Abstract

Laser damage mechanisms of two conductive wide-bandgap semiconductor films - indium tin oxide (ITO) and silicon doped GaN (Si:GaN) were studied via microscopy, spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and elemental analysis. Nanosecond laser pulse exposures with a laser photon energy (1.03 eV, 1064 nm) smaller than the conductive films bandgaps were applied and radically different film damage morphologies were produced. The laser damaged ITO film exhibited deterministic features of thermal degradation. In contrast, laser damage in the Si:GaN film resulted in highly localized eruptions originating at interfaces. For ITO, thermally driven damage was related to free carrier absorption and, for GaN, carbon complexes were proposed as potential damage precursors or markers.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

2015 (2)

W. S. Brocklesby, “Progress in high average power ultrafast lasers,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 224(13), 2529–2543 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Yoo, J. B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, H. Y. Wang, and G. Q. Li, “Epitaxial growth of GaN films on unconventional oxide substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(44), 9342–9358 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Reshchikov, A. Usikov, H. Helava, and Y. Makarov, “Fine structure of the red luminescence band in undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 032103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

S. Z. Xiao, E. L. Gurevich, and A. Ostendorf, “Incubation effect and its influence on laser patterning of ITO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 107, 333–338 (2012).

2011 (2)

H. Wang, Z. Huang, D. Zhang, F. Luo, L. Huang, Y. Li, Y. Luo, W. Wang, and X. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. W. Tomm, M. Ziegler, M. Hempel, and T. Elsaesser, “Mechanisms and fast kinetics of the catastrophic optical damage (COD) in GaAs-based diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 422–441 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakashima, K. Sugioka, T. Ito, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of periodic nano-hole array on GaN surface by fs laser for improvement of extraction efficiency in blue LED,” Phys. Procedia 5, 203–211 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

W. J. Heward and D. J. Swenson, “Phase equilibria in the pseudo-binary In2O3-SnO2 system,” J. Mater. Sci. 42(17), 7135–7140 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

M. Batzill and U. Diebold, “The surface and materials science of tin oxide,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 79(2-4), 47–154 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. A. Willis, “Thermal mechanisms of laser micromachining of indium tin oxide,” Photon. Process. Microelectron. Photon. III 5339, 313–320 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Y. Karpov and Y. N. Makarov, “Dislocation effect on light emission efficiency in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4721–4723 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. O. Kucheyev, M. Toth, M. R. Phillips, J. S. Williams, C. Jagadish, and G. Li, “Chemical origin of the yellow luminescence in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5867–5874 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (6)

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Kuball, “Raman spectroscopy of GaN, AlGaN and AlN for process and growth monitoring/control,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31(10), 987–999 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724–726 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, and M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Seemann, S. Herminghaus, and K. Jacobs, “Dewetting patterns and molecular forces: a reconciliation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5534–5537 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kim, H. S. Kim, M. Hetterich, D. Jones, J. M. Girkin, E. Bente, and M. D. Dawson, “Femtosecond laser machining of gallium nitride,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 82(1-3), 262–264 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jap. J.Appl. Phys. Part 2-Letters 38(Part 2, No. 7B), L839–L841 (1999).
[Crossref]

O. Yavas and M. Takai, “Effect of substrate absorption on the efficiency of laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4207–4212 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. Elsner, R. Jones, M. I. Heggie, P. K. Sitch, M. Haugk, T. Frauenheim, S. Oberg, and P. R. Briddon, “Deep acceptors trapped at threading-edge dislocations in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12571–12574 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. H. Lee, I. H. Choi, C. R. Lee, E. J. Shin, D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. J. Son, K. Y. Lim, and H. J. Lee, “Stress relaxation in Si-doped GaN studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 5787–5791 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. C. Look and R. J. Molnar, “Degenerate layer at GaN/sapphire interface: Influence on hall-effect measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3377–3379 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (6)

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. H. Zhang and H. L. Ma, “Scattering mechanisms of charge carriers in transparent conducting oxide films,” Appl. Phys. A-Matter 62, 487–492 (1996).

