Abstract

Stereoscopic images could have asymmetric distortions caused by image processing in capture, synthesis, and compression of them. In 3D perception in stereoscopic display, the visibility threshold of the asymmetric distortions in the left and right images is important, which is tolerable to the human visual system. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the binocular disparity on the visibility threshold of asymmetric noises in stereoscopic images via subjective assessments. Existing just-noticeable-difference (JND) models for stereoscopic images have not taken into account the effect of the disparity in stereoscopic viewing. In this paper, we subjectively assessed the visibility threshold of asymmetric noises in stereoscopic images according to the disparity. Subjective evaluations showed that large disparity magnitudes could make more tolerable to perceive the asymmetric noises in the stereoscopic viewing.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

Y. J. Jung, H. G. Kim, and Y. M. Ro, “Critical binocular asymmetry measure for perceptual quality assessment of synthesized stereo 3D images in view synthesis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 26(7), 1201–1214 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Z. Luo, L. Song, S. Zheng, and N. Ling, “H.264/AVC perceptual optimization coding based on JND-directed coefficient suppression,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 23(6), 935–948 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Shao, W. Lin, S. Gu, G. Jiang, and T. Srikanthan, “Perceptual full-reference quality assessment of stereoscopic images by considering binocular visual characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(5), 1940–1953 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. J. Woods, “Crosstalk in stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Electron. Imaging 21(4), 040902 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (8)

J.-C. Liou, K. Lee, and J.-F. Huang, “Low crosstalk multi-view tracking 3-D display of synchro-signal LED scanning backlight system,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(8), 411–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Zhu, Y.-P. Tan, and L. Yu, “Binocular just-noticeable-difference model for stereoscopic images,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 18(1), 19–22 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Farzin and A. M. Norcia, “Impaired visual decision-making in individuals with amblyopia,” J. Vis. 11(14), 6 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Karam, N. G. Sadaka, R. Ferzli, and Z. A. Ivanovski, “An efficient selective perceptual-based super-resolution estimator,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(12), 3470–3482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Tsirlin, L. M. Wilcox, and R. S. Allison, “The effect of crosstalk on the perceived depth from disparity and monocular occlusions,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 445–453 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Jung, H. Sohn, S. I. Lee, Y. M. Ro, and H. W. Park, “Quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7325–7338 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ma, K. Ngan, F. Zhang, and S. Li, “Adaptive block-size transform based just-noticeable difference model for images/videos,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 26(3), 162–174 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. J. Tam, F. Speranza, S. Yano, K. Shimono, and H. Ono, “Stereoscopic 3D-TV: Visual comfort,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 335–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, W. Lin, and P. Xue, “Just-noticeable difference estimation with pixels in images,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 19(1), 30–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Jokisch, I. Daum, and N. F. Troje, “Self recognition versus recognition of others by biological motion: viewpoint-dependent effects,” Perception 35(7), 911–920 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Battista, M. Kalloniatis, and A. Metha, “Visual function: the problem with eccentricity,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88(5), 313–321 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. K. Yang, W. S. Ling, Z. K. Lu, E. P. Ong, and S. S. Yao, “Just noticeable distortion model and its applications in video coding,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 20(7), 662–680 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Lu, W. Lin, X. Yang, E. Ong, and S. Yao, “Modeling visual attention’s modulatory aftereffects on visual sensitivity and quality evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(11), 1928–1942 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. M. Zaroff, M. Knutelska, and T. E. Frumkes, “Variation in stereoacuity: normative description, fixation disparity, and the roles of aging and gender,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 891–900 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Wolfgang, C. Podilchuk, and E. Delp, “Perceptual watermarks for digital images and video,” Proc. IEEE 87(7), 1108–1126 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. Chou and C. Chen, “A perceptually optimized 3-D subband codec for video communication over wireless channels,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 6(2), 143–156 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

N. S. Jayant, J. D. Johnston, and R. J. Safranek, “Signal compression based on models of human perception,” Proc. IEEE 81(10), 1385–1422 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

R. Forchheimer and T. Kromamder, “Image coding-from waveforms in animation,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 37(12), 2008–2023 (1989).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

A. I. Cogan, “Monocular sensitivity during binocular viewing,” Vision Res. 22(1), 1–16 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

W. J. Levelt, “Binocular brightness averaging and contour information,” Br. J. Psychol. 56(1), 1–13 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allison, R. S.

I. Tsirlin, L. M. Wilcox, and R. S. Allison, “The effect of crosstalk on the perceived depth from disparity and monocular occlusions,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 445–453 (2011).
[Crossref]

Banks, M. S.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Battista, J.

J. Battista, M. Kalloniatis, and A. Metha, “Visual function: the problem with eccentricity,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88(5), 313–321 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

C. Chou and C. Chen, “A perceptually optimized 3-D subband codec for video communication over wireless channels,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 6(2), 143–156 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Zhu, Y.-P. Tan, and L. Yu, “Binocular just-noticeable-difference model for stereoscopic images,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 18(1), 19–22 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chou, C.

