Abstract

We report the reflectance, ~1° from normal incidence, of six different mirrors as a function of photon energy, using monochromatic vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation with energies between 7.5 eV and 24.5 eV. The mirrors examined included both single and multilayer optical coatings, as well as an uncoated substrate. We discuss the performance of each mirror, paying particular attention to the potential application of suppression and selection of high-order harmonics of a Ti:sapphire laser.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4–6 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. I. Larruquert and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range of 50 to 121.6 nm,” Appl. Optics 38, 1231–1236 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E= 50–30,000 eV, Z= 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. T. K. Allison, J. van Tilborg, T. W. Wright, M. P. Hertlein, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Separation of high order harmonics with fluoride windows,” Opt. Express 17, 8941–8946 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. Igarashi, A. Makida, M. Ito, and T. Sekikawa, “Pulse compression of phase-matched high harmonic pulses from a time-delay compensated monochromator,” Opt. Express 20, 3725–3732 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3664–3666 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. G. Champenois, N. H. Shivaram, T. W. Wright, C. S. Yang, A. Belkacem, and J. P. Cryan, “Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 144, 014303 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. F. Canova and L. Poletto, Optical Technologies for Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Coherent Sources (Springer, 2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Aquila, F. Salmassi, and E. Gullikson, “Metrologies for the phase characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet optics,” Opt. Lett. 33, 455–457 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieb, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19, 1767–1776 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Guggenmos, M. Jobst, M. Ossiander, S. Radunz, J. Riemensberger, M. Schaffer, A. Akil, C. Jakubeit, P. Bohm, S. Noever, and B. Nickel, “Chromium/scandium multilayer mirrors for isolated attosecond pulses at 145 eV,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2846–2849 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Mendez, J. A. Aznarez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Electron-beam deposited boron coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 47, 2926–2930 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. M. Blumenstock and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 33, 5962–5963 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  26. F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Aznarez, J. Calvo-Angos, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Mendez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

E. G. Champenois, N. H. Shivaram, T. W. Wright, C. S. Yang, A. Belkacem, and J. P. Cryan, “Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 144, 014303 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Guggenmos, M. Jobst, M. Ossiander, S. Radunz, J. Riemensberger, M. Schaffer, A. Akil, C. Jakubeit, P. Bohm, S. Noever, and B. Nickel, “Chromium/scandium multilayer mirrors for isolated attosecond pulses at 145 eV,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2846–2849 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieb, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19, 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3664–3666 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. K. Allison, J. van Tilborg, T. W. Wright, M. P. Hertlein, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Separation of high order harmonics with fluoride windows,” Opt. Express 17, 8941–8946 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Aquila, F. Salmassi, and E. Gullikson, “Metrologies for the phase characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet optics,” Opt. Lett. 33, 455–457 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Mendez, J. A. Aznarez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Electron-beam deposited boron coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 47, 2926–2930 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Aznarez, J. Calvo-Angos, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Mendez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4–6 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range of 50 to 121.6 nm,” Appl. Optics 38, 1231–1236 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Blumenstock and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 33, 5962–5963 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E= 50–30,000 eV, Z= 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akil, A.

Alameda, J.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alford, C. S.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

Allison, T. K.

Anderson, C. N.

E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

A. Aquila, F. Salmassi, and E. Gullikson, “Metrologies for the phase characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet optics,” Opt. Lett. 33, 455–457 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).
[Crossref]

Auzelyte, V.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aznarez, J. A.

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Mendez, J. A. Aznarez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Electron-beam deposited boron coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 47, 2926–2930 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Aznarez, J. Calvo-Angos, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Mendez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belkacem, A.

E. G. Champenois, N. H. Shivaram, T. W. Wright, C. S. Yang, A. Belkacem, and J. P. Cryan, “Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 144, 014303 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3664–3666 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, J. van Tilborg, T. W. Wright, M. P. Hertlein, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Separation of high order harmonics with fluoride windows,” Opt. Express 17, 8941–8946 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bionta, R. M.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blumenstock, G. M.

