Abstract

We present the design simulation and characterization of a quantum cascade detector operating at 4.3μm wavelength. Array integration and packaging processes were investigated. The device operates in the 4.3μm CO2 absorption region and consists of 64 pixels. The detector is designed fully compatible to standard processing and material growth methods for scalability to large pixel counts. The detector design is optimized for a high device resistance at elevated temperatures. A QCD simulation model was enhanced for resistance and responsivity optimization. The substrate illuminated pixels utilize a two dimensional Au diffraction grating to couple the light to the active region. A single pixel responsivity of 16mA/W at room temperature with a specific detectivity D* of 5107cmHz/W was measured.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  3. M. A. Blessinger, G. W. Apgar, J. D. Biggs, M. L. Louderback, and C. A. Niblack, “A 256×256 element InSb focal plane array for ground-based astronomy,” Experimental Astronomy 3(1), 205–209 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, D. Ting, C. Hill, and J. Nguyen, “First demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE Sensors 2009 Conference, 1609–1612 (2009).
  5. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
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  8. H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. D. Hofstetter, F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade detectors for applications in spectroscopy an pyrometry,” Appl. Phys. B. 100(2), 313–320 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “Vsp—a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Computational Electron. 12(4), 701–721 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Delga, L. Doyennette, M. Carras, V. Trinit, and P. Bois, “Johnson and shot noises in intersubband detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163507 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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2015 (4)

A. P. Ravikumar, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance, room temperature, broadband II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141105 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “Vsp—a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Computational Electron. 12(4), 701–721 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Delga, L. Doyennette, M. Carras, V. Trinit, and P. Bois, “Johnson and shot noises in intersubband detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163507 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. Hofstetter, J. Francesco, L. Hvozdara, H.-P. Herzig, and M. Beck, “CO2 isotope sensor using a broadband infrared source, a spectrally narrow 4.4 μm quantum cascade detector, and a Fourier spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 967–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Performance improvement of long-wave infrared photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using unipolar current blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231107 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade detectors for applications in spectroscopy an pyrometry,” Appl. Phys. B. 100(2), 313–320 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4μm) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs / InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, M. Walther, K. Schwarz, J. Fleissner, and P. Koidl, “Photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors: The four-zone scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 246–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. A. Blessinger, G. W. Apgar, J. D. Biggs, M. L. Louderback, and C. A. Niblack, “A 256×256 element InSb focal plane array for ground-based astronomy,” Experimental Astronomy 3(1), 205–209 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. Mailhiot and D. L. Smith, “Long-wavelength infrared detectors based on strained InAsGa1x In x Sb type IIsuperlattices,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 7, 445 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. L. Smith and C. Mailhiot, “Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2545 (1987).

Andrews, A.

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A. M.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Apgar, G. W.

M. A. Blessinger, G. W. Apgar, J. D. Biggs, M. L. Louderback, and C. A. Niblack, “A 256×256 element InSb focal plane array for ground-based astronomy,” Experimental Astronomy 3(1), 205–209 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bandara, S. V.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, D. Ting, C. Hill, and J. Nguyen, “First demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE Sensors 2009 Conference, 1609–1612 (2009).

Bangs, J. W.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barve, A. V.

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

D. Hofstetter, F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade detectors for applications in spectroscopy an pyrometry,” Appl. Phys. B. 100(2), 313–320 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4μm) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs / InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, O.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “Vsp—a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Computational Electron. 12(4), 701–721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

D. Hofstetter, J. Francesco, L. Hvozdara, H.-P. Herzig, and M. Beck, “CO2 isotope sensor using a broadband infrared source, a spectrally narrow 4.4 μm quantum cascade detector, and a Fourier spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 967–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beere, H.

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biggs, J. D.

M. A. Blessinger, G. W. Apgar, J. D. Biggs, M. L. Louderback, and C. A. Niblack, “A 256×256 element InSb focal plane array for ground-based astronomy,” Experimental Astronomy 3(1), 205–209 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bishop, G. D.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blessinger, M. A.

M. A. Blessinger, G. W. Apgar, J. D. Biggs, M. L. Louderback, and C. A. Niblack, “A 256×256 element InSb focal plane array for ground-based astronomy,” Experimental Astronomy 3(1), 205–209 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bois, P.

