Abstract

We present experimental results for a selective epitaxially grown Ge-on-Si separate absorption and charge multiplication (SACM) integrated waveguide coupled avalanche photodiode (APD) compatible with our silicon photonics platform. Epitaxially grown Ge-on-Si waveguide-coupled linear mode avalanche photodiodes with varying lateral multiplication regions and different charge implant dimensions are fabricated and their illuminated device characteristics and high-speed performance is measured. We report a record gain-bandwidth product of 432 GHz for our highest performing waveguide-coupled avalanche photodiode operating at 1510nm. Bit error rate measurements show operation with BER< 10−12, in the range from −18.3 dBm to −12 dBm received optical power into a 50 Ω load and open eye diagrams with 13 Gbps pseudo-random data at 1550 nm.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Single photon detection in a waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode

Nicholas J. D. Martinez, Michael Gehl, Christopher T. Derose, Andrew L. Starbuck, Andrew T. Pomerene, Anthony L. Lentine, Douglas C. Trotter, and Paul S. Davids
Opt. Express 25(14) 16130-16139 (2017)

25  Gbps low-voltage waveguide Si–Ge avalanche photodiode

Zhihong Huang, Cheng Li, Di Liang, Kunzhi Yu, Charles Santori, Marco Fiorentino, Wayne Sorin, Samuel Palermo, and Raymond G. Beausoleil
Optica 3(8) 793-798 (2016)

310 GHz gain-bandwidth product Ge/Si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection

Ning Duan, Tsung-Yang Liow, Andy Eu-Jin Lim, Liang Ding, and G. Q. Lo
Opt. Express 20(10) 11031-11036 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).
  2. D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications,” Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics 94, 1–52 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, “Adiabatic thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder switch,” Opt. Lett. 38, 733–735 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very Large Scale Integrated Optical Interconnects : Coherent Optical Control Systems with 3D Integration,” Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics pp. IM2A–1 (2014).
  5. J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).
  6. C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO: Optoelectronic Devices and Materials 8989, 89890F (2014).
  8. A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” Proceedings of SPIE 9772, 977207 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proceedings of the IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).
  11. J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nature Photon. 3, 687–695 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: From model to demonstration,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, and M. Paniccia, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).
  16. J. E. Bowers, D. Dai, W. S. Zaoui, Y. Kang, and M. Morse, “Resonant Si/Ge avalanche photodiode with an ultrahigh gain bandwidth product,” 2010 IEEE Photonics Society Winter Topicals Meeting Series (WTM)2, 111–112 (2010).
  17. Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).
  18. K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-l. Kwong, “Low-Voltage and High-Responsivity Germanium Bipolar Phototransistor for Optical Detections in the Near-Infrared Regime,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 29, 1124–1127 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector with 105ghz gain-bandwidth product,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA36.
  20. N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 ghz gain-bandwidth product ge/si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20, 11031–11036 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.
  22. M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained si, sige, and ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 011101 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.
  24. L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, S. Member, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” Ieee Photonics Technology Letters 19 No 22, 1813 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si Approaches to the Detection of Near Infared Light,” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 35, 1843–1852 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  26. G. Masini, L. Colace, and F. Galluzzi, “Ge/Si (001) Photodetector for Near Infrared Light,” Solid State … 54, 55–58 (1997).
  27. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photon. 4, 527–534 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. Sakai and T. Tatsumi, “Ge growth on si using atomic hydrogen as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 52–54 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. Dentel, J. Bischoff, T. Angot, and L. Kubler, “The influence of hydrogen during the growth of ge films on si (001) by solid source molecular beam epitaxy,” Surface Science 402, 211–214 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  30. Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. C. Teich and B. E. Saleh, Fundamentals of Photonics, vol. 2 (Wiley, 1991).
  33. H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.
  35. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, and J. G. Sandland, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  36. R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” Proceedings of SPIE 9772, 977207 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO: Optoelectronic Devices and Materials 8989, 89890F (2014).