G. M. Blumenstock and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 33, 5962–5963 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bohm, P.

Bridou, F.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Calvo-Angos, J.

M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Aznarez, J. Calvo-Angos, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Mendez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[Crossref]

Canova, F.

F. Canova and L. Poletto, Optical Technologies for Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Coherent Sources (Springer, 2015).
[Crossref]

Champenois, E. G.

E. G. Champenois, N. H. Shivaram, T. W. Wright, C. S. Yang, A. Belkacem, and J. P. Cryan, “Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 144, 014303 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chapman, H. N.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chini, M.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cryan, J. P.

E. G. Champenois, N. H. Shivaram, T. W. Wright, C. S. Yang, A. Belkacem, and J. P. Cryan, “Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 144, 014303 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuniot-Ponsard, M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dais, C.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E= 50–30,000 eV, Z= 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181 (1993).
[Crossref]

Demmler, S.

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dennhardt, B.

Desvignes, J. M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dollar, F.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Falcone, R. W.

Farquet, P.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fernandez-Perea, M.

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Mendez, J. A. Aznarez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Electron-beam deposited boron coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 47, 2926–2930 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Aznarez, J. Calvo-Angos, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Mendez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fieb, M.

Foucar, L.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, J.

Gottwald, A.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goulielmakis, E.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieb, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19, 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grutzmacher, D.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guggenmos, A.

Gullikson, E.

A. Aquila, F. Salmassi, and E. Gullikson, “Metrologies for the phase characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet optics,” Opt. Lett. 33, 455–457 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieb, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19, 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E= 50–30,000 eV, Z= 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hadrich, S.

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hau-Riege, S.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E= 50–30,000 eV, Z= 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181 (1993).
[Crossref]

Herrwerth, O.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hertlein, M. P.

Heyderman, L. J.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieb, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19, 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

Igarashi, H.

Ito, M.

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jakubeit, C.

Jiang, Y. H.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jobst, M.

Keski-Kuha, R. A.

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range of 50 to 121.6 nm,” Appl. Optics 38, 1231–1236 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. M. Blumenstock and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 33, 5962–5963 (1994).
[Crossref]

Khurmi, C.

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3664–3666 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

Kim, D.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. S.

E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kling, M. F.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kortright, J. B.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieb, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19, 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krebs, M.

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kroth, U.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kurka, M.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Larruquert, J. I.

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Mendez, J. A. Aznarez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Electron-beam deposited boron coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 47, 2926–2930 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Aznarez, J. Calvo-Angos, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Mendez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range of 50 to 121.6 nm,” Appl. Optics 38, 1231–1236 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lhuillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Limpert, J.

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3664–3666 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, F.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Makida, A.

Makowiecki, D. M.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

Martinez, T. J.

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendez, J. A.

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Mendez, J. A. Aznarez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Electron-beam deposited boron coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 47, 2926–2930 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Aznarez, J. Calvo-Angos, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Mendez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4–6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miyakawa, R.

E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4–6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Naulleau, P. P.

E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nelson, A. J.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nickel, B.

Noever, S.

Olliges, S.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ossiander, M.

Padeste, C.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Poletto, L.

F. Canova and L. Poletto, Optical Technologies for Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Coherent Sources (Springer, 2015).
[Crossref]

Radunz, S.

Richter, M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Riemensberger, J.

Rothhardt, J.

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sahoo, P. K.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Salmassi, F.

E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aquila, F. Salmassi, and E. Gullikson, “Metrologies for the phase characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet optics,” Opt. Lett. 33, 455–457 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffer, M.

Schultze, M.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fieb, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19, 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sekikawa, T.

Senftleben, A.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shivaram, N. H.

E. G. Champenois, N. H. Shivaram, T. W. Wright, C. S. Yang, A. Belkacem, and J. P. Cryan, “Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 144, 014303 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skulina, K. M.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

Soufli, R.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiller, E.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stooke, A. M.

