Abstract

We presented enhanced light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) cells with a nano-sized diffraction grating layer. Various diffraction gratings of different morphologies including linear, cubic, hexagonal and quasiperiodic patterns were fabricated by multiplexing light interference exposure on an azobenzene thin film. The effect of diffraction grating layer on device performances including luminous properties and quantum efficiency was investigated. In contrast to periodic grating patterns, the quasiperiodic structures leading broadband light extraction resulted in improved external quantum efficiency and power efficiency by 73% and 63%, respectively, compared to conventional OLED with flat surface of glass substrate.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  3. J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, and M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Liang, L. Li, X. Niu, Z. Yu, and Q. Pei, “Elastomeric polymer light-emitting devices and displays,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 817–824 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer‐based white phosphorescent organic light‐emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Tsutsui, E. Aminaka, C. P. Lin, and D.-U. Kim, “Extended molecular design concept of molecular materials for electroluminescence: sublimed–dye films, molecularly doped polymers and polymers with chromophores,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. 355(1725), 801–814 (1997).
  10. S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3326 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, N. Wada, and M. Ohgawara, “Light extraction analysis of organic light emitting diodes fabricated on high refractive index glass scattering layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(5), 055502 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. H. Han, D.-H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Microcavity effect using nanoparticles to enhance the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19863–19873 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
  17. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  19. Q.-C. Hsu, J.-J. Hsiao, T.-L. Ho, and C.-D. Wu, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on flexible organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 91, 178–184 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. S.-J. Park, Y. D. Kim, H. W. Lee, H. J. Yang, J.-Y. Cho, Y. K. Kim, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of OLEDs using Si3N4-based optical scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12392–12397 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).
  24. Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Roichman and D. Grier, “Holographic assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5434–5439 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, N. Wada, and M. Ohgawara, “Light extraction analysis of organic light emitting diodes fabricated on high refractive index glass scattering layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(5), 055502 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Han, D.-H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Microcavity effect using nanoparticles to enhance the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19863–19873 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, L. Li, X. Niu, Z. Yu, and Q. Pei, “Elastomeric polymer light-emitting devices and displays,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 817–824 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting diode via surface energy transfer between exciton and surface plasmon,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 159–165 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q.-C. Hsu, J.-J. Hsiao, T.-L. Ho, and C.-D. Wu, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on flexible organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 91, 178–184 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).

2008 (2)

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer‐based white phosphorescent organic light‐emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C.-L. Lin, H.-W. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Roichman and D. Grier, “Holographic assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5434–5439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, and M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kwon, and H. K. Chung, “High efficiency and low power consumption in active matrix organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 4(2), 143–148 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3326 (2002).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui, and Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2407 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Tsutsui, E. Aminaka, C. P. Lin, and D.-U. Kim, “Extended molecular design concept of molecular materials for electroluminescence: sublimed–dye films, molecularly doped polymers and polymers with chromophores,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. 355(1725), 801–814 (1997).

Aminaka, E.

T. Tsutsui, E. Aminaka, C. P. Lin, and D.-U. Kim, “Extended molecular design concept of molecular materials for electroluminescence: sublimed–dye films, molecularly doped polymers and polymers with chromophores,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. 355(1725), 801–814 (1997).

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).

Bian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. J.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brütting, W.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-W.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.-D.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-O.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cho, D.-H.

Cho, J.-Y.

Cho, N. S.

Choi, K. B.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. C.

Chu, H. Y.

Chung, H. K.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kwon, and H. K. Chung, “High efficiency and low power consumption in active matrix organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 4(2), 143–148 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cola, L. D.

C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
[Crossref]

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3326 (2002).
[Crossref]

Frischeisen, J.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fröhlich, R.

C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujimura, S.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, and M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fukumoto, N.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, N. Wada, and M. Ohgawara, “Light extraction analysis of organic light emitting diodes fabricated on high refractive index glass scattering layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(5), 055502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grier, D.

Haavisto, K.

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer‐based white phosphorescent organic light‐emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hack, M.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hamwi, S.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, J. H.

Han, J.-H.

Hinze, P.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ho, T.-L.

Q.-C. Hsu, J.-J. Hsiao, T.-L. Ho, and C.-D. Wu, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on flexible organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 91, 178–184 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, J.-J.

Q.-C. Hsu, J.-J. Hsiao, T.-L. Ho, and C.-D. Wu, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on flexible organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 91, 178–184 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Q.-C.

Q.-C. Hsu, J.-J. Hsiao, T.-L. Ho, and C.-D. Wu, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on flexible organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 91, 178–184 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huh, J. W.

Hwang, J.

Hwang, J. H.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hyun Kim, Y.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).

Ishizaka, T.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jabbour, G. E.

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer‐based white phosphorescent organic light‐emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).

Johannes, H.-H.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

Joo, C. W.

Ju, B.-K.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.-G.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamalasanan, M. N.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting diode via surface energy transfer between exciton and surface plasmon,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 159–165 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kido, J.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

Kim, D.-U.

T. Tsutsui, E. Aminaka, C. P. Lin, and D.-U. Kim, “Extended molecular design concept of molecular materials for electroluminescence: sublimed–dye films, molecularly doped polymers and polymers with chromophores,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. 355(1725), 801–814 (1997).

Kim, K. N.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. D.

Kim, Y. K.

Kim, Y.-C.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).

Kowlasky, W.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krummacher, B. C.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting diode via surface energy transfer between exciton and surface plasmon,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 159–165 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kumar, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kwon, J. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kwon, and H. K. Chung, “High efficiency and low power consumption in active matrix organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 4(2), 143–148 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kwong, R. C.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

Lee, H. J.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. W.

Lee, J.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kwon, and H. K. Chung, “High efficiency and low power consumption in active matrix organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 4(2), 143–148 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-I.

