Abstract

The complex amplitude modulation (CAM) technique is applied to the design of the monocular three-dimensional see-through head-mounted display (3D-STHMD) for the first time. Two amplitude holograms are obtained by analytically dividing the wavefront of the 3D object to the real and the imaginary distributions, and then double amplitude-only spatial light modulators (A-SLMs) are employed to reconstruct the 3D images in real-time. Since the CAM technique can inherently present true 3D images to the human eye, the designed CAM-STHMD system avoids the accommodation-convergence conflict of the conventional stereoscopic see-through displays. The optical experiments further demonstrated that the proposed system has continuous and wide depth cues, which enables the observer free of eye fatigue problem. The dynamic display ability is also tested in the experiments and the results showed the possibility of true 3D interactive display.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (4)

2014 (5)

2013 (6)

2012 (2)

2011 (6)

R. Shi, J. Liu, J. Xu, D. Liu, Y. Pan, J. Xie, and Y. Wang, “Designing and fabricating diffractive optical elements with a complex profile by interference,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4053–4055 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hong, Y. Kim, H. J. Choi, J. Hahn, J. H. Park, H. Kim, S. W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Liu, W. Y. Hsieh, T. C. Poon, and P. Tsang, “Complex Fresnel hologram display using a single SLM,” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H128–H135 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Rolland and K. Thompson, “See-through head worn display for mobile augmented reality,” Commun. China Comp. Fed. 7(8), 28–37 (2011).

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: A review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. Bagnoud and J. D. Zuegel, “Independent phase and amplitude control of a laser beam by use of a single-phase-only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 295–297 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2650–2657 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(5), S189–S194 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Billinghust and H. Kato, “Collaborative augmented reality,” Commun. ACM 45(7), 64–70 (2002).

2001 (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

J. M. Florence and R. D. Juday, “Full-complex spatial filtering with a phase mostly DMD,” Proc. SPIE 1558, 487–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amako, J.

Anisetti, M.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Azuma, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Badosa, E. M.

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2650–2657 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(5), S189–S194 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bagnoud, V.

Baillot, Y.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Banks, M. S.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartelt, H. O.

Behringer, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bent, N.

Bernet, S.

Billinghust, M.

M. Billinghust and H. Kato, “Collaborative augmented reality,” Commun. ACM 45(7), 64–70 (2002).

Birch, P. M.

Bolduc, E.

Boulanger, C.

J. Lee, A. Olwal, H. Ishii, and C. Boulanger, “Spacetop: Integrating 2D and spatial 3D interactions in a see-through desktop environment,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 189–192 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

Budgett, D.

Cakmakci, O.

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: A review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carmigniani, J.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carnicer, A.

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2650–2657 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(5), S189–S194 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ceravolo, P.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chatwin, C.

Chen, J. S.

Chen, N.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, D.

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48(14), 2655–2668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. J.

Chu, D. P.

Damiani, E.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ducin, I.

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ernst, M. O.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feiner, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Florence, J. M.

J. M. Florence and R. D. Juday, “Full-complex spatial filtering with a phase mostly DMD,” Proc. SPIE 1558, 487–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

Furht, B.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, C.

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, J.

Han, J.

Hilliges, O.

O. Hilliges, D. Kim, S. Izadi, M. Weiss, and A. Wilson, “Holodesk: direct 3D interactions with a situated see-through display,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 2421–2430 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J.

Hsieh, W. Y.

Hu, B.

Hu, X.

Hu, Y.

Hua, H.

Ide, S.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ishii, H.

J. Lee, A. Olwal, H. Ishii, and C. Boulanger, “Spacetop: Integrating 2D and spatial 3D interactions in a see-through desktop environment,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 189–192 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ivkovic, M.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Izadi, S.

O. Hilliges, D. Kim, S. Izadi, M. Weiss, and A. Wilson, “Holodesk: direct 3D interactions with a situated see-through display,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 2421–2430 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jaroszewicz, Z.

A. Siemion, M. Sypek, J. Suszek, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Kolodziejczyk, and Z. Jaroszewicz, “Diffuserless holographic projection working on twin spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5064–5066 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

Jesacher, A.

Ji, Y. M.

Jia, J.

Juday, R. D.