2013 (3)

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, “Adiabatic thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder switch,” Opt. Lett. 38, 733–735 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photon. 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proceedings of the IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nature Photon. 3, 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, and M. Paniccia, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-l. Kwong, “Low-Voltage and High-Responsivity Germanium Bipolar Phototransistor for Optical Detections in the Near-Infrared Regime,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 29, 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, S. Member, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” Ieee Photonics Technology Letters 19 No 22, 1813 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained si, sige, and ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 011101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications,” Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics 94, 1–52 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: From model to demonstration,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si Approaches to the Detection of Near Infared Light,” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 35, 1843–1852 (1999).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, and J. G. Sandland, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. Dentel, J. Bischoff, T. Angot, and L. Kubler, “The influence of hydrogen during the growth of ge films on si (001) by solid source molecular beam epitaxy,” Surface Science 402, 211–214 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, and F. Galluzzi, “Ge/Si (001) Photodetector for Near Infrared Light,” Solid State … 54, 55–58 (1997).

1994 (1)

A. Sakai and T. Tatsumi, “Ge growth on si using atomic hydrogen as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 52–54 (1994).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Allred, P.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ang, K. W.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ang, K.-W.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-l. Kwong, “Low-Voltage and High-Responsivity Germanium Bipolar Phototransistor for Optical Detections in the Near-Infrared Regime,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 29, 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector with 105ghz gain-bandwidth product,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA36.

Angot, T.

D. Dentel, J. Bischoff, T. Angot, and L. Kubler, “The influence of hydrogen during the growth of ge films on si (001) by solid source molecular beam epitaxy,” Surface Science 402, 211–214 (1998).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, S. Member, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” Ieee Photonics Technology Letters 19 No 22, 1813 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: From model to demonstration,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si Approaches to the Detection of Near Infared Light,” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 35, 1843–1852 (1999).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauwelinck, J.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bischoff, J.

D. Dentel, J. Bischoff, T. Angot, and L. Kubler, “The influence of hydrogen during the growth of ge films on si (001) by solid source molecular beam epitaxy,” Surface Science 402, 211–214 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

J. E. Bowers, D. Dai, W. S. Zaoui, Y. Kang, and M. Morse, “Resonant Si/Ge avalanche photodiode with an ultrahigh gain bandwidth product,” 2010 IEEE Photonics Society Winter Topicals Meeting Series (WTM)2, 111–112 (2010).

Buller, G.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bulsara, M. T.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained si, sige, and ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 011101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Chau, R.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Chen, K. M.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, and J. G. Sandland, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. B.

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

Colace, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, S. Member, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” Ieee Photonics Technology Letters 19 No 22, 1813 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: From model to demonstration,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si Approaches to the Detection of Near Infared Light,” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 35, 1843–1852 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, and F. Galluzzi, “Ge/Si (001) Photodetector for Near Infrared Light,” Solid State … 54, 55–58 (1997).

Cox, J. A.

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO: Optoelectronic Devices and Materials 8989, 89890F (2014).

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very Large Scale Integrated Optical Interconnects : Coherent Optical Control Systems with 3D Integration,” Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics pp. IM2A–1 (2014).

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

Currie, M. T.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained si, sige, and ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 011101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

J. E. Bowers, D. Dai, W. S. Zaoui, Y. Kang, and M. Morse, “Resonant Si/Ge avalanche photodiode with an ultrahigh gain bandwidth product,” 2010 IEEE Photonics Society Winter Topicals Meeting Series (WTM)2, 111–112 (2010).

Datta, S.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Davids, P. S.

C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

De Coster, J.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

De Heyn, P.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Dentel, D.

D. Dentel, J. Bischoff, T. Angot, and L. Kubler, “The influence of hydrogen during the growth of ge films on si (001) by solid source molecular beam epitaxy,” Surface Science 402, 211–214 (1998).
[Crossref]

DeRose, C.

DeRose, C. T.

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” Proceedings of SPIE 9772, 977207 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

Dewey, G.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Ding, L.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 ghz gain-bandwidth product ge/si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20, 11031–11036 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Doczy, M.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Doyle, B.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Duan, N.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 ghz gain-bandwidth product ge/si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20, 11031–11036 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Erven, C.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Ferrara, P.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, S. Member, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” Ieee Photonics Technology Letters 19 No 22, 1813 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fisher, M.