F. Y. Genin and C. J. Stolz, “Morphologies of laser-induced damage in hafnia-silica multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2870, 439–448 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. G. Neerinck and T. J. Vink, “Depth profiling of thin ITO films by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 278(1-2), 12–17 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. K. Singh, “Transient plasma shielding effects during pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Electron. Mater. 25(1), 125–129 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

Y. Song, E. S. Kim, and A. Kapila, “Thermal-Stability of Sputter-Deposited Zno Thin-Films,” J. Electron. Mater. 24(2), 83–86 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal-Stress in Gan Epitaxial Layers Grown on Sapphire Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Miotello, R. Kelly, B. Braren, and C. E. Otis, “Novel Geometrical Effects Observed in Debris When Polymers Are Laser Sputtered,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(23), 2784–2786 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low Resistivity Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Films. 2. Effect of Sputtering Voltage on Electrical Property of Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(3), 1403–1406 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

G. Koren and U. P. Oppenheim, “Laser Ablation of Polymers in Pressurized Gas Ambients,” Appl. Phys. B-Photo 42, 41–43 (1987).

1979 (1)

W. T. Pawlewicz, I. B. Mann, W. H. Lowdermilk, and D. Milam, “Laser-Damage-Resistant Transparent Conductive Indium Tin Oxide Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(3), 196–198 (1979).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

H. Köstlin, R. Jost, and W. Lems, “Optical and Electrical Properties of Doped In2o3 Films,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 29(1), 87–93 (1975).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

W. W. Mullins, “Flattening of a Nearly Plane Solid Surface Due to Capillarity,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(1), 77–83 (1959).
[Crossref]

Ager, J. W.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[Crossref]

Batzill, M.

M. Batzill and U. Diebold, “The surface and materials science of tin oxide,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 79(2-4), 47–154 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bente, E.

T. Kim, H. S. Kim, M. Hetterich, D. Jones, J. M. Girkin, E. Bente, and M. D. Dawson, “Femtosecond laser machining of gallium nitride,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 82(1-3), 262–264 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bisson, S. E.

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boukenter, A.

Braren, B.

A. Miotello, R. Kelly, B. Braren, and C. E. Otis, “Novel Geometrical Effects Observed in Debris When Polymers Are Laser Sputtered,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(23), 2784–2786 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bremser, M. D.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[Crossref]

Briddon, P. R.

J. Elsner, R. Jones, M. I. Heggie, P. K. Sitch, M. Haugk, T. Frauenheim, S. Oberg, and P. R. Briddon, “Deep acceptors trapped at threading-edge dislocations in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12571–12574 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brocklesby, W. S.

W. S. Brocklesby, “Progress in high average power ultrafast lasers,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 224(13), 2529–2543 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bude, J. D.

Choi, I. H.

I. H. Lee, I. H. Choi, C. R. Lee, E. J. Shin, D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. J. Son, K. Y. Lim, and H. J. Lee, “Stress relaxation in Si-doped GaN studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 5787–5791 (1998).
[Crossref]

Culbertson, J. C.

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, and M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[Crossref]

Davis, R. F.

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T. Kim, H. S. Kim, M. Hetterich, D. Jones, J. M. Girkin, E. Bente, and M. D. Dawson, “Femtosecond laser machining of gallium nitride,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 82(1-3), 262–264 (2001).
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T. Kim, H. S. Kim, M. Hetterich, D. Jones, J. M. Girkin, E. Bente, and M. D. Dawson, “Femtosecond laser machining of gallium nitride,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 82(1-3), 262–264 (2001).
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M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724 (2001).
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S. O. Kucheyev, M. Toth, M. R. Phillips, J. S. Williams, C. Jagadish, and G. Li, “Chemical origin of the yellow luminescence in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5867–5874 (2002).
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I. H. Lee, I. H. Choi, C. R. Lee, E. J. Shin, D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. J. Son, K. Y. Lim, and H. J. Lee, “Stress relaxation in Si-doped GaN studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 5787–5791 (1998).
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S. Y. Karpov and Y. N. Makarov, “Dislocation effect on light emission efficiency in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4721–4723 (2002).
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T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal-Stress in Gan Epitaxial Layers Grown on Sapphire Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
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W. T. Pawlewicz, I. B. Mann, W. H. Lowdermilk, and D. Milam, “Laser-Damage-Resistant Transparent Conductive Indium Tin Oxide Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(3), 196–198 (1979).
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P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
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Matthews, M. J.

