Abstract

We report a proof-of-principle demonstration of a new scheme of spectromicroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, where the spectral response of the sample at different wavelengths is imaged simultaneously. This scheme is enabled by combining ptychographic information multiplexing (PIM) with a tabletop EUV source based on high harmonic generation, where four spectrally narrow harmonics near 30 nm form a spectral comb structure. Extending PIM from previously demonstrated visible wavelengths to the EUV/X-ray wavelengths promises much higher spatial resolution and a more powerful spectral contrast mechanism, making PIM an attractive spectromicroscopy method in both microscopy and spectroscopy aspects. In addition to spectromicroscopy, this method images the multicolor EUV beam in situ, making this a powerful beam characterization technique. In contrast to other methods, the techniques described here use no hardware to separate wavelengths, leading to efficient use of the EUV radiation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  5. P. Horowitz and J. A. Howell, “A scanning x-ray microscope using synchrotron radiation,” Science 178, 608–611 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D. F. Gardner, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, L. S. Martin, D. E. Adams, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High numerical aperture reflection mode coherent diffraction microscopy using off-axis apertured illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 19050–19059 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  26. B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. WE Noom, and K. SE Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. D. Seaberg, “Nanoscale EUV microscopy on a tabletop: a general transmission and reflection mode microscope based on coherent diractive imaging with high harmonic illumination,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado (2014).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [Crossref]
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  32. K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 4846–4851 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. E. Turgut, C. La-o-vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197201 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “High contrast 3D imaging of surfaces near the wavelength limit using tabletop EUV ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 98–104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 4846–4851 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23, 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39–44 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. WE Noom, and K. SE Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Turgut, C. La-o-vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, J. M. Shaw, W. Chao, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Full field tabletop EUV coherent diffractive imaging in a transmission geometry,” Opt. Express 21, 21970–21980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. F. Gardner, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, L. S. Martin, D. E. Adams, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High numerical aperture reflection mode coherent diffraction microscopy using off-axis apertured illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 19050–19059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. P. Strachan, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, J. J. Yang, M-X Zhang, F. Miao, I. Goldfarb, M. Holt, V. Rose, and R. S. Williams, “Spectromicroscopy of tantalum oxide memristors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242114 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19, 22470–22479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. Van Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023809 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless eiffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

R. A. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406, 164–166 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

H. Ade and B. Hsiao, “X-ray linear dichroism microscopy,” Science 262, 1427–1429 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. Ade, J. Kirz, S. L. Hulbert, E. D. Johnson, E. Anderson, and D. Kern, “X-ray spectromicroscopy with a zone plate generated microprobe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1841–1843 (1990).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

R. H. T. Bates, “Fourier phase problems are uniquely uolvable in more than one dimension. I: Underlying theory,” Optik 61, 247–262 (1982).

1972 (1)

P. Horowitz and J. A. Howell, “A scanning x-ray microscope using synchrotron radiation,” Science 178, 608–611 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. Van Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023809 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adam, R.

D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Turgut, C. La-o-vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, D.

Adams, D. E.

Ade, H.

H. Ade and B. Hsiao, “X-ray linear dichroism microscopy,” Science 262, 1427–1429 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ade, J. Kirz, S. L. Hulbert, E. D. Johnson, E. Anderson, and D. Kern, “X-ray spectromicroscopy with a zone plate generated microprobe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1841–1843 (1990).
[Crossref]

Aeschlimann, M.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, E.

H. Ade, J. Kirz, S. L. Hulbert, E. D. Johnson, E. Anderson, and D. Kern, “X-ray spectromicroscopy with a zone plate generated microprobe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1841–1843 (1990).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E. H.

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 4846–4851 (2015).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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Attwood, D. T.

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Absolute determination of the wavelength and spectrum of an extreme-ultraviolet beam by a Young’s double-slit measurement,” Opt. Lett. 27, 707–709 (2002).
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R. A. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406, 164–166 (2000).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Absolute determination of the wavelength and spectrum of an extreme-ultraviolet beam by a Young’s double-slit measurement,” Opt. Lett. 27, 707–709 (2002).
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R. A. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406, 164–166 (2000).
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R. H. T. Bates, “Fourier phase problems are uniquely uolvable in more than one dimension. I: Underlying theory,” Optik 61, 247–262 (1982).