A. Delga, L. Doyennette, M. Carras, V. Trinit, and P. Bois, “Johnson and shot noises in intersubband detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bornfreund, R. E.

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bundas, J.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burrows, D.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Carras, M.

A. Delga, L. Doyennette, M. Carras, V. Trinit, and P. Bois, “Johnson and shot noises in intersubband detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Childs, A. C.

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cook, R.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, A.

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dawson, L. R.

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Performance improvement of long-wave infrared photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using unipolar current blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231107 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

De Jesus, J.

A. P. Ravikumar, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance, room temperature, broadband II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delga, A.

A. Delga, L. Doyennette, M. Carras, V. Trinit, and P. Bois, “Johnson and shot noises in intersubband detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dennis, R.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Detz, H.

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Doyennette, L.

A. Delga, L. Doyennette, M. Carras, V. Trinit, and P. Bois, “Johnson and shot noises in intersubband detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4μm) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs / InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4μm) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs / InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fleissner, J.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, M. Walther, K. Schwarz, J. Fleissner, and P. Koidl, “Photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors: The four-zone scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 246–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

Francesco, J.

D. Hofstetter, J. Francesco, L. Hvozdara, H.-P. Herzig, and M. Beck, “CO2 isotope sensor using a broadband infrared source, a spectrally narrow 4.4 μm quantum cascade detector, and a Fourier spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 967–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fulk, C. W.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gansch, R.

Gautam, N.

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Performance improvement of long-wave infrared photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using unipolar current blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giegerich, L. M.

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F.

D. Hofstetter, F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade detectors for applications in spectroscopy an pyrometry,” Appl. Phys. B. 100(2), 313–320 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F. R.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4μm) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs / InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giovannini, M.

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C. F.

A. P. Ravikumar, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance, room temperature, broadband II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141105 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. M. Penello, B. Merkel, C. F. Gmachl, and D. L. Sivco, “Broadband (3.9 – 9.6μm) photocurrent in quantum cascade detector with diagonal transitions,” CLEO: 2015, SM2G.5, Optical Society of America, (2015).

Graf, M.

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gunapala, S.

S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, D. Ting, C. Hill, and J. Nguyen, “First demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE Sensors 2009 Conference, 1609–1612 (2009).

Gunapala, S. D.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haddadi, A.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Herzig, H.-P.

D. Hofstetter, J. Francesco, L. Hvozdara, H.-P. Herzig, and M. Beck, “CO2 isotope sensor using a broadband infrared source, a spectrally narrow 4.4 μm quantum cascade detector, and a Fourier spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 967–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, D. Ting, C. Hill, and J. Nguyen, “First demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE Sensors 2009 Conference, 1609–1612 (2009).

Hill, C. J.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, J. Francesco, L. Hvozdara, H.-P. Herzig, and M. Beck, “CO2 isotope sensor using a broadband infrared source, a spectrally narrow 4.4 μm quantum cascade detector, and a Fourier spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 967–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade detectors for applications in spectroscopy an pyrometry,” Appl. Phys. B. 100(2), 313–320 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4μm) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs / InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hoyler, N.

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, E. K.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hvozdara, L.

D. Hofstetter, J. Francesco, L. Hvozdara, H.-P. Herzig, and M. Beck, “CO2 isotope sensor using a broadband infrared source, a spectrally narrow 4.4 μm quantum cascade detector, and a Fourier spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 967–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jackel, H.

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jensen, J. E.

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. M.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

Karner, M.

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “Vsp—a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Computational Electron. 12(4), 701–721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Performance improvement of long-wave infrared photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using unipolar current blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231107 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klein, B.

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Köhler, K.

D. Hofstetter, F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade detectors for applications in spectroscopy an pyrometry,” Appl. Phys. B. 100(2), 313–320 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koidl, P.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, M. Walther, K. Schwarz, J. Fleissner, and P. Koidl, “Photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors: The four-zone scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 246–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kong, N.

S.-q. Zhai, J.-q. Liu, N. Kong, F.-q. Liu, L. Li, L.-j. Wang, and Z.-G. Wang, “Strain-compensated InP-based InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade infrared detectors for 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Advances in Infrared Imaging and Applications, 8193, 81931X, Sept.8 (2011).

Kosina, H.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “Vsp—a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Computational Electron. 12(4), 701–721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krishna, S.