R. N. Raman, S. G. Demos, N. Shen, E. Feigenbaum, R. A. Negres, S. Elhadj, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. J. Matthews, “Damage on fused silica optics caused by laser ablation of surface-bound microparticles,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2634–2647 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Yoo, J. B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
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Menapace, J.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Midorikawa, K.

S. Nakashima, K. Sugioka, T. Ito, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of periodic nano-hole array on GaN surface by fs laser for improvement of extraction efficiency in blue LED,” Phys. Procedia 5, 203–211 (2010).
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Milam, D.

W. T. Pawlewicz, I. B. Mann, W. H. Lowdermilk, and D. Milam, “Laser-Damage-Resistant Transparent Conductive Indium Tin Oxide Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(3), 196–198 (1979).
[Crossref]

Miller, P. E.

Miotello, A.

A. Miotello, R. Kelly, B. Braren, and C. E. Otis, “Novel Geometrical Effects Observed in Debris When Polymers Are Laser Sputtered,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(23), 2784–2786 (1992).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jap. J.Appl. Phys. Part 2-Letters 38(Part 2, No. 7B), L839–L841 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mishchik, K.

Molnar, R. J.

D. C. Look and R. J. Molnar, “Degenerate layer at GaN/sapphire interface: Influence on hall-effect measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3377–3379 (1997).
[Crossref]

Morkoc, H.

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mullins, W. W.

W. W. Mullins, “Flattening of a Nearly Plane Solid Surface Due to Capillarity,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(1), 77–83 (1959).
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Nagase, H.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal-Stress in Gan Epitaxial Layers Grown on Sapphire Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
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S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low Resistivity Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Films. 2. Effect of Sputtering Voltage on Electrical Property of Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(3), 1403–1406 (1990).
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S. Nakashima, K. Sugioka, T. Ito, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of periodic nano-hole array on GaN surface by fs laser for improvement of extraction efficiency in blue LED,” Phys. Procedia 5, 203–211 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neerinck, D. G.

D. G. Neerinck and T. J. Vink, “Depth profiling of thin ITO films by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 278(1-2), 12–17 (1996).
[Crossref]

Negres, R. A.

Noh, S. K.

I. H. Lee, I. H. Choi, C. R. Lee, E. J. Shin, D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. J. Son, K. Y. Lim, and H. J. Lee, “Stress relaxation in Si-doped GaN studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 5787–5791 (1998).
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Oberg, S.

J. Elsner, R. Jones, M. I. Heggie, P. K. Sitch, M. Haugk, T. Frauenheim, S. Oberg, and P. R. Briddon, “Deep acceptors trapped at threading-edge dislocations in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12571–12574 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oppenheim, U. P.

G. Koren and U. P. Oppenheim, “Laser Ablation of Polymers in Pressurized Gas Ambients,” Appl. Phys. B-Photo 42, 41–43 (1987).

Ostendorf, A.

S. Z. Xiao, E. L. Gurevich, and A. Ostendorf, “Incubation effect and its influence on laser patterning of ITO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 107, 333–338 (2012).

Ota, Y.

S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low Resistivity Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Films. 2. Effect of Sputtering Voltage on Electrical Property of Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(3), 1403–1406 (1990).
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Otis, C. E.

A. Miotello, R. Kelly, B. Braren, and C. E. Otis, “Novel Geometrical Effects Observed in Debris When Polymers Are Laser Sputtered,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(23), 2784–2786 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ouerdane, Y.

Pawlewicz, W. T.

W. T. Pawlewicz, I. B. Mann, W. H. Lowdermilk, and D. Milam, “Laser-Damage-Resistant Transparent Conductive Indium Tin Oxide Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(3), 196–198 (1979).
[Crossref]

Phillips, M. R.

