Abstract

We propose a method to control and to adjust in a closed-loop a bendable x-ray mirror using displacement-measuring devices. For this purpose, the usage of capacitive and interferometric sensors is investigated and compared. We installed the sensors in a bender setup and used them to continuously measure the position and shape of the mirror in the lab. The sensors are vacuum-compatible such that the same concept can also be applied in final conditions. The measurement is used to keep the calibration of the system and to create a closed-loop control compensating for external influences: in a demonstration measurement, using a 950 mm long bendable mirror, the mirror sagitta is kept stable inside a range of 10 nm Peak-To-Valley (P-V).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, F. Siewert, R. Signorato, F. Yang, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of a piezo bendable X-ray mirror,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 169–175 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vannoni and I. Freijo Martín, “Absolute interferometric characterization of an x-ray mirror surface profile,” Metrologia 53(1), 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of an X-ray mirror mechanical bender for the European XFEL,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 5828 (2016).

2015 (1)

V. V. Yashchuk, G. Y. Morrison, M. A. Marcus, E. E. Domning, D. J. Merthe, F. Salmassi, and B. V. Smith, “Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 666–674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Vannoni, A. Sordini, and G. Molesini, “Long-term deformation at room temperature observed in fused silica,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5114–5123 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, P. Salinari, A. Riccardi, and P. Mantegazza, “Contactless thin adaptive mirror technology: past, present, and future,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362B (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Weiser, “Ion beam figuring for lithography optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267(8-9), 1390–1393 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Arkwright, J. Burke, and M. Gross, “A deterministic optical figure correction technique that preserves precision-polished surface quality,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13901–13907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Vannoni and G. Molesini, “Validation of absolute planarity reference plates with a liquid mirror,” Metrologia 42(5), 389–393 (2005).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, and K. Endo, “Elastic emission machining,” Precis. Eng. 9(3), 123–128 (1987).
[Crossref]

Arima, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arkwright, J.

Arnold, T.

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Biasi, R.

R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, P. Salinari, A. Riccardi, and P. Mantegazza, “Contactless thin adaptive mirror technology: past, present, and future,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362B (2010).
[Crossref]

Böhm, G.

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boutet, S.

Brooks, A.

Buchheim, J.

Burke, J.

Domning, E. E.

V. V. Yashchuk, G. Y. Morrison, M. A. Marcus, E. E. Domning, D. J. Merthe, F. Salmassi, and B. V. Smith, “Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 666–674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, K.

Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, and K. Endo, “Elastic emission machining,” Precis. Eng. 9(3), 123–128 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fechner, R.

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Freijo Martín, I.

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, F. Siewert, R. Signorato, F. Yang, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of a piezo bendable X-ray mirror,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 169–175 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vannoni and I. Freijo Martín, “Absolute interferometric characterization of an x-ray mirror surface profile,” Metrologia 53(1), 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of an X-ray mirror mechanical bender for the European XFEL,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 5828 (2016).

Frost, F.

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gallieni, D.

R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, P. Salinari, A. Riccardi, and P. Mantegazza, “Contactless thin adaptive mirror technology: past, present, and future,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362B (2010).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gross, M.

Handa, S.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hänsel, T.

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Inagaki, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, T.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krzywinski, J.

Macintosh, B.

Mantegazza, P.

R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, P. Salinari, A. Riccardi, and P. Mantegazza, “Contactless thin adaptive mirror technology: past, present, and future,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362B (2010).
[Crossref]

Marcus, M. A.

V. V. Yashchuk, G. Y. Morrison, M. A. Marcus, E. E. Domning, D. J. Merthe, F. Salmassi, and B. V. Smith, “Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 666–674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuyama, S.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

McCarville, T.

Meister, J.

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Merthe, D. J.

V. V. Yashchuk, G. Y. Morrison, M. A. Marcus, E. E. Domning, D. J. Merthe, F. Salmassi, and B. V. Smith, “Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 666–674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mimura, H.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Molesini, G.

M. Vannoni, A. Sordini, and G. Molesini, “Long-term deformation at room temperature observed in fused silica,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5114–5123 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vannoni and G. Molesini, “Validation of absolute planarity reference plates with a liquid mirror,” Metrologia 42(5), 389–393 (2005).
[Crossref]

Montanez, P. A.

Mori, Y.

Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, and K. Endo, “Elastic emission machining,” Precis. Eng. 9(3), 123–128 (1987).
[Crossref]

Morrison, G. Y.

V. V. Yashchuk, G. Y. Morrison, M. A. Marcus, E. E. Domning, D. J. Merthe, F. Salmassi, and B. V. Smith, “Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 666–674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamori, H.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nickel, A.

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nishino, Y.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Palmer, D.

Pardini, T.

Pivovaroff, M. J.

Poyneer, L. A.

Riccardi, A.

R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, P. Salinari, A. Riccardi, and P. Mantegazza, “Contactless thin adaptive mirror technology: past, present, and future,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362B (2010).
[Crossref]

Salinari, P.

R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, P. Salinari, A. Riccardi, and P. Mantegazza, “Contactless thin adaptive mirror technology: past, present, and future,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362B (2010).
[Crossref]

Salmassi, F.

V. V. Yashchuk, G. Y. Morrison, M. A. Marcus, E. E. Domning, D. J. Merthe, F. Salmassi, and B. V. Smith, “Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 666–674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sano, Y.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schindler, A.

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Siewert, F.

Signorato, R.

Sinn, H.

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, F. Siewert, R. Signorato, F. Yang, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of a piezo bendable X-ray mirror,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 169–175 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of an X-ray mirror mechanical bender for the European XFEL,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 5828 (2016).