Fitzgerald, E. A.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained si, sige, and ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 011101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, M.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Fulgoni, D.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, S. Member, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” Ieee Photonics Technology Letters 19 No 22, 1813 (2007).
[Crossref]

Furusawa, A.

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nature Photon. 3, 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gallacher, K.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Galluzzi, F.

G. Masini, L. Colace, and F. Galluzzi, “Ge/Si (001) Photodetector for Near Infrared Light,” Solid State … 54, 55–58 (1997).

Godfrey, M.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Hadfield, R.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Huante-Ceron, E.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ikonic, Z.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Intermite, G.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Jones, A.

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, and M. Paniccia, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bowers, D. Dai, W. S. Zaoui, Y. Kang, and M. Morse, “Resonant Si/Ge avalanche photodiode with an ultrahigh gain bandwidth product,” 2010 IEEE Photonics Society Winter Topicals Meeting Series (WTM)2, 111–112 (2010).

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Kavalieros, J.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Kelsall, R.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photon. 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: From model to demonstration,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[Crossref]

Knights, A.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kubler, L.

D. Dentel, J. Bischoff, T. Angot, and L. Kubler, “The influence of hydrogen during the growth of ge films on si (001) by solid source molecular beam epitaxy,” Surface Science 402, 211–214 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-l.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-l. Kwong, “Low-Voltage and High-Responsivity Germanium Bipolar Phototransistor for Optical Detections in the Near-Infrared Regime,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 29, 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector with 105ghz gain-bandwidth product,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA36.

Leadley, D.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, and J. G. Sandland, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained si, sige, and ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 011101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” Proceedings of SPIE 9772, 977207 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO: Optoelectronic Devices and Materials 8989, 89890F (2014).

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very Large Scale Integrated Optical Interconnects : Coherent Optical Control Systems with 3D Integration,” Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics pp. IM2A–1 (2014).

Lepage, G.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Lever, L.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Lim, A. E.-J.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 ghz gain-bandwidth product ge/si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20, 11031–11036 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector with 105ghz gain-bandwidth product,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA36.

Lim, D. R.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, and J. G. Sandland, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lionberger, D.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Liow, T.-Y.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 ghz gain-bandwidth product ge/si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20, 11031–11036 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Litski, S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, and M. Paniccia, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.-D.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photon. 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Lo, G. Q.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 ghz gain-bandwidth product ge/si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20, 11031–11036 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-l. Kwong, “Low-Voltage and High-Responsivity Germanium Bipolar Phototransistor for Optical Detections in the Near-Infrared Regime,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 29, 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector with 105ghz gain-bandwidth product,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA36.

Lochtefeld, A.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained si, sige, and ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 011101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lockwood, D. J.

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications,” Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics 94, 1–52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Luan, H. C.

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: From model to demonstration,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[Crossref]

Luan, H.-C.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, and J. G. Sandland, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Masini, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: From model to demonstration,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si Approaches to the Detection of Near Infared Light,” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 35, 1843–1852 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, and F. Galluzzi, “Ge/Si (001) Photodetector for Near Infrared Light,” Solid State … 54, 55–58 (1997).

McIntosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Member, S.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, S. Member, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” Ieee Photonics Technology Letters 19 No 22, 1813 (2007).
[Crossref]

Metz, M.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photon. 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miki, S.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Miller, D.

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proceedings of the IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. D.

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very Large Scale Integrated Optical Interconnects : Coherent Optical Control Systems with 3D Integration,” Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics pp. IM2A–1 (2014).

Morse, M.

Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, and M. Paniccia, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bowers, D. Dai, W. S. Zaoui, Y. Kang, and M. Morse, “Resonant Si/Ge avalanche photodiode with an ultrahigh gain bandwidth product,” 2010 IEEE Photonics Society Winter Topicals Meeting Series (WTM)2, 111–112 (2010).

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Myronov, M.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nash, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, S. Member, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” Ieee Photonics Technology Letters 19 No 22, 1813 (2007).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, C. M.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Ng, J. W.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector with 105ghz gain-bandwidth product,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA36.

Nicolas, J. D.

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

Nielson, G. N.

O’Brien, J.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

O’Brien, J. L.

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nature Photon. 3, 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, and M. Paniccia, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2008).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Paul, D.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications,” Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics 94, 1–52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pilgrim, N.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pomerene, A. T.

