Abstract

To solve the radiative transfer equation and relate inherent optical properties (IOPs) to apparent optical properties (AOPs), knowledge of the volume scattering phase function is required. Due to the difficulty of measuring the phase function, it is frequently approximated. We explore the sensitivity of derived AOPs to the phase function parameterization, and compare measured and modeled values of both the AOPs and estimated phase functions using data from Monterey Bay, California during an extreme “red tide” bloom event. Using in situ measurements of absorption and attenuation coefficients, as well as two sets of measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF), we compared output from the Hydrolight radiative transfer model to direct measurements. We found that several common assumptions used in parameterizing the radiative transfer model consistently introduced overestimates of modeled versus measured remote-sensing reflectance values. Phase functions from VSF data derived from measurements at multiple wavelengths and a single scattering single angle significantly overestimated reflectances when using the manufacturer-supplied corrections, but were substantially improved using newly published corrections; phase functions calculated from VSF measurements using three angles and three wavelengths and processed using manufacture-supplied corrections were comparable, demonstrating that reasonable predictions can be made using two commercially available instruments. While other studies have reached similar conclusions, our work extends the analysis to coastal waters dominated by an extreme algal bloom with surface chlorophyll concentrations in excess of 100 mg m−3.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (1)

2014 (3)

X. Zhang, R. H. Stavn, A. U. Falster, D. Gray, and R. W. Gould., “New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 149, 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, E. Boss, and D. J. Gray, “Significance of scattering by oceanic particles at angles around 120 degree,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31329–31336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. He, J. Fischer, M. Schaale, and M. X. He, “Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 32(2), 480–489 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. B. Hooker, J. H. Morrow, and A. Matsuoka, “The 1% and 1 cm perspective in deriving and validating AOP data products,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 9(7), 9487–9531 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. O. Davis, M. Kavanaugh, R. Letelier, W. P. Bissett, and D. Kohler, “Spatial and spectral resolution considerations for imaging coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 6680, 66800P (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C5), C05013 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Kudela, G. Pitcher, T. Probyn, F. Figueiras, T. Moita, and V. Trainer, “Harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling systems,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 18(2), 184–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shyabonov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1994 (2)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

Antoine, D.

Arnone, R. A.

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shyabonov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bissett, W. P.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. O. Davis, M. Kavanaugh, R. Letelier, W. P. Bissett, and D. Kohler, “Spatial and spectral resolution considerations for imaging coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 6680, 66800P (2007).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

X. Zhang, E. Boss, and D. J. Gray, “Significance of scattering by oceanic particles at angles around 120 degree,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31329–31336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shyabonov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1035–1050 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

Chami, M.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C5), C05013 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chavez, F. P.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

Claustre, H.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dana, D. R.

Davis, C. O.

C. O. Davis, M. Kavanaugh, R. Letelier, W. P. Bissett, and D. Kohler, “Spatial and spectral resolution considerations for imaging coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 6680, 66800P (2007).
[Crossref]

Dogliotti, A.

Doxaran, D.

Falster, A. U.

X. Zhang, R. H. Stavn, A. U. Falster, D. Gray, and R. W. Gould., “New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 149, 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref]

Figueiras, F.

R. Kudela, G. Pitcher, T. Probyn, F. Figueiras, T. Moita, and V. Trainer, “Harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling systems,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 18(2), 184–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fischer, J.

S. He, J. Fischer, M. Schaale, and M. X. He, “Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 32(2), 480–489 (2014).
[Crossref]

Forand, J. L.

G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fournier, G. R.

G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
[Crossref]

Freeman, S. A.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fry, E. S.

Gentili, B.

Gernez, P.

Gould, R. W.

X. Zhang, R. H. Stavn, A. U. Falster, D. Gray, and R. W. Gould., “New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 149, 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gower, J. F. R.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gray, D.

X. Zhang, R. H. Stavn, A. U. Falster, D. Gray, and R. W. Gould., “New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 149, 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gray, D. J.

Hakim, A. H.

He, M. X.