C. Chou and C. Chen, “A perceptually optimized 3-D subband codec for video communication over wireless channels,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 6(2), 143–156 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cogan, A. I.

A. I. Cogan, “Monocular sensitivity during binocular viewing,” Vision Res. 22(1), 1–16 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daum, I.

D. Jokisch, I. Daum, and N. F. Troje, “Self recognition versus recognition of others by biological motion: viewpoint-dependent effects,” Perception 35(7), 911–920 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delp, E.

R. Wolfgang, C. Podilchuk, and E. Delp, “Perceptual watermarks for digital images and video,” Proc. IEEE 87(7), 1108–1126 (1999).
[Crossref]

Farzin, F.

F. Farzin and A. M. Norcia, “Impaired visual decision-making in individuals with amblyopia,” J. Vis. 11(14), 6 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferzli, R.

L. J. Karam, N. G. Sadaka, R. Ferzli, and Z. A. Ivanovski, “An efficient selective perceptual-based super-resolution estimator,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(12), 3470–3482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forchheimer, R.

R. Forchheimer and T. Kromamder, “Image coding-from waveforms in animation,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 37(12), 2008–2023 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fortuin, M.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frumkes, T. E.

C. M. Zaroff, M. Knutelska, and T. E. Frumkes, “Variation in stereoacuity: normative description, fixation disparity, and the roles of aging and gender,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 891–900 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, S.

F. Shao, W. Lin, S. Gu, G. Jiang, and T. Srikanthan, “Perceptual full-reference quality assessment of stereoscopic images by considering binocular visual characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(5), 1940–1953 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heynderickx, I.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.-F.

J.-C. Liou, K. Lee, and J.-F. Huang, “Low crosstalk multi-view tracking 3-D display of synchro-signal LED scanning backlight system,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(8), 411–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ijsselsteijn, W.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanovski, Z. A.

L. J. Karam, N. G. Sadaka, R. Ferzli, and Z. A. Ivanovski, “An efficient selective perceptual-based super-resolution estimator,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(12), 3470–3482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayant, N. S.

N. S. Jayant, J. D. Johnston, and R. J. Safranek, “Signal compression based on models of human perception,” Proc. IEEE 81(10), 1385–1422 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jiang, G.

F. Shao, W. Lin, S. Gu, G. Jiang, and T. Srikanthan, “Perceptual full-reference quality assessment of stereoscopic images by considering binocular visual characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(5), 1940–1953 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnston, J. D.

N. S. Jayant, J. D. Johnston, and R. J. Safranek, “Signal compression based on models of human perception,” Proc. IEEE 81(10), 1385–1422 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jokisch, D.

D. Jokisch, I. Daum, and N. F. Troje, “Self recognition versus recognition of others by biological motion: viewpoint-dependent effects,” Perception 35(7), 911–920 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y. J.

Y. J. Jung, H. G. Kim, and Y. M. Ro, “Critical binocular asymmetry measure for perceptual quality assessment of synthesized stereo 3D images in view synthesis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 26(7), 1201–1214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Jung, H. Sohn, S. I. Lee, Y. M. Ro, and H. W. Park, “Quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7325–7338 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sohn, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, H. W. Park, and Y. M. Ro, “Attention model-based visual comfort assessment for stereoscopic depth perception,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Kalloniatis, M.

J. Battista, M. Kalloniatis, and A. Metha, “Visual function: the problem with eccentricity,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88(5), 313–321 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karam, L. J.

L. J. Karam, N. G. Sadaka, R. Ferzli, and Z. A. Ivanovski, “An efficient selective perceptual-based super-resolution estimator,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20(12), 3470–3482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. G.

Y. J. Jung, H. G. Kim, and Y. M. Ro, “Critical binocular asymmetry measure for perceptual quality assessment of synthesized stereo 3D images in view synthesis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 26(7), 1201–1214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Knutelska, M.

C. M. Zaroff, M. Knutelska, and T. E. Frumkes, “Variation in stereoacuity: normative description, fixation disparity, and the roles of aging and gender,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 891–900 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kromamder, T.

R. Forchheimer and T. Kromamder, “Image coding-from waveforms in animation,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 37(12), 2008–2023 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lambooij, M.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

J.-C. Liou, K. Lee, and J.-F. Huang, “Low crosstalk multi-view tracking 3-D display of synchro-signal LED scanning backlight system,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(8), 411–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

H. Sohn, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, H. W. Park, and Y. M. Ro, “Attention model-based visual comfort assessment for stereoscopic depth perception,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Lee, S. I.

Levelt, W. J.

W. J. Levelt, “Binocular brightness averaging and contour information,” Br. J. Psychol. 56(1), 1–13 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

L. Ma, K. Ngan, F. Zhang, and S. Li, “Adaptive block-size transform based just-noticeable difference model for images/videos,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 26(3), 162–174 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, W.