Smith, B. V.

V. V. Yashchuk, G. Y. Morrison, M. A. Marcus, E. E. Domning, D. J. Merthe, F. Salmassi, and B. V. Smith, “Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 666–674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sordini, A.

Tamasaku, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vannoni, M.

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, F. Siewert, R. Signorato, F. Yang, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of a piezo bendable X-ray mirror,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 169–175 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vannoni and I. Freijo Martín, “Absolute interferometric characterization of an x-ray mirror surface profile,” Metrologia 53(1), 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of an X-ray mirror mechanical bender for the European XFEL,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 5828 (2016).

M. Vannoni, “Absolute flatness measurement using oblique incidence setup and an iterative algorithm. A demonstration on synthetic data,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3538–3546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vannoni, A. Sordini, and G. Molesini, “Long-term deformation at room temperature observed in fused silica,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5114–5123 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vannoni and G. Molesini, “Validation of absolute planarity reference plates with a liquid mirror,” Metrologia 42(5), 389–393 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weiser, M.

M. Weiser, “Ion beam figuring for lithography optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267(8-9), 1390–1393 (2009).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. J.

Yabashi, M.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamakawa, D.

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamamura, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, and K. Endo, “Elastic emission machining,” Precis. Eng. 9(3), 123–128 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, F. Siewert, R. Signorato, F. Yang, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of a piezo bendable X-ray mirror,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 169–175 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yashchuk, V. V.

V. V. Yashchuk, G. Y. Morrison, M. A. Marcus, E. E. Domning, D. J. Merthe, F. Salmassi, and B. V. Smith, “Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 666–674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yumoto, H.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Rad. (1)

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of an X-ray mirror mechanical bender for the European XFEL,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 5828 (2016).

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

M. Vannoni, I. Freijo Martín, F. Siewert, R. Signorato, F. Yang, and H. Sinn, “Characterization of a piezo bendable X-ray mirror,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 169–175 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Yashchuk, G. Y. Morrison, M. A. Marcus, E. E. Domning, D. J. Merthe, F. Salmassi, and B. V. Smith, “Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(3), 666–674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Kimura, S. Handa, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront Control System for Phase Compensation in Hard X-ray Optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 072503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (2)

M. Vannoni and I. Freijo Martín, “Absolute interferometric characterization of an x-ray mirror surface profile,” Metrologia 53(1), 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Vannoni and G. Molesini, “Validation of absolute planarity reference plates with a liquid mirror,” Metrologia 42(5), 389–393 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A (1)

T. Arnold, G. Böhm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hänsel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques—status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

M. Weiser, “Ion beam figuring for lithography optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267(8-9), 1390–1393 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Precis. Eng. (1)

Y. Mori, K. Yamauchi, and K. Endo, “Elastic emission machining,” Precis. Eng. 9(3), 123–128 (1987).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, P. Salinari, A. Riccardi, and P. Mantegazza, “Contactless thin adaptive mirror technology: past, present, and future,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362B (2010).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

B. C. Heisen, D. Boukhelef, S. Esenov, S. Hauf, I. Kozlova, L. Maia, A. Parenti, J. Szuba, K. Weger, K. Wrona, and C. Youngman, “Karabo: an Integrated Software Framework Combining Control, Data Management, and Scientific Computing Tasks,” ICALEPCS2013, San Francisco, CA, USA (2013)

V. Music, “Optimisation and characterisation of a mechanical bender for X-ray mirrors,” Bachelor Thesis (University of Hamburg, 2015).

M. Altarelli, R. Brinkmann, M. Chergui, W. Decking, B. Dobson, S. Düsterer, G. Grübel, W. Graeff, H. Graafsma, J. Hajdu, J. Marangos, J. Pflüger, H. Redlin, D. Riley, I. Robinson, J. Rossbach, A. Schwarz, K. Tiedtke, T. Tschentscher, I. Vartaniants, H. Wabnitz, H. Weise, R. Wichmann, K. Witte, A. Wolf, M. Wulff, and M. Yurkov, eds., “The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser,” Technical Design Report, DESY 2006–097 (2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the bender. The spring is compressed and identical reaction forces are transmitted to the levers. The mirror clamps are torqued and the mirror-reflecting surface is bent (details about the actuator mechanism are removed due to property rights).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measurement setup to perform a calibration of the mechanical bender (top view). The Fizeau interferometer is used in an angled setup to measure the bendable mirror surface and its radius of curvature. The three displacement-measuring sensors are installed on the back of the mirror, one corresponding to the center and the other two on opposite sides.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Direct output of the capacitive sensors during a typical measurement.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calibration curve of the bendable mirror, obtained by the Fizeau interferometer and the three capacitive sensors, without any additional correction. The two curves differ by an offset and a proportional factor.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calibration curve of the bendable mirror, obtained by the Fizeau interferometer and the three interferometric optical sensors. In the latter case, we still have an offset, but the proportional factor is almost absent.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Short-term measurement of the sagitta for the capacitive sensors.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Short-term measurement of the sagitta for the optical sensors.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Example of a long-term measurement, with the Fizeau interferometer and the capacitive sensors measuring the mirror sagitta simultaneously. At a specified moment, the closed-loop operation mode with feedback to the capacitive sensors is activated and the sagitta is kept fixed inside the 10 nm range.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Fizeau Interferometer Specifications

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Table 2 Capacitive Sensors Specifications

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Table 3 Optical Sensors Specifications

Equations (2)

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s= L 2 8R .
R= d 2 8[ ( y 1 + y 3 )/2 y 2 ] ,

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