S. He, J. Fischer, M. Schaale, and M. X. He, “Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 32(2), 480–489 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, S.

S. He, J. Fischer, M. Schaale, and M. X. He, “Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 32(2), 480–489 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, J. H. Morrow, and A. Matsuoka, “The 1% and 1 cm perspective in deriving and validating AOP data products,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 9(7), 9487–9531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huot, Y.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kavanaugh, M.

C. O. Davis, M. Kavanaugh, R. Letelier, W. P. Bissett, and D. Kohler, “Spatial and spectral resolution considerations for imaging coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 6680, 66800P (2007).
[Crossref]

Khomenko, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C5), C05013 (2006).
[Crossref]

King, S. A.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[Crossref]

Knaeps, E.

Kohler, D.

C. O. Davis, M. Kavanaugh, R. Letelier, W. P. Bissett, and D. Kohler, “Spatial and spectral resolution considerations for imaging coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 6680, 66800P (2007).
[Crossref]

Kolber, Z.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

Korotaev, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C5), C05013 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shyabonov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kudela, R.

R. Kudela, G. Pitcher, T. Probyn, F. Figueiras, T. Moita, and V. Trainer, “Harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling systems,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 18(2), 184–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kudela, R. M.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shyabonov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

Letelier, R.

C. O. Davis, M. Kavanaugh, R. Letelier, W. P. Bissett, and D. Kohler, “Spatial and spectral resolution considerations for imaging coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 6680, 66800P (2007).
[Crossref]

Leymarie, E.

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Maffione, R. A.

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[Crossref]

Marken, E.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C5), C05013 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, A.

S. B. Hooker, J. H. Morrow, and A. Matsuoka, “The 1% and 1 cm perspective in deriving and validating AOP data products,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 9(7), 9487–9531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mazzillo, F.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

McCormick, N. J.

Mobley, C. D.

Moita, T.

R. Kudela, G. Pitcher, T. Probyn, F. Figueiras, T. Moita, and V. Trainer, “Harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling systems,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 18(2), 184–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moore, C. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[Crossref]

Morel, A.

Morrow, J. H.

S. B. Hooker, J. H. Morrow, and A. Matsuoka, “The 1% and 1 cm perspective in deriving and validating AOP data products,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 9(7), 9487–9531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nechad, B.

Oishi, T.

Pegau, W. S.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shyabonov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pitcher, G.

R. Kudela, G. Pitcher, T. Probyn, F. Figueiras, T. Moita, and V. Trainer, “Harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling systems,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 18(2), 184–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pope, R. M.

Probyn, T.

R. Kudela, G. Pitcher, T. Probyn, F. Figueiras, T. Moita, and V. Trainer, “Harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling systems,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 18(2), 184–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rienecker, E. V.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ruddick, K.

Ryan, J. P.

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schaale, M.

S. He, J. Fischer, M. Schaale, and M. X. He, “Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 32(2), 480–489 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shyabonov, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shyabonov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stamnes, J. J.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C5), C05013 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stavn, R. H.

X. Zhang, R. H. Stavn, A. U. Falster, D. Gray, and R. W. Gould., “New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 149, 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stramski, D.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, J. M.

Sundman, L. K.

Trainer, V.

R. Kudela, G. Pitcher, T. Probyn, F. Figueiras, T. Moita, and V. Trainer, “Harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling systems,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 18(2), 184–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Twardowski, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shyabonov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[Crossref]

Twardowski, M. S.