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D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
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Becker, A.

T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Bergmann, K.

D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
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Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 4846–4851 (2015).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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Chen, C.-C.

Chen, M.-C.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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R. A. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406, 164–166 (2000).
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D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
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Dilanian, R. A.

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. Van Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023809 (2009).
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Dobson, B. R.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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Dollar, F.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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Dollar, F. J.

T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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Dorney, K. M.

T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. WE Noom, and K. SE Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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Falcone, R. W.

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 4846–4851 (2015).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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Frazer, T. D.

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 4846–4851 (2015).
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Frömter, R.

D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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J. P. Strachan, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, J. J. Yang, M-X Zhang, F. Miao, I. Goldfarb, M. Holt, V. Rose, and R. S. Williams, “Spectromicroscopy of tantalum oxide memristors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242114 (2011).
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K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 4846–4851 (2015).
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Hädrich, S.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless eiffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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J. P. Strachan, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, J. J. Yang, M-X Zhang, F. Miao, I. Goldfarb, M. Holt, V. Rose, and R. S. Williams, “Spectromicroscopy of tantalum oxide memristors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242114 (2011).
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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless eiffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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H. Ade, J. Kirz, S. L. Hulbert, E. D. Johnson, E. Anderson, and D. Kern, “X-ray spectromicroscopy with a zone plate generated microprobe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1841–1843 (1990).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
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Kapteyn, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “High contrast 3D imaging of surfaces near the wavelength limit using tabletop EUV ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 98–104 (2015).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 4846–4851 (2015).
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M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39–44 (2014).
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B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, J. M. Shaw, W. Chao, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Full field tabletop EUV coherent diffractive imaging in a transmission geometry,” Opt. Express 21, 21970–21980 (2013).
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E. Turgut, C. La-o-vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197201 (2013).
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D. F. Gardner, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, L. S. Martin, D. E. Adams, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “High numerical aperture reflection mode coherent diffraction microscopy using off-axis apertured illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 19050–19059 (2012).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19, 22470–22479 (2011).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless eiffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Absolute determination of the wavelength and spectrum of an extreme-ultraviolet beam by a Young’s double-slit measurement,” Opt. Lett. 27, 707–709 (2002).
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R. A. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406, 164–166 (2000).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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Karl, R.

Kern, D.

H. Ade, J. Kirz, S. L. Hulbert, E. D. Johnson, E. Anderson, and D. Kern, “X-ray spectromicroscopy with a zone plate generated microprobe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1841–1843 (1990).
[Crossref]

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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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Pugzlys, A.

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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
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Rose, V.

J. P. Strachan, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, J. J. Yang, M-X Zhang, F. Miao, I. Goldfarb, M. Holt, V. Rose, and R. S. Williams, “Spectromicroscopy of tantalum oxide memristors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242114 (2011).
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D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
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Schlotter, W. F.

Schneider, C. M.

D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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Shanblatt, E. R.

Shaw, J. M.

B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, J. M. Shaw, W. Chao, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Full field tabletop EUV coherent diffractive imaging in a transmission geometry,” Opt. Express 21, 21970–21980 (2013).
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E. Turgut, C. La-o-vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197201 (2013).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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E. Turgut, C. La-o-vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197201 (2013).
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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless eiffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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Strachan, J. P.

J. P. Strachan, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, J. J. Yang, M-X Zhang, F. Miao, I. Goldfarb, M. Holt, V. Rose, and R. S. Williams, “Spectromicroscopy of tantalum oxide memristors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242114 (2011).
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Tanksalvala, M.

Tarazkar, M.

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B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. Van Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023809 (2009).
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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless eiffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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Townsend, E. L.

Turgut, E.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197201 (2013).
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B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. Van Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023809 (2009).
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Vila-Comamala, J.

Vine, D. J.