S. O. Kucheyev, M. Toth, M. R. Phillips, J. S. Williams, C. Jagadish, and G. Li, “Chemical origin of the yellow luminescence in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5867–5874 (2002).
[Crossref]

Porowski, S.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
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Prins, A. D.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724 (2001).
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M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724–726 (2001).
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Raman, R. N.

R. N. Raman, S. G. Demos, N. Shen, E. Feigenbaum, R. A. Negres, S. Elhadj, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. J. Matthews, “Damage on fused silica optics caused by laser ablation of surface-bound microparticles,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2634–2647 (2016).
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J. H. Yoo, J. B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reshchikov, M. A.

M. A. Reshchikov, A. Usikov, H. Helava, and Y. Makarov, “Fine structure of the red luminescence band in undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 032103 (2014).
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D. O. Demchenko, I. C. Diallo, and M. A. Reshchikov, “Yellow Luminescence of Gallium Nitride Generated by Carbon Defect Complexes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087404 (2013).
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M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
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Rubin, M.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
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Ruvimov, S.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sakai, S.

P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jap. J.Appl. Phys. Part 2-Letters 38(Part 2, No. 7B), L839–L841 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sakellari, I.

J. H. Yoo, J. B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
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Shen, N.

Shi, Y.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724–726 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shin, E. J.

I. H. Lee, I. H. Choi, C. R. Lee, E. J. Shin, D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. J. Son, K. Y. Lim, and H. J. Lee, “Stress relaxation in Si-doped GaN studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 5787–5791 (1998).
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Singh, R. K.

R. K. Singh, “Transient plasma shielding effects during pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Electron. Mater. 25(1), 125–129 (1996).
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Sitch, P. K.

J. Elsner, R. Jones, M. I. Heggie, P. K. Sitch, M. Haugk, T. Frauenheim, S. Oberg, and P. R. Briddon, “Deep acceptors trapped at threading-edge dislocations in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12571–12574 (1998).
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Solis, J.

Son, S. J.

I. H. Lee, I. H. Choi, C. R. Lee, E. J. Shin, D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. J. Son, K. Y. Lim, and H. J. Lee, “Stress relaxation in Si-doped GaN studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 5787–5791 (1998).
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Stoian, R.

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Sugahara, T.

P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jap. J.Appl. Phys. Part 2-Letters 38(Part 2, No. 7B), L839–L841 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sugioka, K.

S. Nakashima, K. Sugioka, T. Ito, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of periodic nano-hole array on GaN surface by fs laser for improvement of extraction efficiency in blue LED,” Phys. Procedia 5, 203–211 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. B.

P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jap. J.Appl. Phys. Part 2-Letters 38(Part 2, No. 7B), L839–L841 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.-B.

P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T. I.

Suski, T.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
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W. J. Heward and D. J. Swenson, “Phase equilibria in the pseudo-binary In2O3-SnO2 system,” J. Mater. Sci. 42(17), 7135–7140 (2007).
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S. Nakashima, K. Sugioka, T. Ito, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of periodic nano-hole array on GaN surface by fs laser for improvement of extraction efficiency in blue LED,” Phys. Procedia 5, 203–211 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takai, M.

O. Yavas and M. Takai, “Effect of substrate absorption on the efficiency of laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4207–4212 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tomm, J. W.

J. W. Tomm, M. Ziegler, M. Hempel, and T. Elsaesser, “Mechanisms and fast kinetics of the catastrophic optical damage (COD) in GaAs-based diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 422–441 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toth, M.

S. O. Kucheyev, M. Toth, M. R. Phillips, J. S. Williams, C. Jagadish, and G. Li, “Chemical origin of the yellow luminescence in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5867–5874 (2002).
[Crossref]

Twigg, M. E.

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, and M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[Crossref]

Usikov, A.

M. A. Reshchikov, A. Usikov, H. Helava, and Y. Makarov, “Fine structure of the red luminescence band in undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 032103 (2014).
[Crossref]

van Uden, N. W. A.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724–726 (2001).
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Vink, T. J.