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6811–6819 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, E. Boss, and D. J. Gray, “Significance of scattering by oceanic particles at angles around 120 degree,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31329–31336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, R. H. Stavn, A. U. Falster, D. Gray, and R. W. Gould., “New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 149, 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (8)

A. H. Hakim and N. J. McCormick, “Ocean optics estimation for absorption, backscattering, and phase function parameters,” Appl. Opt. 42(6), 931–938 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6811–6819 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1035–1050 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oishi, “Significant relationship between the backward scattering coefficient of sea water and the scatterance at 120 °,” Appl. Opt. 29(31), 4658–4665 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8710–8723 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Maffione and D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6057–6067 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biogeosciences Discuss. (2)

S. B. Hooker, J. H. Morrow, and A. Matsuoka, “The 1% and 1 cm perspective in deriving and validating AOP data products,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 9(7), 9487–9531 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. (1)

S. He, J. Fischer, M. Schaale, and M. X. He, “Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 32(2), 480–489 (2014).
[Crossref]

Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. (1)

X. Zhang, R. H. Stavn, A. U. Falster, D. Gray, and R. W. Gould., “New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 149, 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. P. Ryan, J. F. R. Gower, S. A. King, W. P. Bissett, A. M. Fischer, R. M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E. V. Rienecker, and F. P. Chavez, “A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(12), L12602 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shyabonov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C5), C05013 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE (2)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Ocean Optics XII, Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
[Crossref]

Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) (1)

R. Kudela, G. Pitcher, T. Probyn, F. Figueiras, T. Moita, and V. Trainer, “Harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling systems,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 18(2), 184–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. O. Davis, M. Kavanaugh, R. Letelier, W. P. Bissett, and D. Kohler, “Spatial and spectral resolution considerations for imaging coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 6680, 66800P (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

HydroScat-6 Spectral Backscattering Sensor & Fluorometer: User’s Manual, Revision I (Hydro-Optics, Biology & Instrumentation Laboratories, 2010).

C. D. Mobley and L. K. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.2 Users’ Guide (Sequoia Scientific Inc., 2001).

C. D. Mobley and L. K. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.2 Technical Documentation (Sequoia Scientific Inc., 2001).

P. V. Jørgensen, G. Tilstone, J. Høkedal, and W. Schönfeld, “Intercomparison of spectral backscattering coefficients measured in-situ using several Hydroscat instruments–Results from PlymCal-2 and REVAMP cruises,” in Proceedings of ENVISAT Validation Workshop (Frascatti: European Space Agency, 2002).

C. Mobley, E. Boss, and C. Roesler, Ocean Optics Web Book (2010), http://www.oceanopticsbook.info/ .

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Tech. Rep. SIO 72–78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1972).

Weather Underground, “Weather history for Watsonville, CA: Thursday, September 7, 2006” (The Weather Channel, 2014). http://www.wunderground.com/history/airport/KWVI/2006/9/7/DailyHistory.html?req_city=Moss+Landing&req_state=CA&req_statename=California .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 IOP data (ap, bp, cp) as a function of depth and wavelength. The offset at ~552 nm is caused by the change in holographic gratings on the ac-s, and was removed during post-processing prior to use in Hydrolight.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Constructed Fournier-Forand phase functions from ECO-VSF3 data at a wavelength of 450nm, with μ and n from methods of Twardowski et al. (2001).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of calculated remote sensing reflectances to measured remote sensing reflectances from Hyperpro data. Gray region represents one standard deviation from averaged Rrs values using three vertical profiles and one “floating” data collection.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of bbp values as a function of wavelength for 1 and 6 dbar from the HydroScat-6 and ECO-VSF3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of bbp values from the ECO-VSF3 and HydroScat-6, at 530 nm. For the HydroScat-6 data bbp was extrapolated from the 470 and 550 nm channels assuming a power-law spectrum. The dashed line indicates a 1:1 relationship. Variability between the two instruments was less than 15% and generally increased with increasing chlorophyll.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 2006 COAST Data set, Sept. 7, 2006 (36°53.254 N, 121°51.208’ W)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ dL(ζ,μ,ϕ,λ) dζ =L(ζ,μ,ϕ,λ)+ ω ° (ζ,λ) 0 2π 1 1 L(ζ, μ , ϕ ,λ) β ˜ (ζ, μ , ϕ μ,ϕ,λ)d μ d ϕ + 1 c(ζ,λ) S(ζ,μ,ϕ,λ)
σ= k 1 exp( k exp K bb )
K bb = a nw +4.34× b bp
b b b bw =2π χ bb [β( 140 ° ) β w ( 140 ° )]

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