation by cold light sources at the distal end of endoscopes and fiber optic bundle of light cables,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 335–337 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theor. Comput. Sci. (1)

A. N. Kolmogorov, “On tables of random numbers,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 207(2), 387–395 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, M. E. Nadal, D. Allen, and A. Gorbach, “Development of surgical lighting for enhanced color contrast,” in Medical Imaging, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), 65150K–65150K–65111.

S. Hadrath and N. Morgenbrod, “A design approach for an innovative LED surgical light,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 9293(2014).
[Crossref]

F. Nguyen, “Realizing LED illumination lighting applications,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 5941, 594105–594105–594106 (2005).

K. Murai, H. Kawahira, and H. Haneishi, “Improving color appearance of organ in surgery by optimally designed LED illuminant,” in World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical EngineeringMay 26–31, 2012, Beijing, China (Springer, 2013), 1010–1013.
[Crossref]

T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, Entropy, Relative Entropy, and Mutual Information (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005). pp. 13–55.

R. C. Eberhart and Y. Shi, “Particle swarm optimization: developments, applications and resources,” in Evolutionary Computation,2001.Proceedings of the 2001 Congress on, 1988), 81–86 vol. 81.
[Crossref]

W. C. Sun, Z. K. Yang, and W. Yang, “Fourier transform spectrum characteristics of the image analysis,” computer and information technology (2005).

J. V. Neumann, Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik (Dover Publications, 1943). pp. 463–730.

M. Li and P. Vitányi, An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications (Springer, 2009). pp. 1017–1020.

K. Burton, R. Zelikowsky, D. Shandling, E. Lindsley, and D. L. Farkas, “Contrast enhancement in biomedical optical imaging using ultrabright color LEDs,” in Biomedical Optics (BiOS)2007, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), 64411I–64411I–64418.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of the multispectral imaging system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sketch of the light box embedded with LED panels.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured spectra of LEDs used. Intensity is in arbitrary units.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The spectral responses of the three color channels of the camera used in our system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Porcine heart tissue image showing the chosen ROIs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optimized spectral distribution for ROI A-E depicted in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optimized spectral distribution of two ROIs chosen in the porcine meat.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 ROI a-g chosen in the porcine heart (left) and porcine meat (right).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Images of porcine heart captured under (a) commercial 3000K, (b) commercial 4000K, (c) commercial 5500K and (d) traditional halogen light. Selected regions (ROI a-e) were replaced by the images captured under the optimized illuminants in Fig. 6. All the compared images were captured under same luminance.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Color entropy values of five image segments (ROI a-e shown in Fig. 8) captured under optimal light, commercial 3000K, commercial 4000K, commercial 5500K and halogen light.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Images of porcine meat captured under (a) commercial 3000K, (b) commercial 4000K, (c) commercial 5500K and (d) traditional halogen light. Selected regions (ROI f-g) were replaced by the images captured under the optimized lights shown in Fig. 7. All the images were captured and compared under same luminance.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Color entropy values of two image segments (ROI f-g shown in Fig. 8) captured under optimal light, commercial 3000K, commercial 4000K, commercial 5500K and halogen light.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Annular frequency histogram.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 | Fi | values of ROI (a-g) chosen in porcine tissue images illustrated in Fig. 8 under optimal light, commercial 3000K, commercial 4000K, commercial 5500K and halogen light.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( p i ) = { i = 0 255 p i log 2 p i p i > 0 0 p i = 0 ,
E C ( p i ) = { i = 0 255 p i log 2 p i p i > 0 0 p i = 0 ( C = { R , G , B } ) ,
E = C E C ,
G C ( x , y ) = R C ( λ ) S ( x , y , λ ) I ( λ ) d λ ( C = { R , G , B } , ( x , y ) ROI ) ,
P i = n u m ( G = i ) / i = 0 255 n u m ( G = i ) .
I o p t = arg max I | E ( I ) | .
x o p t = arg max x | E ( x L ) | ,
| F i | = m = i n | f m | ( 1 i n ) .

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