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3664–3666 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, E. J.

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4–6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, T.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tunnermann, A.

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turchanin, A.

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

Underwood, J. H.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

van Tilborg, J.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3664–3666 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, J. van Tilborg, T. W. Wright, M. P. Hertlein, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Separation of high order harmonics with fluoride windows,” Opt. Express 17, 8941–8946 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vidal-Dasilva, M.

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Mendez, J. A. Aznarez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Electron-beam deposited boron coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 47, 2926–2930 (2008).
[Crossref]

Walton, C. C.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wright, T. W.

E. G. Champenois, N. H. Shivaram, T. W. Wright, C. S. Yang, A. Belkacem, and J. P. Cryan, “Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 144, 014303 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3664–3666 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, J. van Tilborg, T. W. Wright, M. P. Hertlein, R. W. Falcone, and A. Belkacem, “Separation of high order harmonics with fluoride windows,” Opt. Express 17, 8941–8946 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

Yang, C. S.

E. G. Champenois, N. H. Shivaram, T. W. Wright, C. S. Yang, A. Belkacem, and J. P. Cryan, “Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 144, 014303 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, K.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zurch, M.

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Optics (5)

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, and J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range of 50 to 121.6 nm,” Appl. Optics 38, 1231–1236 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. M. Gullikson, C. N. Anderson, S. S. Kim, D. Lee, R. Miyakawa, F. Salmassi, and P. P. Naulleau, “Molybdenum/silicon multilayer components for high harmonic generation sources,” Appl. Optics 54, 4280–4284 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Mendez, J. A. Aznarez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Electron-beam deposited boron coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 47, 2926–2930 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. M. Blumenstock and R. A. Keski-Kuha, “Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Optics 33, 5962–5963 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4–6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Atom. Data Nucl. Data (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E= 50–30,000 eV, Z= 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

H. Tao, T. K. Allison, T. W. Wright, A. M. Stooke, C. Khurmi, J. van Tilborg, Y. Liu, R. W. Falcone, A. Belkacem, and T. J. Martinez, “Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 244306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. G. Champenois, N. H. Shivaram, T. W. Wright, C. S. Yang, A. Belkacem, and J. P. Cryan, “Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 144, 014303 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Micro-Nanolith MEM (1)

V. Auzelyte, C. Dais, P. Farquet, D. Grutzmacher, L. J. Heyderman, F. Luo, S. Olliges, C. Padeste, P. K. Sahoo, T. Thomson, and A. Turchanin, “Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut,” J. Micro-Nanolith MEM 8, 021204 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. (1)

Y. H. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, A. Rudenko, L. Foucar, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, M. Lezius, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, and K. Ueda, “Ultrafast dynamics in acetylene clocked in a femtosecond XUV stopwatch,” J. Phys. B - At. Mole. Opt. 46, 164027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, and E. Gullikson, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Zurch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hadrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Fernandez-Perea, J. A. Aznarez, J. Calvo-Angos, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Mendez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).
[Crossref]

F. Canova and L. Poletto, Optical Technologies for Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Coherent Sources (Springer, 2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Detector position 1, measuring full photon flux at normal incidence, and position 2, measuring reflected photon flux ~1° from normal incidence. The angle of reflection from the mirror is exaggerated for illustrative purposes. Not to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of the Si substrate, the deep UV protected Al mirror, and the 270 nm and 160 nm optical coatings from 7.5 – 24.5 eV (51 – 165 nm). Measured data are indicated by colored shapes. The curves connecting points were generated using cubic spline interpolation. Labeled vertical lines correspond to odd harmonic orders 5 – 15 of an 800 nm driving field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 1 for the B4C and the 52 nm optical coating. Previously reported data from Ref. [24] are included for comparison, with points connected by straight lines.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Wavelength and energy values for odd harmonic orders 5 – 15 with driving wavelengths 780 nm, 800 nm, and 810 nm.

Equations (1)

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R ( E ) = I R ( E ) / I 0 ( E )

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