D. G. Neerinck and T. J. Vink, “Depth profiling of thin ITO films by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 278(1-2), 12–17 (1996).
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Wang, H.

H. Wang, Z. Huang, D. Zhang, F. Luo, L. Huang, Y. Li, Y. Luo, W. Wang, and X. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
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Wang, H. Y.

W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, H. Y. Wang, and G. Q. Li, “Epitaxial growth of GaN films on unconventional oxide substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(44), 9342–9358 (2014).
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Wang, W.

H. Wang, Z. Huang, D. Zhang, F. Luo, L. Huang, Y. Li, Y. Luo, W. Wang, and X. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
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Wang, W. L.

W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, H. Y. Wang, and G. Q. Li, “Epitaxial growth of GaN films on unconventional oxide substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(44), 9342–9358 (2014).
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Weber, E. R.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wickenden, A. E.

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, and M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. S.

S. O. Kucheyev, M. Toth, M. R. Phillips, J. S. Williams, C. Jagadish, and G. Li, “Chemical origin of the yellow luminescence in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5867–5874 (2002).
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Wong, L. L.

Xiao, S. Z.

S. Z. Xiao, E. L. Gurevich, and A. Ostendorf, “Incubation effect and its influence on laser patterning of ITO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 107, 333–338 (2012).

Yang, S. T.

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, W. J.

W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, H. Y. Wang, and G. Q. Li, “Epitaxial growth of GaN films on unconventional oxide substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(44), 9342–9358 (2014).
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Yavas, O.

O. Yavas and M. Takai, “Effect of substrate absorption on the efficiency of laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4207–4212 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoo, J. H.

J. H. Yoo, J. B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

H. Wang, Z. Huang, D. Zhang, F. Luo, L. Huang, Y. Li, Y. Luo, W. Wang, and X. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
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Zhang, D. H.

D. H. Zhang and H. L. Ma, “Scattering mechanisms of charge carriers in transparent conducting oxide films,” Appl. Phys. A-Matter 62, 487–492 (1996).

Zhao, X.

H. Wang, Z. Huang, D. Zhang, F. Luo, L. Huang, Y. Li, Y. Luo, W. Wang, and X. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C.

J. H. Yoo, J. B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziegler, M.

J. W. Tomm, M. Ziegler, M. Hempel, and T. Elsaesser, “Mechanisms and fast kinetics of the catastrophic optical damage (COD) in GaAs-based diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 422–441 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. A-Matter (1)

D. H. Zhang and H. L. Ma, “Scattering mechanisms of charge carriers in transparent conducting oxide films,” Appl. Phys. A-Matter 62, 487–492 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Z. Xiao, E. L. Gurevich, and A. Ostendorf, “Incubation effect and its influence on laser patterning of ITO thin film,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 107, 333–338 (2012).

Appl. Phys. B-Photo (1)

G. Koren and U. P. Oppenheim, “Laser Ablation of Polymers in Pressurized Gas Ambients,” Appl. Phys. B-Photo 42, 41–43 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

A. Miotello, R. Kelly, B. Braren, and C. E. Otis, “Novel Geometrical Effects Observed in Debris When Polymers Are Laser Sputtered,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(23), 2784–2786 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. A. Reshchikov, A. Usikov, H. Helava, and Y. Makarov, “Fine structure of the red luminescence band in undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 032103 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Karpov and Y. N. Makarov, “Dislocation effect on light emission efficiency in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4721–4723 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. T. Pawlewicz, I. B. Mann, W. H. Lowdermilk, and D. Milam, “Laser-Damage-Resistant Transparent Conductive Indium Tin Oxide Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(3), 196–198 (1979).
[Crossref]

D. C. Look and R. J. Molnar, “Degenerate layer at GaN/sapphire interface: Influence on hall-effect measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3377–3379 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, A. D. Prins, N. W. A. van Uden, D. J. Dunstan, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 724–726 (2001).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. (1)