J. M. Florence and R. D. Juday, “Full-complex spatial filtering with a phase mostly DMD,” Proc. SPIE 1558, 487–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

Julier, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Juvells, I.

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(5), S189–S194 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kakarenko, K.

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Karimi, E.

Kato, H.

M. Billinghust and H. Kato, “Collaborative augmented reality,” Commun. ACM 45(7), 64–70 (2002).

Kim, D.

O. Hilliges, D. Kim, S. Izadi, M. Weiss, and A. Wilson, “Holodesk: direct 3D interactions with a situated see-through display,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 2421–2430 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Kim, H. J.

Kim, M.

Kim, S. B.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, Y.

Kolodziejczyk, A.

A. Siemion, M. Sypek, J. Suszek, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Kolodziejczyk, and Z. Jaroszewicz, “Diffuserless holographic projection working on twin spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5064–5066 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Labastida, I.

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2650–2657 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(5), S189–S194 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, A. Olwal, H. Ishii, and C. Boulanger, “Spacetop: Integrating 2D and spatial 3D interactions in a see-through desktop environment,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 189–192 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

Li, H.

H. Li, X. Zhang, G. Shi, H. Qu, Y. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Review and analysis of avionic helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Eng. 52(11), 110901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Liu, D.

Liu, J.

J. Han, J. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Wang, “Portable waveguide display system with a large field of view by integrating freeform elements and volume holograms,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3534–3549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gao, J. Liu, X. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, and Y. Wang, “Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33194–33204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xue, J. Liu, X. Li, J. Jia, Z. Zhang, B. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Multiplexing encoding method for full-color dynamic 3D holographic display,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18473–18482 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, J. Liu, J. Jia, Y. Pan, and Y. Wang, “3D dynamic holographic display by modulating complex amplitude experimentally,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20577–20587 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Liu, R. Xiao, X. Li, R. Shi, P. Liu, H. Zhong, B. Zou, and Y. Wang, “Modulation of optical intensity on curved surfaces and its application to fabricate DOEs with arbitrary profile by interference,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5140–5148 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shi, J. Liu, H. Zhao, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Chen, J. Xie, and Y. Wang, “Chromatic dispersion correction in planar waveguide using one-layer volume holograms based on three-step exposure,” Appl. Opt. 51(20), 4703–4708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shi, J. Liu, J. Xu, D. Liu, Y. Pan, J. Xie, and Y. Wang, “Designing and fabricating diffractive optical elements with a complex profile by interference,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4053–4055 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. P.

Liu, P.

Liu, S.

S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

MacIntyre, B.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Makowski, M.

A. Siemion, M. Sypek, J. Suszek, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Kolodziejczyk, and Z. Jaroszewicz, “Diffuserless holographic projection working on twin spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5064–5066 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maurer, C.

Min, S. W.

Mitsuhashi, T.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Miura, H.

Moon, E.

Neto, L. G.

Olwal, A.

J. Lee, A. Olwal, H. Ishii, and C. Boulanger, “Spacetop: Integrating 2D and spatial 3D interactions in a see-through desktop environment,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 189–192 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

Park, J. H.

Poon, T. C.

Qu, H.

H. Li, X. Zhang, G. Shi, H. Qu, Y. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Review and analysis of avionic helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Eng. 52(11), 110901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rabbi, I.

I. Rabbi and S. Ullah, “A survey on augmented reality challenges and tracking,” Acta Graph. 24(1–2), 29–46 (2013).

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Roberge, D.

Roh, J.

Rolland, J.

J. Rolland and K. Thompson, “See-through head worn display for mobile augmented reality,” Commun. China Comp. Fed. 7(8), 28–37 (2011).

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: A review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Santamato, E.

Schwaighofer, A.

Sheng, Y.

Shi, G.

H. Li, X. Zhang, G. Shi, H. Qu, Y. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Review and analysis of avionic helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Eng. 52(11), 110901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, R.

Siemion, A.

Siemion, A. M.

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sonehara, T.

Suszek, J.

A. Siemion, M. Sypek, J. Suszek, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Kolodziejczyk, and Z. Jaroszewicz, “Diffuserless holographic projection working on twin spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5064–5066 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sypek, M.

A. Siemion, M. Sypek, J. Suszek, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Kolodziejczyk, and Z. Jaroszewicz, “Diffuserless holographic projection working on twin spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5064–5066 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Talha, M. M.