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

Rachmady, W.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Radosavljevic, M.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Roelkens, G.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Rustagi, S. C.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Saad, Y.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Saado, Y.

Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai and T. Tatsumi, “Ge growth on si using atomic hydrogen as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 52–54 (1994).
[Crossref]

Saleh, B. E.

M. C. Teich and B. E. Saleh, Fundamentals of Photonics, vol. 2 (Wiley, 1991).

Sandland, J. G.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, and J. G. Sandland, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Sasaki, M.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Savignon, D. J.

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO: Optoelectronic Devices and Materials 8989, 89890F (2014).

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very Large Scale Integrated Optical Interconnects : Coherent Optical Control Systems with 3D Integration,” Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics pp. IM2A–1 (2014).

Shah, U.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Sibson, P.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Starbuck, A. L.

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).

C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very Large Scale Integrated Optical Interconnects : Coherent Optical Control Systems with 3D Integration,” Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics pp. IM2A–1 (2014).

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

Sun, J.

Tanner, M. G.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Tatsumi, T.

A. Sakai and T. Tatsumi, “Ge growth on si using atomic hydrogen as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 52–54 (1994).
[Crossref]

Teich, M. C.

M. C. Teich and B. E. Saleh, Fundamentals of Photonics, vol. 2 (Wiley, 1991).

Terai, H.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Thompson, M.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, “Adiabatic thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder switch,” Opt. Lett. 38, 733–735 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).

C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very Large Scale Integrated Optical Interconnects : Coherent Optical Control Systems with 3D Integration,” Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics pp. IM2A–1 (2014).

Van Campenhout, J.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Verbist, J.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Verheyen, P.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nature Photon. 3, 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Warburton, R.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

Wiwi, M.

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y. Z.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

Yin, X.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Young, R. W.

Yu, M.-B.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-l. Kwong, “Low-Voltage and High-Responsivity Germanium Bipolar Phototransistor for Optical Detections in the Near-Infrared Regime,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 29, 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector with 105ghz gain-bandwidth product,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA36.

Zadka, M.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

J. E. Bowers, D. Dai, W. S. Zaoui, Y. Kang, and M. Morse, “Resonant Si/Ge avalanche photodiode with an ultrahigh gain bandwidth product,” 2010 IEEE Photonics Society Winter Topicals Meeting Series (WTM)2, 111–112 (2010).

Zelick, N.

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

Zheng, X.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zortman, W. A.

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO: Optoelectronic Devices and Materials 8989, 89890F (2014).

C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Sakai and T. Tatsumi, “Ge growth on si using atomic hydrogen as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 52–54 (1994).
[Crossref]

Applied Physics Letters (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, and J. G. Sandland, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

ECS Transactions (1)

Y. Kang, Y. Saado, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, J. C. Campbell, J. E. Bowers, and A. Pauchard, “Ge/Si waveguide avalanche photodiodes on SOI substrates for high speed commnunication,” ECS Transactions 33, 757–764 (2015).

Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on (1)

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Letters (2)

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-l. Kwong, “Low-Voltage and High-Responsivity Germanium Bipolar Phototransistor for Optical Detections in the Near-Infrared Regime,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 29, 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si Approaches to the Detection of Near Infared Light,” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 35, 1843–1852 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ieee Photonics Technology Letters (1)

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, S. Member, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” Ieee Photonics Technology Letters 19 No 22, 1813 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: From model to demonstration,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001).
[Crossref]

Journal of Applied Physics (1)

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained si, sige, and ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 011101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (3)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, and M. Paniccia, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nature Photon. 3, 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photon. 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature Photonics (1)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proceedings of SPIE (1)

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” Proceedings of SPIE 9772, 977207 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proceedings of the IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics (1)

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications,” Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics 94, 1–52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Solid State … (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, and F. Galluzzi, “Ge/Si (001) Photodetector for Near Infrared Light,” Solid State … 54, 55–58 (1997).

SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO: Optoelectronic Devices and Materials (1)

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO: Optoelectronic Devices and Materials 8989, 89890F (2014).