W. S. Brocklesby, “Progress in high average power ultrafast lasers,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 224(13), 2529–2543 (2015).
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J. Appl. Phys. (8)

H. Wang, Z. Huang, D. Zhang, F. Luo, L. Huang, Y. Li, Y. Luo, W. Wang, and X. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Yavas and M. Takai, “Effect of substrate absorption on the efficiency of laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4207–4212 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. W. Mullins, “Flattening of a Nearly Plane Solid Surface Due to Capillarity,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(1), 77–83 (1959).
[Crossref]

I. H. Lee, I. H. Choi, C. R. Lee, E. J. Shin, D. Kim, S. K. Noh, S. J. Son, K. Y. Lim, and H. J. Lee, “Stress relaxation in Si-doped GaN studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 5787–5791 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. O. Kucheyev, M. Toth, M. R. Phillips, J. S. Williams, C. Jagadish, and G. Li, “Chemical origin of the yellow luminescence in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5867–5874 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal-Stress in Gan Epitaxial Layers Grown on Sapphire Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, and M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical micrographs of a single shot damaged ITO sample at a range of laser fluences in bright-field mode. (a) Damaged sites irradiated at the fluence range (0.5 - 3.0 J/cm2) do not show apparent film surface modification. All images in (a) have the same scale bar of 100 μm. The damage depth profile across the damage site is illustrated on the image at 6.0 J/cm2. (b) White dashed-brackets indicate the extent of the apparent affected area used in the graph (c). The laser beam profile is illustrated on the image at 8.0 J/cm2. All images in (b) have the same scale bar of 300 μm. (c) The apparent affected area is defined based on observation with an optical microscope and is plotted as a function of fluence.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Stitched SEM image of single pulse laser damaged site of ITO film at 4.5 J/cm2. The scale bar is 10 μm. (b) The numbered dots in the optical microscopic image correspond to the dots in (a). The scale bar is 100 μm. (c) Magnified SEM images of the numbered regions. Images are in the same scale, where the scale bar is 400 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 X-ray diffraction patterns recorded in a θ/2θ configuration for the three samples: ITO (green), Ga-doped ZnO (blue) and Si-doped GaN (red). Each XRD pattern is normalized to the highest intensity peak in the data. Diffraction peaks associated with the substrates beneath the samples are denoted by a star (*). The peaks in the diffraction patterns for the Si-doped GaN and the Ga-doped ZnO are consistent with wurtzite-based structures. The ITO data displays a broad feature centered at ~26.5°, that is attributed to the amorphous substrate. A series of peaks arising from the ITO is also observed in this data. The breadth of these peaks suggests that the crystalline phase is composed of nano-scale crystallites (quantification of the crystallite size from the peak FWHMs was attempted via Scherrer-type analysis, which is described in the main manuscript).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Optical microscopic image of ZnO film damaged at 0.75 J/cm2. Upon single laser pulse irradiation, the reflection color from the damaged region changed. The scale bar is 300 μm. (b) SEM image of the damage site in (a). The scale bar is 100 μm. (c) Magnified SEM image of the center region of (b). The scale bar is 4 μm. The 300 nm Ga-doped ZnO film (4.67 Ω/sq, 1.4 × 10−4 Ωcm) as deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The same laser illumination parameters previously discussed in the manuscript was used for the ZnO film damage testing.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM images of the ITO sample regions tested at laser fluences of (a) 6.0 J/cm2 and (b) 7.0 J/cm2, where plasma induced modification is observed. (c, d) Magnified SEM images of the regions marked with a square and circle, respectively, in (b), indicating electrical property modification due to the plasma formation. The scale bars are (a, b) 500 μm and (c, d) 150 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) 2D map of photoluminescence (PL) intensity of damaged ITO film at varied laser fluence, where PL intensity lineout across the damage center is present. (b) Microscope image (color) and 658 nm laser reflection intensity 2D map (gray) at laser fluence of 4.0 and 4.5 J/cm2, where the PL intensity lineout across the damage center is present. The scale bars are 10 μm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Microscope images of ITO film damaged under multiple laser pulses at a fixed fluence of 3 J/cm2 (beam dia. is 650 µm). The scale bar is 200 μm. (b-d) SEM images of a 10 nm thick ITO film under 1000 pulses at various magnification. (b) The scale bar is 100 μm. (c) Magnified SEM images of the dashed area in (b). The scale bar is 10 μm. (d) Magnified SEM images of (c). The scale bar is 1 μm. (e) Illustration of damage growth upon multiple pulses.