Abstract

In this work we have developed aperiodic Molybdenum/Silicon (Mo/Si) multilayers (MLs) to reflect 16.25 keV photons at a grazing angle of incidence of 0.6° ± 0.05°. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time this material system has been used to fabricate aperiodic MLs for hard x-rays. At these energies new hurdles arise. First of all a large number of bilayers is required to reach saturation. This poses a challenge from the manufacturing point of view, as thickness control of each ML period becomes paramount. The latter is not well defined a priori, due to the thickness of the interfacial silicide layers which has been observed to vary as a function of Mo and Si thickness. Additionally an amorphous-to-crystalline transition for Mo must be avoided in order maintain reasonably low roughness at the interfaces. This transition is well within the range of thicknesses pertinent to this study. Despite these difficulties our data demonstrates that we achieved reasonably flat ML response across the angular acceptance of ± 0.05°, with an experimentally confirmed average reflectivity of 28%. Such a ML prescription is well suited for applications in the field of hard x-ray imaging of highly diverging sources.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. Ichimaru, H. Takenaka, K. Namikawa, E. M. Gullikson, M. Maruyama, and S. Oku, “Demonstration of the high collection efficiency of a broadband Mo/Si multilayer mirror with a graded multilayer coating on an ellipsoidal substrate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 093106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernandez-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimaeki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Troussel, D. Dennetiere, R. Maroni, P. Hoghoj, S. Hedacq, L. Cibik, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 767, 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. v. de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

P. Troussel, B. Meyer, R. Reverdin, B. Angelier, G. Lidove, P. Salvatore, and A. Richard, “Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063707 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2001 (2)

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, and R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD),” Micro. Eng. 57–8, 9–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multi-layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017–1025 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. Windt, “IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” J. Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Y. Ijdiyaou, M. Azizan, E. Ameziane, M. brunel, and T. Tan, “On The Formation Of Molybdenum Silicides In Mo-Si Multilayers - The effect of Mo thickness And Annealing Temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 55, 165–171 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. Stearns, M. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. Stith, and N. Ceglio, “Thermally Induced Structural Modifications Of Mo-Si Mutilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Alameda, J. B.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Ameziane, E.

Y. Ijdiyaou, M. Azizan, E. Ameziane, M. brunel, and T. Tan, “On The Formation Of Molybdenum Silicides In Mo-Si Multilayers - The effect of Mo thickness And Annealing Temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 55, 165–171 (1992).
[Crossref]

Angelier, B.

P. Troussel, B. Meyer, R. Reverdin, B. Angelier, G. Lidove, P. Salvatore, and A. Richard, “Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063707 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

Ayers, J.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayers, J. M.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Azizan, M.

Y. Ijdiyaou, M. Azizan, E. Ameziane, M. brunel, and T. Tan, “On The Formation Of Molybdenum Silicides In Mo-Si Multilayers - The effect of Mo thickness And Annealing Temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 55, 165–171 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multi-layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017–1025 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bell, P.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell, P. M.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Bijkerk, F.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. v. de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, D. K.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Braun, S.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, and R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD),” Micro. Eng. 57–8, 9–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brejnholt, N. F.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernandez-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimaeki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

brunel, M.

Y. Ijdiyaou, M. Azizan, E. Ameziane, M. brunel, and T. Tan, “On The Formation Of Molybdenum Silicides In Mo-Si Multilayers - The effect of Mo thickness And Annealing Temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 55, 165–171 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ceglio, N.

D. Stearns, M. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. Stith, and N. Ceglio, “Thermally Induced Structural Modifications Of Mo-Si Mutilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

D. Stearns, M. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. Stith, and N. Ceglio, “Thermally Induced Structural Modifications Of Mo-Si Mutilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Christensen, F. E.

Cibik, L.

P. Troussel, D. Dennetiere, R. Maroni, P. Hoghoj, S. Hedacq, L. Cibik, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 767, 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

Decker, T.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decker, T. A.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Dennetiere, D.

P. Troussel, D. Dennetiere, R. Maroni, P. Hoghoj, S. Hedacq, L. Cibik, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 767, 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

Descalle, M.-A.

Dietsch, R.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, and R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD),” Micro. Eng. 57–8, 9–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dollar, F.

Fernandez-Perea, M.

Gardiol, D.

Gullikson, E.

Gullikson, E. M.

S. Ichimaru, H. Takenaka, K. Namikawa, E. M. Gullikson, M. Maruyama, and S. Oku, “Demonstration of the high collection efficiency of a broadband Mo/Si multilayer mirror with a graded multilayer coating on an ellipsoidal substrate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 093106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haidl, M.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, and R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD),” Micro. Eng. 57–8, 9–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hedacq, S.

P. Troussel, D. Dennetiere, R. Maroni, P. Hoghoj, S. Hedacq, L. Cibik, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 767, 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hill, R. M.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoghoj, P.