Thompson, K.

J. Rolland and K. Thompson, “See-through head worn display for mobile augmented reality,” Commun. China Comp. Fed. 7(8), 28–37 (2011).

Thwaites, H.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tsang, P.

Tudela, R.

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2650–2657 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(5), S189–S194 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ullah, S.

I. Rabbi and S. Ullah, “A survey on augmented reality challenges and tracking,” Acta Graph. 24(1–2), 29–46 (2013).

Vallmitjana, S.

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2650–2657 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(5), S189–S194 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7441 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Han, J. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Wang, “Portable waveguide display system with a large field of view by integrating freeform elements and volume holograms,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3534–3549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gao, J. Liu, X. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, and Y. Wang, “Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33194–33204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xue, J. Liu, X. Li, J. Jia, Z. Zhang, B. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Multiplexing encoding method for full-color dynamic 3D holographic display,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18473–18482 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Liu, R. Xiao, X. Li, R. Shi, P. Liu, H. Zhong, B. Zou, and Y. Wang, “Modulation of optical intensity on curved surfaces and its application to fabricate DOEs with arbitrary profile by interference,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5140–5148 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, J. Liu, J. Jia, Y. Pan, and Y. Wang, “3D dynamic holographic display by modulating complex amplitude experimentally,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20577–20587 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shi, J. Liu, H. Zhao, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Chen, J. Xie, and Y. Wang, “Chromatic dispersion correction in planar waveguide using one-layer volume holograms based on three-step exposure,” Appl. Opt. 51(20), 4703–4708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shi, J. Liu, J. Xu, D. Liu, Y. Pan, J. Xie, and Y. Wang, “Designing and fabricating diffractive optical elements with a complex profile by interference,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4053–4055 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48(14), 2655–2668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watt, S. J.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, M.

O. Hilliges, D. Kim, S. Izadi, M. Weiss, and A. Wilson, “Holodesk: direct 3D interactions with a situated see-through display,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 2421–2430 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wilson, A.

O. Hilliges, D. Kim, S. Izadi, M. Weiss, and A. Wilson, “Holodesk: direct 3D interactions with a situated see-through display,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 2421–2430 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wojnowski, D.

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

H. Li, X. Zhang, G. Shi, H. Qu, Y. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Review and analysis of avionic helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Eng. 52(11), 110901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

Xiao, R.

Xie, J.

Xu, J.

Xue, G.

Yano, S.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yao, X.

Yeom, H. J.

Young, R.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

H. Li, X. Zhang, G. Shi, H. Qu, Y. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Review and analysis of avionic helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Eng. 52(11), 110901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

H. Li, X. Zhang, G. Shi, H. Qu, Y. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Review and analysis of avionic helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Eng. 52(11), 110901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, H.

Zhong, H.

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7441 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, B.

Zuegel, J. D.

Acta Graph. (1)

I. Rabbi and S. Ullah, “A survey on augmented reality challenges and tracking,” Acta Graph. 24(1–2), 29–46 (2013).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

M. Makowski, A. Siemion, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, M. Sypek, A. M. Siemion, J. Suszek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Complex light modulation for lensless image projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(12), 12008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Commun. ACM (1)

M. Billinghust and H. Kato, “Collaborative augmented reality,” Commun. ACM 45(7), 64–70 (2002).

Commun. China Comp. Fed. (1)

J. Rolland and K. Thompson, “See-through head worn display for mobile augmented reality,” Commun. China Comp. Fed. 7(8), 28–37 (2011).

Displays (1)

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. (1)

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: A review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(5), S189–S194 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. (2)

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Multimedia Tools Appl. (1)

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

H. Li, X. Zhang, G. Shi, H. Qu, Y. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Review and analysis of avionic helmet-mounted displays,” Opt. Eng. 52(11), 110901 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Tudela, E. M. Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2650–2657 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (13)

