Abstract

We applied a far-field technique to measure the surface plasmon propagation over a wide range of gap sizes in thin gold stripes. This is realized with a grating technique which allows the excitation and out coupling of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). With this method the intensity can be monitored before and after the gap. The observations show that the SPPs can transmit over gaps with a width of 1μm with a probability of about 40% for Au stripe-waveguides (7 µm width) at a wavelength of 780 nm. The transmission decays exponentially above a gap size of 1 µm. The results also demonstrate that the transmission has non-monotonic behavior for gap sizes smaller than 1 µm that we attribute to excitation of Fabry-Perot modes and resonant localized plasmons within the gap. The experimental results are supported by numerical simulations using a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) approach.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

H. Jia, H. Liu, and Y. Zhong, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons and other waves in the radiation of resonant optical dipole antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8456 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

D. Benner, J. Boneberg, P. Nürnberger, G. Ghafoori, P. Leiderer, and E. Scheer, “Transmission of surface plasmon polaritons through atomic-size constrictions,” New J. Phys. 15(11), 113014 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Kneier, T. Geldhauser, E. Scheer, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Nanosecond laser pulse induced vertical movement of thin gold films on silicon determined by a modified michelson interferometer,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 110, 321–327 (2013).

2011 (1)

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant modes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1020–1024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Spectral properties of plasmonic resonator antennas,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16529–16537 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

I. Breukelaar and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polariton mode cutoff and radiation in slab waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(8), 1971–1977 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115401 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Coupling of surface-plasmon polaritons to directional far-field radiation by an individual surface protrusion,” Appl. Opt. 40(33), 6081–6085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1972–1974 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, “Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 140–142 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60(11), 8359–8367 (1999).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

H. Raether, “Surface-plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings,” Springer Tr. Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).

1983 (1)

A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and transmission at a barrier,” Solid State Commun. 46(6), 481–485 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

J. E. Kihm, Y. C. Yoon, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Fabry-perot tuning of the band-gap polarity in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baida, F. I.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benner, D.

D. Benner, J. Boneberg, P. Nürnberger, G. Ghafoori, P. Leiderer, and E. Scheer, “Transmission of surface plasmon polaritons through atomic-size constrictions,” New J. Phys. 15(11), 113014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

Bischoff, L.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boneberg, J.

D. Benner, J. Boneberg, P. Nürnberger, G. Ghafoori, P. Leiderer, and E. Scheer, “Transmission of surface plasmon polaritons through atomic-size constrictions,” New J. Phys. 15(11), 113014 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Kneier, T. Geldhauser, E. Scheer, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Nanosecond laser pulse induced vertical movement of thin gold films on silicon determined by a modified michelson interferometer,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 110, 321–327 (2013).

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Coupling of surface-plasmon polaritons to directional far-field radiation by an individual surface protrusion,” Appl. Opt. 40(33), 6081–6085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breukelaar, I.

Brodziak, J. E.

Brongersma, M. L.

E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Spectral properties of plasmonic resonator antennas,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16529–16537 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brown, D. B.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brucoli, G.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bussmann, K.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chandran, A.

Chaney, M.

Chang, S. H.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Davies, A.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115401 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Duch, A. C.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, “Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 140–142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1972–1974 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eng, L. M.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Evans, P.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, “Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 140–142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Felidj, N.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Flynn, R. A.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Geldhauser, T.

F. Kneier, T. Geldhauser, E. Scheer, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Nanosecond laser pulse induced vertical movement of thin gold films on silicon determined by a modified michelson interferometer,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 110, 321–327 (2013).

Ghafoori, G.

D. Benner, J. Boneberg, P. Nürnberger, G. Ghafoori, P. Leiderer, and E. Scheer, “Transmission of surface plasmon polaritons through atomic-size constrictions,” New J. Phys. 15(11), 113014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grafstrom, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grafström, S.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gray, S. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guizal, B.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hendren, W.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jia, H.

H. Jia, H. Liu, and Y. Zhong, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons and other waves in the radiation of resonant optical dipole antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8456 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kihm, J. E.

J. E. Kihm, Y. C. Yoon, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Fabry-perot tuning of the band-gap polarity in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. S.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. S.

J. E. Kihm, Y. C. Yoon, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Fabry-perot tuning of the band-gap polarity in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. E. Kihm, Y. C. Yoon, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Fabry-perot tuning of the band-gap polarity in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kneier, F.

F. Kneier, T. Geldhauser, E. Scheer, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Nanosecond laser pulse induced vertical movement of thin gold films on silicon determined by a modified michelson interferometer,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 110, 321–327 (2013).

Koch, M.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, “Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 140–142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lacroute, Y.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115401 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leiderer, P.

D. Benner, J. Boneberg, P. Nürnberger, G. Ghafoori, P. Leiderer, and E. Scheer, “Transmission of surface plasmon polaritons through atomic-size constrictions,” New J. Phys. 15(11), 113014 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Kneier, T. Geldhauser, E. Scheer, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Nanosecond laser pulse induced vertical movement of thin gold films on silicon determined by a modified michelson interferometer,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 110, 321–327 (2013).