F. Shao, W. Lin, S. Gu, G. Jiang, and T. Srikanthan, “Perceptual full-reference quality assessment of stereoscopic images by considering binocular visual characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(5), 1940–1953 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, W. Lin, and P. Xue, “Just-noticeable difference estimation with pixels in images,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 19(1), 30–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Lu, W. Lin, X. Yang, E. Ong, and S. Yao, “Modeling visual attention’s modulatory aftereffects on visual sensitivity and quality evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(11), 1928–1942 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, N.

Z. Luo, L. Song, S. Zheng, and N. Ling, “H.264/AVC perceptual optimization coding based on JND-directed coefficient suppression,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 23(6), 935–948 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ling, W. S.

X. K. Yang, W. S. Ling, Z. K. Lu, E. P. Ong, and S. S. Yao, “Just noticeable distortion model and its applications in video coding,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 20(7), 662–680 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liou, J.-C.

J.-C. Liou, K. Lee, and J.-F. Huang, “Low crosstalk multi-view tracking 3-D display of synchro-signal LED scanning backlight system,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(8), 411–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, W. Lin, X. Yang, E. Ong, and S. Yao, “Modeling visual attention’s modulatory aftereffects on visual sensitivity and quality evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(11), 1928–1942 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. K.

X. K. Yang, W. S. Ling, Z. K. Lu, E. P. Ong, and S. S. Yao, “Just noticeable distortion model and its applications in video coding,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 20(7), 662–680 (2005).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, L. Song, S. Zheng, and N. Ling, “H.264/AVC perceptual optimization coding based on JND-directed coefficient suppression,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 23(6), 935–948 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.

L. Ma, K. Ngan, F. Zhang, and S. Li, “Adaptive block-size transform based just-noticeable difference model for images/videos,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 26(3), 162–174 (2011).
[Crossref]

Metha, A.

J. Battista, M. Kalloniatis, and A. Metha, “Visual function: the problem with eccentricity,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88(5), 313–321 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ngan, K.

L. Ma, K. Ngan, F. Zhang, and S. Li, “Adaptive block-size transform based just-noticeable difference model for images/videos,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 26(3), 162–174 (2011).
[Crossref]

Norcia, A. M.

F. Farzin and A. M. Norcia, “Impaired visual decision-making in individuals with amblyopia,” J. Vis. 11(14), 6 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ong, E.

Z. Lu, W. Lin, X. Yang, E. Ong, and S. Yao, “Modeling visual attention’s modulatory aftereffects on visual sensitivity and quality evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(11), 1928–1942 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ong, E. P.

X. K. Yang, W. S. Ling, Z. K. Lu, E. P. Ong, and S. S. Yao, “Just noticeable distortion model and its applications in video coding,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 20(7), 662–680 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ono, H.

W. J. Tam, F. Speranza, S. Yano, K. Shimono, and H. Ono, “Stereoscopic 3D-TV: Visual comfort,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 335–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, H. W.

Y. J. Jung, H. Sohn, S. I. Lee, Y. M. Ro, and H. W. Park, “Quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7325–7338 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Illustration of the visual stimulus of the left and right eye images. (b) Anaglyph view of the visual stimulus. Note that bg denotes the background luminance (cd/m2), d denotes the disparity (degree), AL and AR denote the noise amplitude (cd/m2) injected in the left and right images, respectively. The bipolar noise was randomly injected in the 2° × 2° central area (i.e., dashed region) in (a).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured noise amplitudes in the right image that evoked perceptible difference (i.e., visibility threshold of asymmetric noise) along the disparity. (a) Visibility threshold for 1cd/m2 of background luminance, (b) for 9cd/m2 of background luminance, (c) for 38cd/m2 of background luminance, and (d) for 90cd/m2 of background luminance. The abscissa represents the disparity (in degree). The ordinate represents the measured visibility threshold (AR). In figures, different markers represent the different noise amplitudes injected in the left image (AL). The error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Note that subjects were instructed to hold their fixation on the fixation cross with a zero disparity in order to induce viewers’ vergence on the screen plane.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Modeled visibility threshold of the asymmetric noise along the disparity change. Each value in the dashed-line contour represents given noise amplitude in one eye image (A1). (a) Modeled visibility threshold for 1cd/m2 of background luminance, (b) for 9cd/m2 of background luminance, (c) for 38cd/m2 of background luminance, and (d) for 90cd/m2 of background luminance. Note that the colorbar is in log scale for display.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Visual Stimulus Attributes

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Table 2 Statistical Analysis Results Using the Two-way Repeated-measures ANOVA

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Table 3 Estimated Parameter Values and the Goodness-of-fit Statistics of Visibility Threshold Models

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Th r bg (d, A L )= A limit,bg (d) ( 1 ( A 1 A limit,bg (d) ) λ ) 1 λ ,for 1d1, and 0 A 1 0.050.
A limit,bg (d)=α d 2 +βd+γ.

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