A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, A. Schwaighofer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Near-perfect hologram reconstruction with a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2597–2603 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, A. Schwaighofer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Full phase and amplitude control of holographic optical tweezers with high efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4479–4486 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hua, X. Hu, and C. Gao, “A high-resolution optical see-through head-mounted display with eyetracking capability,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30993–30998 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Han, J. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Wang, “Portable waveguide display system with a large field of view by integrating freeform elements and volume holograms,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3534–3549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Liu, R. Xiao, X. Li, R. Shi, P. Liu, H. Zhong, B. Zou, and Y. Wang, “Modulation of optical intensity on curved surfaces and its application to fabricate DOEs with arbitrary profile by interference,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5140–5148 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hua and B. Javidi, “A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13484–13491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xue, J. Liu, X. Li, J. Jia, Z. Zhang, B. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Multiplexing encoding method for full-color dynamic 3D holographic display,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18473–18482 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gao, J. Liu, X. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, and Y. Wang, “Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33194–33204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Moon, M. Kim, J. Roh, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Holographic head-mounted display with RGB light emitting diode light source,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6526–6534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Chen and D. P. Chu, “Improved layer-based method for rapid hologram generation and real-time interactive holographic display applications,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18143–18155 (2015).
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H. J. Yeom, H. J. Kim, S. B. Kim, H. Zhang, B. Li, Y. M. Ji, S. H. Kim, and J. H. Park, “3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32025–32034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, J. Liu, J. Jia, Y. Pan, and Y. Wang, “3D dynamic holographic display by modulating complex amplitude experimentally,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20577–20587 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (2)

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H. Hua, “Past and future of wearable augmented reality display and their applications,” Proc. SPIE 9186, 91860O (2014).

Sci. Rep. (1)

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7441 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

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X. Li, J. Liu, Z. Zhang, J. Jia, Y. Pan, and Y. Wang, “Precise intensity modulation in dynamic holographic 3D display,” in Proceedings ofDigital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2014, Imaging and Applied Optics, OSA Technical Digest, JTh1C.1 (2014).

J. Liu and X. Li, “Complex amplitude modulation in real time holographic computation,” in Proceedings ofDigital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2014,Imaging and Applied Optics, OSA Technical Digest, SM4F.1 (2014).

O. Hilliges, D. Kim, S. Izadi, M. Weiss, and A. Wilson, “Holodesk: direct 3D interactions with a situated see-through display,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 2421–2430 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, A. Olwal, H. Ishii, and C. Boulanger, “Spacetop: Integrating 2D and spatial 3D interactions in a see-through desktop environment,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM, 189–192 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (826 KB)      Focused images with different depths
» Visualization 2: MOV (1225 KB)      Dynamic 3D see-through display

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a)Schematic of the 3D see-through head-mounted display based on complex amplitude modulation, (b)an assembled example and the wearing effect, (c)inner optical system of the assembled example.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The illustration of the shift operation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Optical auxiliary device for the two SLMs alignment, (b) a magnified image of the aligned A-SLMs pixel arrays.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The experimental facility for testing the proposed CAM-STHMD system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Illustration for the production of the target complex wavefront, (b) and (c) are two amplitude holograms Ars (real) and Ais (imaginary), respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Reconstructed 3D images when focusing at (a) G, 32.5cm, and (b) F, 52.5cm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Focused images with different depths (Visualization 1): (a) 66.5cm, (b) 74.5cm, (c) 82.5cm, (d) 90.5cm and (e) 98.5cm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Dynamic 3D see-through display (Visualization 2), (a)-(i) are some extracted frames.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Aexp( iθ )=Acosθ+iAsinθ = A r +i A i
A s exp( i θ s )=Aexp( iθ )+ 2 Texp( i π 4 ) = A r +i A i +T( 1+i ) = A r +T+i( A i +T ) = A rs +i A is
Frt { A rs +i A is } λd =Frt { A r +i A i +T( 1+i ) } λd =Frt { A r +i A i } λd +Frt { T( 1+i ) } λd = A exp( i θ )+ 2 TFrt { exp( i π 4 ) } λd
U( x,y )= 1 iλd exp( ikd ) U( x 0 , y 0 )exp { i k 2d [ ( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 ] }d x 0 d y 0
{ | exp( i θ 1 )+exp( i θ 2 ) | 2 =2+2cos( θ 1 θ 2 ) | exp[ i( θ 1 + π 2 ) ]+exp( i θ 2 ) | 2 =22sin( θ 1 θ 2 )
β= f d x ( 0< d x <f )
U G =Frt { f( G ) } λ d 1 U F =Frt { f( F ) } λ d 2

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