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Performance improvement of long-wave infrared photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using unipolar current blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231107 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kutty, M. N.

N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Performance improvement of long-wave infrared photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using unipolar current blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231107 (2010).
[Crossref]

LeVan, P. D.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

S.-q. Zhai, J.-q. Liu, N. Kong, F.-q. Liu, L. Li, L.-j. Wang, and Z.-G. Wang, “Strain-compensated InP-based InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade infrared detectors for 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Advances in Infrared Imaging and Applications, 8193, 81931X, Sept.8 (2011).

Li, N.

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E.

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.-Q.

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-q. Zhai, J.-q. Liu, N. Kong, F.-q. Liu, L. Li, L.-j. Wang, and Z.-G. Wang, “Strain-compensated InP-based InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade infrared detectors for 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Advances in Infrared Imaging and Applications, 8193, 81931X, Sept.8 (2011).

Liu, J.

S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, D. Ting, C. Hill, and J. Nguyen, “First demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE Sensors 2009 Conference, 1609–1612 (2009).

Liu, J. K.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.-Q.

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-q. Zhai, J.-q. Liu, N. Kong, F.-q. Liu, L. Li, L.-j. Wang, and Z.-G. Wang, “Strain-compensated InP-based InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade infrared detectors for 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Advances in Infrared Imaging and Applications, 8193, 81931X, Sept.8 (2011).

Liu, X.-H.

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lofgreen, D. D.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

Louderback, M. L.

M. A. Blessinger, G. W. Apgar, J. D. Biggs, M. L. Louderback, and C. A. Niblack, “A 256×256 element InSb focal plane array for ground-based astronomy,” Experimental Astronomy 3(1), 205–209 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lu, W.

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lyon, T. J.

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

MacFarland, D.

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mailhiot, C.

C. Mailhiot and D. L. Smith, “Long-wavelength infrared detectors based on strained InAsGa1x In x Sb type IIsuperlattices,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 7, 445 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. L. Smith and C. Mailhiot, “Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2545 (1987).

Manz, C.

D. Hofstetter, F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade detectors for applications in spectroscopy an pyrometry,” Appl. Phys. B. 100(2), 313–320 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maranowski, K. D.

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

Merkel, B.

G. M. Penello, B. Merkel, C. F. Gmachl, and D. L. Sivco, “Broadband (3.9 – 9.6μm) photocurrent in quantum cascade detector with diagonal transitions,” CLEO: 2015, SM2G.5, Optical Society of America, (2015).

Mumolo, J.

S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, D. Ting, C. Hill, and J. Nguyen, “First demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE Sensors 2009 Conference, 1609–1612 (2009).

Mumolo, J. M.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Myers, S.

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, B.-M.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, J.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, D. Ting, C. Hill, and J. Nguyen, “First demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE Sensors 2009 Conference, 1609–1612 (2009).

Niblack, C. A.

M. A. Blessinger, G. W. Apgar, J. D. Biggs, M. L. Louderback, and C. A. Niblack, “A 256×256 element InSb focal plane array for ground-based astronomy,” Experimental Astronomy 3(1), 205–209 (1994).
[Crossref]

Norton, E. M.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

Olsson, K. R.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patnaude, K.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pellaton, M. L.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4μm) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs / InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Penello, G. M.

G. M. Penello, B. Merkel, C. F. Gmachl, and D. L. Sivco, “Broadband (3.9 – 9.6μm) photocurrent in quantum cascade detector with diagonal transitions,” CLEO: 2015, SM2G.5, Optical Society of America, (2015).

Peterson, J. M.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

Plis, E.

N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Performance improvement of long-wave infrared photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using unipolar current blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231107 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pour, S. A.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Radford, W. A.

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ravikumar, A. P.

A. P. Ravikumar, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance, room temperature, broadband II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reininger, P.

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reisinger, A.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rhiger, D. R.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ristanic, D.

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D.

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, J. B.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rybnicek, K.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schnass, K.

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “Vsp—a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Computational Electron. 12(4), 701–721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schneider, H.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, M. Walther, K. Schwarz, J. Fleissner, and P. Koidl, “Photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors: The four-zone scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 246–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schönbein, C.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, M. Walther, K. Schwarz, J. Fleissner, and P. Koidl, “Photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors: The four-zone scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 246–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schrenk, W.

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, B.