P. Troussel, D. Dennetiere, R. Maroni, P. Hoghoj, S. Hedacq, L. Cibik, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 767, 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

Holz, T.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, and R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD),” Micro. Eng. 57–8, 9–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Honkimaeki, V.

Ichimaru, S.

S. Ichimaru, H. Takenaka, K. Namikawa, E. M. Gullikson, M. Maruyama, and S. Oku, “Demonstration of the high collection efficiency of a broadband Mo/Si multilayer mirror with a graded multilayer coating on an ellipsoidal substrate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 093106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ijdiyaou, Y.

Y. Ijdiyaou, M. Azizan, E. Ameziane, M. brunel, and T. Tan, “On The Formation Of Molybdenum Silicides In Mo-Si Multilayers - The effect of Mo thickness And Annealing Temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 55, 165–171 (1992).
[Crossref]

Izumi, N.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jakobsen, A. C.

Kearney, P. A.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multi-layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017–1025 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kilkenny, J.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kilkenny, J. D.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Krumrey, M.

P. Troussel, D. Dennetiere, R. Maroni, P. Hoghoj, S. Hedacq, L. Cibik, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 767, 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lidove, G.

P. Troussel, B. Meyer, R. Reverdin, B. Angelier, G. Lidove, P. Salvatore, and A. Richard, “Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063707 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Mai, H.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, and R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD),” Micro. Eng. 57–8, 9–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Maroni, R.

P. Troussel, D. Dennetiere, R. Maroni, P. Hoghoj, S. Hedacq, L. Cibik, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 767, 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marshall, F.

F. Marshall, J. Oertel, and P. Walsh, “Framed, 16-image, Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for laser-plasma x-ray emission,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4045–4047 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, M.

S. Ichimaru, H. Takenaka, K. Namikawa, E. M. Gullikson, M. Maruyama, and S. Oku, “Demonstration of the high collection efficiency of a broadband Mo/Si multilayer mirror with a graded multilayer coating on an ellipsoidal substrate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 093106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCarville, T.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCarville, T. J.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Meyer, B.

P. Troussel, B. Meyer, R. Reverdin, B. Angelier, G. Lidove, P. Salvatore, and A. Richard, “Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063707 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mirkarimi, P.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mirkarimi, P. B.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Mullender, S.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, and R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD),” Micro. Eng. 57–8, 9–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Namikawa, K.

S. Ichimaru, H. Takenaka, K. Namikawa, E. M. Gullikson, M. Maruyama, and S. Oku, “Demonstration of the high collection efficiency of a broadband Mo/Si multilayer mirror with a graded multilayer coating on an ellipsoidal substrate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 093106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nedelcu, I.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. v. de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nicolosi, P.

Oertel, J.

F. Marshall, J. Oertel, and P. Walsh, “Framed, 16-image, Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for laser-plasma x-ray emission,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4045–4047 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oku, S.

S. Ichimaru, H. Takenaka, K. Namikawa, E. M. Gullikson, M. Maruyama, and S. Oku, “Demonstration of the high collection efficiency of a broadband Mo/Si multilayer mirror with a graded multilayer coating on an ellipsoidal substrate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 093106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pardini, T.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Patelli, A.

Pelizzo, M.

Pickworth, L. A.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Pivovaroff, M.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pivovaroff, M. J.

Pivovaroff, M. K.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Reverdin, R.

P. Troussel, B. Meyer, R. Reverdin, B. Angelier, G. Lidove, P. Salvatore, and A. Richard, “Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063707 (2005).
[Crossref]

Richard, A.

P. Troussel, B. Meyer, R. Reverdin, B. Angelier, G. Lidove, P. Salvatore, and A. Richard, “Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063707 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rigato, V.

Salmassi, F.

Salvatore, P.

P. Troussel, B. Meyer, R. Reverdin, B. Angelier, G. Lidove, P. Salvatore, and A. Richard, “Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063707 (2005).
[Crossref]

Scholz, R.

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, and R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD),” Micro. Eng. 57–8, 9–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Smalyuk, V.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalyuk, V. A.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Soufli, R.

Stearns, D.

D. Stearns, M. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. Stith, and N. Ceglio, “Thermally Induced Structural Modifications Of Mo-Si Mutilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stearns, D. G.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multi-layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017–1025 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stearns, M.

D. Stearns, M. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. Stith, and N. Ceglio, “Thermally Induced Structural Modifications Of Mo-Si Mutilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stith, J.

D. Stearns, M. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. Stith, and N. Ceglio, “Thermally Induced Structural Modifications Of Mo-Si Mutilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Takenaka, H.

S. Ichimaru, H. Takenaka, K. Namikawa, E. M. Gullikson, M. Maruyama, and S. Oku, “Demonstration of the high collection efficiency of a broadband Mo/Si multilayer mirror with a graded multilayer coating on an ellipsoidal substrate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 093106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, T.