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D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
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Whitehead, L. W.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
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Williams, G. J.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
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B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. Van Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023809 (2009).
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J. P. Strachan, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, J. J. Yang, M-X Zhang, F. Miao, I. Goldfarb, M. Holt, V. Rose, and R. S. Williams, “Spectromicroscopy of tantalum oxide memristors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242114 (2011).
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D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
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Winkler, G.

D. Wilson, D. Rudolf, C. Weier, R. Adam, G. Winkler, R. Frömter, S. Danylyuk, K. Bergmann, D. Grützmacher, C. M. Schneider, and L. Juschkin, “Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103110 (2014).
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S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. WE Noom, and K. SE Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
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J. P. Strachan, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, J. J. Yang, M-X Zhang, F. Miao, I. Goldfarb, M. Holt, V. Rose, and R. S. Williams, “Spectromicroscopy of tantalum oxide memristors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242114 (2011).
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R. A. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406, 164–166 (2000).
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Zhang, B.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, M-X

J. P. Strachan, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, J. J. Yang, M-X Zhang, F. Miao, I. Goldfarb, M. Holt, V. Rose, and R. S. Williams, “Spectromicroscopy of tantalum oxide memristors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242114 (2011).
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T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14206–14211 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hyperspectral imaging by combining multiple EUV harmonics and PIM. An EUV HHG beam consisting of four harmonic orders is focused onto the sample by a grazing-incidence ellipsoidal mirror. The sample is scanned transversely to enable ptychographic imaging. At each scan position a pixel-array detector records the diffraction pattern, which is an incoherent superposition of the four different wavelengths. The PIM algorithm can decompose the diffraction pattern into its coherent components, to obtain the spectral response of the sample at each wavelength simultaneously.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of the multicolor EUV HHG source. (a) Diffraction intensity measured on the detector. (b) Diffraction amplitude obtained by performing tilted plane correction on (a). The axis is the spatial frequency normalized by 1/λ, or effective NA (scale bar 0.02). (c) Spectral intensity. Dashed-line: line cut along the magenta line in (b). Solid line: higher-resolution estimate of the spectrum by deconvolving the modulus square of the remapped diffraction in (b). Since the grating is made of a complicated multilayer material and we do not have a calibrated diffraction efficiency for different wavelengths, the spectral intensity in (c) is not necessarily a true representation of the relative brightness of the harmonics. Thus, only the wavelengths of the peaks, and not the spectral weights, are extracted for use in the reconstruction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Decomposition of a multicolor diffraction pattern. (a) Measured diffraction intensity after remapping around the position marked by magenta crosshair in the inset. (b)–(e) The coherent components of (a) at 29.1 nm, 31.5 nm, 34.6 nm, and 38.1 nm respectively. All the diffraction intensities in (a)–(e) are shown to the quarter power, and share the scale bar with (a), which has a length of 0.02 NA. (f) Comparison of the intensity profile of the incoherent superposition in (a) and its components in (b)–(e) along the dashed-line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstructed sample reflection coefficients for the four harmonics in the illumination. The first row (a)–(d) shows the amplitudes and the second row (e)–(h) shows the phases. The third row (i)–(l) shows the normalized amplitude (left) and the phase (right) of the probe for each color. Each color has the amplitude normalized so that its maximum is one. (m) For comparison, a scanning electron microscopy image of the sample is shown. (n) The combination of probes at four different wavelengths to show the spatial dispersion of the HHG beam. Scale bar in (a) and (n), 10 μm. (b)–(m) share the same scale bar as in (a). The white box in (a) marks a region of interest for later quantitative analysis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral contrast analysis. For the area enclosed by the white box in Fig. 4(a), a histogram of the modulus and the phase of the reflection from the sample is shown in (a) and (b) respectively. For convenience, in (a) the reflection coefficient moduli |r| are normalized such that |r| = 1 for silicon for all wavelengths; while in (b) the phases for silicon are set to zero for all wavelengths. (c) and (d) show the comparison of modulus |rTi|/|rSi| and phase difference ϕTiϕSi from theory, the single color experiment in previous work, and the multicolor experiment in this work.

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