Leitner, A.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lezec, H. J.

Lienau, C.

J. E. Kihm, Y. C. Yoon, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Fabry-perot tuning of the band-gap polarity in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Linke, R. A.

Liu, H.

H. Jia, H. Liu, and Y. Zhong, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons and other waves in the radiation of resonant optical dipole antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8456 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, J. P.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60(11), 8359–8367 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and transmission at a barrier,” Solid State Commun. 46(6), 481–485 (1983).
[Crossref]

Martin, O. J. F.

Martin-Moreno, L.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Medicus, K. M.

Nürnberger, P.

D. Benner, J. Boneberg, P. Nürnberger, G. Ghafoori, P. Leiderer, and E. Scheer, “Transmission of surface plasmon polaritons through atomic-size constrictions,” New J. Phys. 15(11), 113014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, D. J.

J. E. Kihm, Y. C. Yoon, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Fabry-perot tuning of the band-gap polarity in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, Q. H.

J. E. Kihm, Y. C. Yoon, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Fabry-perot tuning of the band-gap polarity in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pastkovsky, S.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pellerin, K. M.

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollard, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radko, I. P.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, “Surface-plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings,” Springer Tr. Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).

Rodier, J. C.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

J. E. Kihm, Y. C. Yoon, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Fabry-perot tuning of the band-gap polarity in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rydh, A.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salerno, M.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Gil, J. A.

J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60(11), 8359–8367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schatz, G. C.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Scheer, E.

F. Kneier, T. Geldhauser, E. Scheer, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Nanosecond laser pulse induced vertical movement of thin gold films on silicon determined by a modified michelson interferometer,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 110, 321–327 (2013).

D. Benner, J. Boneberg, P. Nürnberger, G. Ghafoori, P. Leiderer, and E. Scheer, “Transmission of surface plasmon polaritons through atomic-size constrictions,” New J. Phys. 15(11), 113014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schider, G.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[Crossref]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sidorenko, S.

Simpkins, B. S.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sonnichsen, C.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, “Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 140–142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stefani, F. D.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant modes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1020–1024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and transmission at a barrier,” Solid State Commun. 46(6), 481–485 (1983).
[Crossref]

Steininger, G.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, “Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 140–142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Taminiau, T. H.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant modes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1020–1024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant modes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1020–1024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Labeke, D.

J. Seidel, F. I. Baida, L. Bischoff, B. Guizal, S. Grafström, D. Van Labeke, and L. M. Eng, “Coupling between surface plasmon modes on metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 121405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Verma, P.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vohnsen, B.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, “Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 140–142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wallis, R. F.

A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and transmission at a barrier,” Solid State Commun. 46(6), 481–485 (1983).
[Crossref]

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115401 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64(4), 045411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

White, J. S.

Wurtz, G. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Y. C.

J. E. Kihm, Y. C. Yoon, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Fabry-perot tuning of the band-gap polarity in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Y.

H. Jia, H. Liu, and Y. Zhong, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons and other waves in the radiation of resonant optical dipole antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8456 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Kneier, T. Geldhauser, E. Scheer, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Nanosecond laser pulse induced vertical movement of thin gold films on silicon determined by a modified michelson interferometer,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 110, 321–327 (2013).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, “Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 140–142 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant modes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1020–1024 (2011).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
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S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009).
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Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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New J. Phys. (1)

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Opt. Express (2)

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Phys. Rep. (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (7)

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H. Jia, H. Liu, and Y. Zhong, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons and other waves in the radiation of resonant optical dipole antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8456 (2015).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the sample with dgap = 700 nm and w = 7 µm. (b) and (c) Far-field image, captured by camera, of the sample illuminated by 780 nm light which shows the back-scattered light image of the SPPs propagating in the gold stripe with 7 µm width for p and s polarization, respectively. (d) Intensity cross sections along the long axis of the stripe from the top panel and resulting difference curve obtained by subtracting the intensities for p (blue line) and s (green line) polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimentally determined SPP transmission across the gap in the metal stripe as a function of gap width for the 4 µm (black curve) and 7 µm (blue curve) wide stripes. (b) Comparison of simulated (red curve) and experimental results for the sample with w = 4 μm (black curves) and (c) w = 7 μm (blue curve). (d) Comparison of simulated (red curve) and experimental (blue curve) SPP transmission for small gaps (dgap < 1 µm) in a metal stripe of 7 µm as a function of gap width.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) FDTD simulation results of the intensity distribution on the gold surface for a geometry corresponding to the real sample but with ideally flat surfaces and edges (b) Average intensity cross sections along the long axis over the grating size for w = 7 μm and dgap = 700 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The magenta curves show the FDTD simulation results and the blue curves show the calculated Fabry-Perot modes for two ideal samples as a function of gap sizes for two different sample width of (a) w = 4 µm and (b) w = 7 µm.

Equations (2)

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T g = I 3,1 I 2,1 exp( d 2,3 d gap l )
tanϕ= 2 k 2 n 1 n 1 2 + n 2 2 + k 2 2

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