Abstract

Metasurfaces are ultrathin optical structures that manipulate optical wavefronts. Most metasurface devices which deflect light are designed for operation at a single wavelength, and their function changes as the wavelength is varied. Here we propose and demonstrate a double-wavelength metasurface based on polarization dependent dielectric meta-atoms that control the phases of two orthogonal polarizations independently. Using this platform, we design lenses that focus light at 915 and 780 nm with perpendicular linear polarizations to the same focal distance. Lenses with numerical apertures up to 0.7 and efficiencies from 65% to above 90% are demonstrated. In addition to the high efficiency and numerical aperture, an important feature of this technique is that the two operation wavelengths can be chosen to be arbitrarily close. These characteristics make these lenses especially attractive for fluorescence microscopy applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nature Nanotech. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3, 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Backlund, A. Arbabi, P. N. Petrov, E. Arbabi, S. Saurabh, A. Faraon, and W. E. Moerner, “Removing orientation-induced localization biases in single-molecule microscopy using a broadband metasurface mask,” Nature Photon. 10, 459–462 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

O. Eisenbach, O. Avayu, R. Ditcovski, and T. Ellenbogen, “Metasurfaces based dual wavelength diffractive lenses,” Opt. Express 23, 3928–3936 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nature Nanotech. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Dominguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Campione, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, and M. B. Sinclair, “Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and huygens’ metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 23, 2293–2307 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. Byren, “All-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lens,” Opt. Express 22, 26212–26221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nature Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, P. Zhen, T. Tho, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 2233–2244 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nature Photon. 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

Ahmed, N.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” arXiv:1604.06865 (2016).

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

M. P. Backlund, A. Arbabi, P. N. Petrov, E. Arbabi, S. Saurabh, A. Faraon, and W. E. Moerner, “Removing orientation-induced localization biases in single-molecule microscopy using a broadband metasurface mask,” Nature Photon. 10, 459–462 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3, 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nature Nanotech. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, M. Bagheri, A. J. Ball, Y. Horie, D. Fattal, and A. Faraon, “Controlling the phase front of optical fiber beams using high contrast metastructures,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper STu3M.4.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” arXiv:1604.03597 (2016).

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “An optical metasurface planar camera,” arXiv:1604.06160 (2016).

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” arXiv:1604.06865 (2016).

Arbabi, E.

M. P. Backlund, A. Arbabi, P. N. Petrov, E. Arbabi, S. Saurabh, A. Faraon, and W. E. Moerner, “Removing orientation-induced localization biases in single-molecule microscopy using a broadband metasurface mask,” Nature Photon. 10, 459–462 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3, 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “An optical metasurface planar camera,” arXiv:1604.06160 (2016).

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” arXiv:1604.03597 (2016).

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” arXiv:1604.06865 (2016).

Ashrafi, S.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” arXiv:1604.06865 (2016).

Astilean, S.

Avayu, O.

Backlund, M. P.

M. P. Backlund, A. Arbabi, P. N. Petrov, E. Arbabi, S. Saurabh, A. Faraon, and W. E. Moerner, “Removing orientation-induced localization biases in single-molecule microscopy using a broadband metasurface mask,” Nature Photon. 10, 459–462 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nature Nanotech. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, M. Bagheri, A. J. Ball, Y. Horie, D. Fattal, and A. Faraon, “Controlling the phase front of optical fiber beams using high contrast metastructures,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper STu3M.4.

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, M. Bagheri, A. J. Ball, Y. Horie, D. Fattal, and A. Faraon, “Controlling the phase front of optical fiber beams using high contrast metastructures,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper STu3M.4.

Basilio, L. I.

Beausoleil, R. G.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, P. Zhen, T. Tho, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nature Photon. 4, 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University, 1999).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. M.

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byren, R.

Cambril, E.

Campione, S.

Cao, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” arXiv:1604.06865 (2016).

Capasso, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nature Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chavel, P.

Davidson, M. W.

D. B. Murphy and M. W. Davidson, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).
[Crossref]

Decker, M.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ditcovski, R.

Dodds, R. K.

Dominguez, J.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eisenbach, O.

Ellenbogen, T.

Falkner, M.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 2233–2244 (2012).
[Crossref]

Faraon, A.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nature Nanotech. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Normal chromatic dispersion of a metasurface lens, resulting in different focal distances for different wavelengths (schematically shown by red and blue rays), and (b) schematics of a metasurface corrected to focus light with two different wavelengths and orthogonal linear polarizations to the same focal distance. (c) An α-Si nano-post with elliptical cross-section exhibiting birefringence. (d) A metasurface formed by arraying elliptical nano-posts in a periodic lattice.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission amplitude (top) and phase (bottom) of the meatasurface at 915 nm for x-polarized light versus ellipse diameters. (b) The same plots as (a), but for y-polarized light at 780 nm. (c) Optimal values of diameters 2a and 2b that provide phase pairs (ϕ1, ϕ2) for complete phase coverage at the two wavelengths. (d) Transmission amplitude, and (e) phase at both wavelengths for the corresponding optimal diameters shown in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of a fabricated device viewed normally, and (b) at a tilt angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the measurement setup used for measuring intensity profiles, and (b) focusing efficiencies.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured axial (left) and focal (right) plane intensities for y-polarized light at 780 nm. Results are in increasing focal distance order from top to bottom. (b) Same measurement results as in (a) for x-polarized light at 915 nm. (c) Measured full width at half maximums in the focal plane versus NA. The corresponding theoretical diffraction limits at both wavelengths are denoted via dashed lines. (d) Measured axial plane FWHMs along with their corresponding theoretical values. (e) Measured efficiencies of the metasurface lenses at both wavelengths. Dashed lines show eye-guides.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurement results under illumination with cross-polarized light. (a) Measured axial (left) and focal (right) plane intensities for x-polarized light at 780 nm. Results are in increasing copolarized focal distance order from top to bottom. We have verified that no other points of comparable intensity are present in areas not shown in the axial measurements. (b) Same measurement results as in (a) for y-polarized light at 915 nm. (c) Measured full width at half maximums in the focal plane (focal distances labeled in (a) and (b)) versus NA. The corresponding theoretical diffraction limits at both wavelengths are denoted via dashed lines. (d) Measured efficiencies of the metasurface lenses at both wavelengths for cross-polarized light. Dashed lines show eye-guides.

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