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, K.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, M. Walther, K. Schwarz, J. Fleissner, and P. Koidl, “Photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors: The four-zone scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 246–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sharma, Y. D.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Simolon, B.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sivco, D. L.

G. M. Penello, B. Merkel, C. F. Gmachl, and D. L. Sivco, “Broadband (3.9 – 9.6μm) photocurrent in quantum cascade detector with diagonal transitions,” CLEO: 2015, SM2G.5, Optical Society of America, (2015).

Smith, D. L.

C. Mailhiot and D. L. Smith, “Long-wavelength infrared detectors based on strained InAsGa1x In x Sb type IIsuperlattices,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 7, 445 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. L. Smith and C. Mailhiot, “Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2545 (1987).

Smith, E. P.

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stanojevic, Z.

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “Vsp—a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Computational Electron. 12(4), 701–721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sundaram, M.

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tamargo, M. C.

A. P. Ravikumar, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance, room temperature, broadband II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thron, R.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4μm) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs / InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tidrow, M. Z.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ting, D.

S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, D. Ting, C. Hill, and J. Nguyen, “First demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE Sensors 2009 Conference, 1609–1612 (2009).

Ting, D. Z.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Trinit, V.

A. Delga, L. Doyennette, M. Carras, V. Trinit, and P. Bois, “Johnson and shot noises in intersubband detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Varesi, J. B.

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vilela, M. F.

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walther, M.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, M. Walther, K. Schwarz, J. Fleissner, and P. Koidl, “Photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors: The four-zone scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 246–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.-j.

S.-q. Zhai, J.-q. Liu, N. Kong, F.-q. Liu, L. Li, L.-j. Wang, and Z.-G. Wang, “Strain-compensated InP-based InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade infrared detectors for 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Advances in Infrared Imaging and Applications, 8193, 81931X, Sept.8 (2011).

Wang, S. C.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.-J.

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.-G.

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-q. Zhai, J.-q. Liu, N. Kong, F.-q. Liu, L. Li, L.-j. Wang, and Z.-G. Wang, “Strain-compensated InP-based InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade infrared detectors for 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Advances in Infrared Imaging and Applications, 8193, 81931X, Sept.8 (2011).

Woolaway, J.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

D. Hofstetter, F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade detectors for applications in spectroscopy an pyrometry,” Appl. Phys. B. 100(2), 313–320 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zederbauer, T.

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade detector utilizing the diagonal-transition scheme for high quality cavities,” Opt. Express 23, 6283–6291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhai, S.-Q.

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-q. Zhai, J.-q. Liu, N. Kong, F.-q. Liu, L. Li, L.-j. Wang, and Z.-G. Wang, “Strain-compensated InP-based InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade infrared detectors for 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Advances in Infrared Imaging and Applications, 8193, 81931X, Sept.8 (2011).

Zhuo, N.

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Hofstetter, J. Francesco, L. Hvozdara, H.-P. Herzig, and M. Beck, “CO2 isotope sensor using a broadband infrared source, a spectrally narrow 4.4 μm quantum cascade detector, and a Fourier spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 967–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

D. Hofstetter, F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade detectors for applications in spectroscopy an pyrometry,” Appl. Phys. B. 100(2), 313–320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

A. P. Ravikumar, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance, room temperature, broadband II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141105 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Delga, L. Doyennette, M. Carras, V. Trinit, and P. Bois, “Johnson and shot noises in intersubband detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163507 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, D. Ristanic, P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “High performance bi-functional quantum cascade laser and detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, T. Zederbauer, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “InAs/AlAsSb based quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081107 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Gautam, H. S. Kim, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “Performance improvement of long-wave infrared photodetector based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using unipolar current blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231107 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, M. Walther, K. Schwarz, J. Fleissner, and P. Koidl, “Photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors: The four-zone scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 246–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4μm) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs / InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

S.-Q. Zhai, J.-Q. Liu, X.-J. Wang, N. Zhuo, F.-Q. Liu, Z.-G. Wang, X.-H. Liu, N. Li, and W. Lu, “19μm quantum cascade infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191120 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. L. Smith and C. Mailhiot, “Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2545 (1987).