Y. Ijdiyaou, M. Azizan, E. Ameziane, M. brunel, and T. Tan, “On The Formation Of Molybdenum Silicides In Mo-Si Multilayers - The effect of Mo thickness And Annealing Temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 55, 165–171 (1992).
[Crossref]

Troussel, P.

P. Troussel, D. Dennetiere, R. Maroni, P. Hoghoj, S. Hedacq, L. Cibik, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 767, 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Troussel, B. Meyer, R. Reverdin, B. Angelier, G. Lidove, P. Salvatore, and A. Richard, “Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063707 (2005).
[Crossref]

v. de Kruijs, R. W. E.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. v. de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vogel, J.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, J. K.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Walsh, P.

F. Marshall, J. Oertel, and P. Walsh, “Framed, 16-image, Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for laser-plasma x-ray emission,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4045–4047 (2004).
[Crossref]

Walton, C.

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walton, C. C.

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Windt, D.

D. Windt, “IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” J. Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yakshin, A. E.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. v. de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. Ijdiyaou, M. Azizan, E. Ameziane, M. brunel, and T. Tan, “On The Formation Of Molybdenum Silicides In Mo-Si Multilayers - The effect of Mo thickness And Annealing Temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 55, 165–171 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. Stearns, M. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. Stith, and N. Ceglio, “Thermally Induced Structural Modifications Of Mo-Si Mutilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multi-layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017–1025 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. v. de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

D. Windt, “IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” J. Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

Micro. Eng. (1)

S. Braun, R. Dietsch, M. Haidl, T. Holz, H. Mai, S. Mullender, and R. Scholz, “Mo/Si-multilayers for EUV applications prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD),” Micro. Eng. 57–8, 9–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A (1)

P. Troussel, D. Dennetiere, R. Maroni, P. Hoghoj, S. Hedacq, L. Cibik, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 767, 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Pardini, T. J. McCarville, C. C. Walton, T. A. Decker, J. K. Vogel, P. B. Mirkarimi, J. B. Alameda, R. M. Hill, L. A. Pickworth, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Ayers, P. M. Bell, D. K. Bradley, J. D. Kilkenny, and M. K. Pivovaroff, “Optical and multilayer design of the first Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for x-ray diagnostic at NIF,” Proc. SPIE 8850, 88500E (2013).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

L. A. Pickworth, T. McCarville, T. Decker, T. Pardini, J. Ayers, P. Bell, D. Bradley, N. F. Brejnholt, N. Izumi, P. Mirkarimi, M. Pivovaroff, V. Smalyuk, J. Vogel, C. Walton, and J. Kilkenny, “A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marshall, J. Oertel, and P. Walsh, “Framed, 16-image, Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for laser-plasma x-ray emission,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4045–4047 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Troussel, B. Meyer, R. Reverdin, B. Angelier, G. Lidove, P. Salvatore, and A. Richard, “Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063707 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Ichimaru, H. Takenaka, K. Namikawa, E. M. Gullikson, M. Maruyama, and S. Oku, “Demonstration of the high collection efficiency of a broadband Mo/Si multilayer mirror with a graded multilayer coating on an ellipsoidal substrate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 093106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (Left) The nominal structure of a single period in the Mo/Si ML. DMo and DSi indicate the thickness of Mo and Si one would have in the absence of silicide formation. (Right) The actual structure of a single period within the ML. Silicide formation at the Mo/Si interfaces requires a description based on a four-layer model. It is our convention to use lower case letters to indicate the thickness of each layer in the period. dMo-Si indicates the thickness of the Mo-on-Si silicide, while dSi-Mo is the thickness of the Si-on-Mo silicide. It is important to note that an overall contraction of the ML period results from the formation of the silicide layers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized x-ray reflectivity measured at the Cu Kα energy on Mo/Si constant d-spacing MLs with (a) d=42.6 Å, Γ = 0.3, and (b) d=33.0 Å, Γ = 0.37. Gamma is defined as DMo/(DMo + DSi).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized x-ray reflectivity measured at the Cu Kα energy on two Mo/Si aperiodic MLs obtained assuming (a) d MoSi 2 tot = 19.8 A ˚, (b) d MoSi 2 tot = 18.4 A ˚. Refer to Section 4 for further details.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized x-ray reflectivity of the “aperiodic 2” ML prescription measured with a Mo Kα anode (17.5 keV), and corresponding fit. Also shown is the ML response obtained by extrapolating to 17.5 keV the model resulting from the fit of the Cu Kα “aperiodic 2” data shown in Fig 3.

Equations (2)

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D Mo = d Mo + 0.39 d MoSi 2 tot
D Si = d Si + 1.0 d MoSi 2 tot

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