Lee, Y.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer‐based white phosphorescent organic light‐emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

J. Liang, L. Li, X. Niu, Z. Yu, and Q. Pei, “Elastomeric polymer light-emitting devices and displays,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 817–824 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-Q.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, L. Li, X. Niu, Z. Yu, and Q. Pei, “Elastomeric polymer light-emitting devices and displays,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 817–824 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

T. Tsutsui, E. Aminaka, C. P. Lin, and D.-U. Kim, “Extended molecular design concept of molecular materials for electroluminescence: sublimed–dye films, molecularly doped polymers and polymers with chromophores,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. 355(1725), 801–814 (1997).

Lin, C.-L.

C.-L. Lin, H.-W. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.-W.

C.-L. Lin, H.-W. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mauro, M.

C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mehta, D. S.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting diode via surface energy transfer between exciton and surface plasmon,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 159–165 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miyadera, T.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, and M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3326 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moon, J.

Muenster, I.

C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
[Crossref]

Müller-Meskamp, L.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, N.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, N. Wada, and M. Ohgawara, “Light extraction analysis of organic light emitting diodes fabricated on high refractive index glass scattering layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(5), 055502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nakanishi, H.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).

Niu, X.

J. Liang, L. Li, X. Niu, Z. Yu, and Q. Pei, “Elastomeric polymer light-emitting devices and displays,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 817–824 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nowy, S.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ochi, H.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, and M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohgawara, M.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, N. Wada, and M. Ohgawara, “Light extraction analysis of organic light emitting diodes fabricated on high refractive index glass scattering layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(5), 055502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ou, Q.-D.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, C. H.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, S. K.

Park, S.-J.

Park, Y. W.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pei, Q.

J. Liang, L. Li, X. Niu, Z. Yu, and Q. Pei, “Elastomeric polymer light-emitting devices and displays,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 817–824 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polo, F.

C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pu, Y.-J.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinke, N. A.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Riedl, T.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

Roichman, Y.

Rothman, M.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Samuelson, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmale, S.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shim, Y. S.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.-W.

Song, Y.-W.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, R.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting diode via surface energy transfer between exciton and surface plasmon,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 159–165 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, A.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, and M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Taga, Y.

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui, and Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2407 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).

Tang, J.-X.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui, and Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2407 (1999).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).

Toyota, N.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tripathy, S. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tsuchida, M.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, and M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsutsui, T.

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui, and Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2407 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Tsutsui, E. Aminaka, C. P. Lin, and D.-U. Kim, “Extended molecular design concept of molecular materials for electroluminescence: sublimed–dye films, molecularly doped polymers and polymers with chromophores,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. 355(1725), 801–814 (1997).

Tyagi, P.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting diode via surface energy transfer between exciton and surface plasmon,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 159–165 (2012).
[Crossref]

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, N. Wada, and M. Ohgawara, “Light extraction analysis of organic light emitting diodes fabricated on high refractive index glass scattering layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(5), 055502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weaver, M. S.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Weimann, T.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, E. L.

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer‐based white phosphorescent organic light‐emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williams, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Winkler, T.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Lin, H.-W. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-D.

Q.-C. Hsu, J.-J. Hsiao, T.-L. Ho, and C.-D. Wu, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on flexible organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 91, 178–184 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.-H.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.-H.

C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. J.

Yoshida, A.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, and M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

J. Liang, L. Li, X. Niu, Z. Yu, and Q. Pei, “Elastomeric polymer light-emitting devices and displays,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 817–824 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T. X.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowlasky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light‐emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
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[Crossref]

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light‐emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasirandom nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C.-L. Lin, H.-W. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C.-H. Yang, M. Mauro, F. Polo, S. Watanabe, I. Muenster, R. Fröhlich, and L. D. Cola, “Deep-blue-emitting heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes suited for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 24(19), 3684–3695 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, and M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[Crossref]

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H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
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N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
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Q.-C. Hsu, J.-J. Hsiao, T.-L. Ho, and C.-D. Wu, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on flexible organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 91, 178–184 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Liang, L. Li, X. Niu, Z. Yu, and Q. Pei, “Elastomeric polymer light-emitting devices and displays,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 817–824 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4, 222–226 (2010).

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T. Tsutsui, E. Aminaka, C. P. Lin, and D.-U. Kim, “Extended molecular design concept of molecular materials for electroluminescence: sublimed–dye films, molecularly doped polymers and polymers with chromophores,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. 355(1725), 801–814 (1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic presentations of fabricating the nano-sized diffractive gratings and OLED devices, (a) optical apparatus of light interference lithography for five different diffractive grating patterns (HW: half-waveplate, PBS: polarizing beam splitter), (b) overall process of OLED devices preparation based on nano-imprinting/thermal evaporation methods and picture of fabricated OLED devices as well as cross-sectional SEM image of active area.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a)-(f) 3-dimensional AFM images of diffractive gratings including line, cubic, hexagonal and quasiperiodic patterns, (g) depth profiles of diffractive gratings along the k-vector direction, (h) power spectral density of diffractive gratings representing distribution of grating period, (i)-(n) simulated far field light propagation of diffractive gratings by fast Fourier Transform calculation, (o)-(t) pictures of real working OLED devices with different angular distribution of light emission.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Distribution of modulation depth of diffraction gratings, (b) averaged modulation depth of P0-P5 gratings.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Device performances of OLED cells with and without diffraction gratings (a) voltage-current density plots, (b) power efficiency graph as a function of current density, (c) external quantum efficiency (EQE), (d) electroluminescence spectra for various OLED cells.

Equations (2)

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η ext = η int η coupling
k 0 sinθ= k wg ±m k G =± 2π n eff λ ±m 2π d ;m=1,2,...

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