Surface Science (1)

D. Dentel, J. Bischoff, T. Angot, and L. Kubler, “The influence of hydrogen during the growth of ge films on si (001) by solid source molecular beam epitaxy,” Surface Science 402, 211–214 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

J. Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. Jin, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W. Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau, “Tri-gate transistor architecture with high-k gate dielectrics, metal gates and strain engineering,” in “VLSI Technology, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on,” (2006), pp. 50–51.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “Low-voltage waveguide ge apd based high sensitivity 10gb/s si photonic receiver,” in “Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015 European Conference on,” (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

M. C. Teich and B. E. Saleh, Fundamentals of Photonics, vol. 2 (Wiley, 1991).

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00768 (2015).

A. L. Lentine, C. T. Derose, P. S. Davids, J. D. Nicolas, W. A. Zortman, J. A. Cox, A. Jones, D. C. Trotter, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, D. J. Savignon, M. Wiwi, and P. B. Chu, “Silicon Photonics Platform for National Security Applications,” IEEE Aerospace Conference pp. 1–9 (2015).

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very Large Scale Integrated Optical Interconnects : Coherent Optical Control Systems with 3D Integration,” Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics pp. IM2A–1 (2014).

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector with 105ghz gain-bandwidth product,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA36.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H.-D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes,” 2009 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics6, 25–27 (2009).

J. E. Bowers, D. Dai, W. S. Zaoui, Y. Kang, and M. Morse, “Resonant Si/Ge avalanche photodiode with an ultrahigh gain bandwidth product,” 2010 IEEE Photonics Society Winter Topicals Meeting Series (WTM)2, 111–112 (2010).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic cross-section and angled SEM image of waveguide coupled linear mode APD (a) Schematic of device with p-charge layer overlap t relative to Ge. The multiplication width Wmulti, indicates width of intrinsic Si multiplication region. (b) Angled SEM image of Ge on Si device structure with oxide cladding removed. The device structure is similar to our Ge p-i-n [6] with different implants.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Device characteristics for the no-overlap device t = 0 in Fig. 1 for various multiplication widths. Solid lines are illuminated and dashed lines are dark IVs. (a) LIV characteristics for the each APD. (b) Measured responsivity for each device. (c) Gain obtained from the LIV characteristics. (Black Wmulti = 1.0µm Vbr = 30.6V, Grey Wmulti = 0.5µm Vbr = 15.8V, Blue Wmulti = 0.4µm Vbr = 12.3V, Green Wmulti = 0.3µm Vbr = 7.8V) The illumination wavelength was λ = 1510 nm for all devices.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Device characteristics for the overlap device t = 100 nm in Fig. 1 for various multiplication widths. Solid lines are illuminated and dashed lines are dark IVs. (a) LIV characteristics for the each APD. (b) Measured responsivity for each device. (c) Gain obtained from the LIV characteristics. (Dark Red Wmulti = 0.9µm Vbr = 30.6V, Purple Wmulti = 0.4µm Vbr = 16V, Gold Wmulti = 0.3µm Vbr = 12.3V, Bright red Wmulti = 0.2µm Vbr = 8.2V) The illumination wavelength was λ = 1510 nm for all devices.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of heterodyned bandwidth measurement. In the measurement, two lasers are used to generate an RF beat in the device under DC bias. The RF signal is then measured on an RF power meter and one of the laser is detuned from the center wavelength to vary the RF frequency of the beat.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Performance characteristics of high gain no-overlap linear mode APDs. Grey (Black) line is for 500 (1000) nm wide multiplication region. (a) Measured frequency response at bias voltage corresponding to highest gain. (b) Bandwidth vs. gain for each device. (c) Bandwidth vs. measured device responsivity for both devices.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Bit Error Rate measurements for no-overlap linear mode APDs. (a) BER vs received optical power for 500 nm multiplication width device. Inset shows open 10 Gbps eye diagram. (b) BER vs. received optical power for 1000 nm multiplication width device. Inset shows measured 10 Gbps eye diagram. All APDs run under λ = 1550 nm illumination for 10 GHz PRBS data.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = e η G λ h c .
G = I l i g h t ( V ) I d a r k ( V ) I l i g h t ( V G = 1 ) I d a r k ( V G = 1 ) ,

Metrics