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured transmission spectrum of ITO sample and GaN sample. The illumination source was irradiated on the input surface (the film side). For the ITO sample, the near infrared anti-reflection coating layer on the substrate backside causes the oscillation in visible wavelength range. The spectrum was measured using UV-visible scanning spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, UV-1601PC).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Optical microscopic images of GaN sample damaged upon (a) single pulse at laser fluences of 7.0 J/cm2, 9.0 J/cm2, and 12.0 J/cm2 and (b) multiple pulses of 10, 100, 1000 shots at laser fluence of 7.0 J/cm2. The scale bars are 100 μm. (c) GaN damage morphology evolution with multiple pulses at laser fluence of 8.0 J/cm2 (1/e2 beam diameter of ~100 μm, τp = 5 ns). The scale bars are 20 μm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 SEM images of the GaN sample damaged at laser fluence of 9.0 J/cm2. (a) SEM image of the damage site with largest diameter of Fig. 9(a, 9.0 J/cm2). The scale bar is 20 μm. (b) Magnified SEM image of the area marked with rectangle in (a). The scale bar is 1 μm. (c) Optical micrograph of the damage site in (a) with focus at 4.485 μm deeper from the film surface. The red dots in (b) and (c) indicate the same location. (d) Optical micrograph and (e) SEM image of the two small adjacent damage sites of Fig. 9(a, 9.0 J/cm2). The scale bars of (c-e) are 20 μm. (f) SEM images of exposed damage sites (side view). The scale bars are 5 μm.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a-c) GaN laser damage sites initiated at 12.0 J/cm2. Confocal laser scanning microscope images of (a) 2D depth map and (b) 3D depth map. The scale bar is 50 μm (c) Damage depth distribution. The inset shows SEM cross section image. (d) The depth profile of two exposed damage sites at 9.0 J/cm2. The inset illustrates the location of black and red dots of the depth profile.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Cross section SEM image of GaN sample. The scale bar is 3 μm.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 High resolution SEM image of Fig. 9(a). The scale bar is 10 μm. The inset shows a confocal laser micrograph of the same site. The step-flow induced layered surface morphology was observed in the pristine region and the layered structure is revealed on the exposed edge and sidewall. The dark SEM intensity in the damage center indicates that the underlying substrate is exposed. The same region is presented in the shiny reflection in the inset.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis of GaN damage sites. (a) EDS spectra of pristine film region. (b) SEM images showing EDS measurement locations of GaN damage sites at 9.0 J/cm2. The weight ratios (Ga/N) of pristine region and the location A are 5.41 and 12, respectively. It suggests that additional gallium with respect to nitrogen was introduced during the laser damage process and the gallium is shown as shiny reflecting substance in the optical microscopic image of the inset. In location B, nitrogen was not detected from the EDS measurement, indicating that the underlying substrate is exposed as we observed in the SEM image of Fig. 10(a). (c) Cross sectional SEM image of laser damage sites. We intentionally created many damage sites on the GaN sample and cleaved the sample to get a cross sectional image, where we observed presumably gallium droplets by chance. The scale bar is 5 μm.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 (a) PL spectrum of GaN sample with different illumination directions. The green curve is obtained from GaN film surface and the red curve is from GaN film near the GaN/AlN interface. (b) PL and (c) Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of two GaN samples with different damage performance. For SIMS, solid line and dot line were used for the GaN sample with φdam ~3 J/cm2 and φdam ~0.1 J/cm2, respectively.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Raman spectrum of GaN sample. The black spectrum is from the GaN surface and the red is from the interface as illustrated in the inset with dots.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Single shot laser damage characterization as a function of laser fluence.

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