N. Gautam, S. Myers, A. V. Barve, B. Klein, E. P. Smith, D. R. Rhiger, L. R. Dawson, and S. Krishna, “High operating temperature interband cascade midwave infrared detector based on type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, E. Plis, J. B. Rodriguez, G. D. Bishop, Y. D. Sharma, L. R. Dawson, S. Krishna, J. Bundas, R. Cook, D. Burrows, R. Dennis, K. Patnaude, A. Reisinger, and M. Sundaram, “Mid-IR focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice detector with nBn design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Experimental Astronomy (1)

M. A. Blessinger, G. W. Apgar, J. D. Biggs, M. L. Louderback, and C. A. Niblack, “A 256×256 element InSb focal plane array for ground-based astronomy,” Experimental Astronomy 3(1), 205–209 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

F. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jackel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 285–293 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Computational Electron. (1)

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “Vsp—a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Computational Electron. 12(4), 701–721 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (2)

J. B. Varesi, R. E. Bornfreund, A. C. Childs, W. A. Radford, K. D. Maranowski, J. M. Peterson, S. M. Johnson, L. M. Giegerich, T. J. Lyon, and J. E. Jensen, “Fabrication of high-performance large-format MWIR focal plane arrays from MBE-grown HgCdTe on 4″ silicon substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 30(6), 566–573 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. F. Vilela, K. R. Olsson, E. M. Norton, J. M. Peterson, K. Rybnicek, D. R. Rhiger, C. W. Fulk, J. W. Bangs, D. D. Lofgreen, and S. M. Johnson, “High-performance M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe/Si focal-plane arrays,” J. Electron. Mater. 42(11), 3231–3238 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A (1)

C. Mailhiot and D. L. Smith, “Long-wavelength infrared detectors based on strained InAsGa1x In x Sb type IIsuperlattices,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 7, 445 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (3)

S.-q. Zhai, J.-q. Liu, N. Kong, F.-q. Liu, L. Li, L.-j. Wang, and Z.-G. Wang, “Strain-compensated InP-based InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade infrared detectors for 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Advances in Infrared Imaging and Applications, 8193, 81931X, Sept.8 (2011).

S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, D. Ting, C. Hill, and J. Nguyen, “First demonstration of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array,” IEEE Sensors 2009 Conference, 1609–1612 (2009).

G. M. Penello, B. Merkel, C. F. Gmachl, and D. L. Sivco, “Broadband (3.9 – 9.6μm) photocurrent in quantum cascade detector with diagonal transitions,” CLEO: 2015, SM2G.5, Optical Society of America, (2015).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scanning electron microscope image of a section of the (a) 8×8 pixel array with separate bottom contacts, (b) a detailed SEM image of a single pixel with the corresponding bottom contact (square without grating structure) surrounded by the isolation trench. The inset (c) shows the metal grating in detail.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Band diagram (a) of one QCD period with the corresponding extraction efficiencies for all levels of the extractor and LO-phonon staircase calculated for 300K. The active region consists of 20 periods. The simulated QCD responsivity (b) is based on the simulated absorption efficiency of a 45° mesa device.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photocurrent spectrum and temperature performance of the 4.3μm 20 period QCD design measured with a 100μm × 100μm mesa device. The illumination is through a 45° polished facet.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Photocurrent spectrum and temperature performance (a) of the 4.3μm 20 period QCD design measured with a 109μm × 109μm pixel device. The illumination is through the ARC coated substrate side. The two visible valleys in the spectrum are due to the strong CO2 absorption in the beam path. The simulated and measured differential resistance R0 (b) show good agreement in the entire temperature range. The measured peak responsivity RPeak and the specific detectivity D* (c) were measured by a calibrated globar source. The field of view Θ for D BLIP * is π. The grating coupling simulation of the absorption efficiency (d) of a single pixel with αabs(λ) provided by the QCD simulator. The inset depicts the normalized electric field component Ey due to the metal grating coupling.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The housing of the prototype consists of (a) the cap, the base with the two stage thermo-electric cooler, the bonded ROIC with the QCD array, a cold shield and the anti-reflection coated Ge window. The array wire bonded viewed in illumination direction is depicted in (b). The packaged array (c) is purged with N2. Flip-chip bonding and packaging as depicted was developed and conducted by Faunhofer IZM Berlin.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η abs = T facet ( 1 exp ( 1 2 α isb N p L p ) ) ,
R p = I s P s = λ q h c η abs g p = λ q h c N p η abs p e
R ( λ ) = I s ( λ ) P i ( λ ) M .

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