Abstract

Space domain is regarded as the only known physical dimension left of lightwave to exploit in optical communications. Recently, lots of research efforts have been devoted to using spatial modes of fibers to increase data transmission capacity in optical fiber communications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a different approach to exploiting the space dimension, i.e. transferring image by space dimension encoding/decoding using superpositions of spatial modes in km-scale few-mode fiber. Three grayscale images are successfully transmitted through a 1.1-km few-mode fiber by employing either 4 modes, i.e. three linearly polarized (LP) modes of LP01, LP11a, LP11b and one orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode of OAM-1, or 2 modes (OAM+1, OAM-1). The bit-error rate is evaluated and zero error among all received data is achieved, showing favorable fiber link communication performance using the spatial modes of fiber for encoding/decoding. Moreover, we also demonstrate the 4 modes (LP01, LP11a, LP11b and OAM-1) encoding/decoding for image transfer in a 10-km few-mode fiber in the experiment.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

2015 (11)

E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4887–4890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Supermode fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) transmission,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18736–18745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao and J. Wang, “High-base vector beam encoding/decoding for visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4843–4846 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4827–4830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

2014 (5)

A. Trichili, T. Mhlanga, Y. Ismail, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, M. Zghal, and A. Forbes, “Detection of Bessel beams with digital axicons,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17553–17560 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26117–26127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4, 3853 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

S. Li and J. Wang, “Multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7101007 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

2011 (1)

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, T. Kitoh, and T. Shibata, “12.5 GHz spaced 1.28 Tb/s (512-channel x 2.5 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission over 320 km SMF using multiwavelength generation technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 405–407 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Bai, N.

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Barnett, S.

Bianchini, A.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bickham, S.

Bolle, C.

Boyd, R. W.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brunet, C.

Brüning, R.

R. Brüning, B. Ndagano, M. McLaren, S. Schröter, J. Kobelke, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link,” J. Opt. 18(3), 03LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Burrows, E. C.

Cao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Chen, S.

Courtial, J.

Cvijetic, N.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Du, C.

Du, J.

Duparré, M.

R. Brüning, B. Ndagano, M. McLaren, S. Schröter, J. Kobelke, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link,” J. Opt. 18(3), 03LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R. J.

Essi-ambre, R.-J.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

Fickler, R.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

Forbes, A.

R. Brüning, B. Ndagano, M. McLaren, S. Schröter, J. Kobelke, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link,” J. Opt. 18(3), 03LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Trichili, T. Mhlanga, Y. Ismail, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, M. Zghal, and A. Forbes, “Detection of Bessel beams with digital axicons,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17553–17560 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foschini, G. J.

Franke-Arnold, S.

Fujiwara, M.

H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, T. Kitoh, and T. Shibata, “12.5 GHz spaced 1.28 Tb/s (512-channel x 2.5 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission over 320 km SMF using multiwavelength generation technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 405–407 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gauthier, D. J.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

Gnauck, A. H.

Goebel, B.

Guan, B.

Handsteiner, J.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

Huang, H.

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Huang, Y.-K.

Ip, E.

Ismail, Y.

Iwatsuki, K.

H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, T. Kitoh, and T. Shibata, “12.5 GHz spaced 1.28 Tb/s (512-channel x 2.5 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission over 320 km SMF using multiwavelength generation technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 405–407 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kanonakis, K.

Karimi, E.

Kitoh, T.

H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, T. Kitoh, and T. Shibata, “12.5 GHz spaced 1.28 Tb/s (512-channel x 2.5 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission over 320 km SMF using multiwavelength generation technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 405–407 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kobelke, J.

R. Brüning, B. Ndagano, M. McLaren, S. Schröter, J. Kobelke, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link,” J. Opt. 18(3), 03LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koonen, A. M. J.

Kramer, G.

Krenn, M.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaRochelle, S.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lavery, M. P. J.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

Li, G.

Li, L.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M. J.

Li, M.-J.

Li, S.

S. Li and J. Wang, “Supermode fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) transmission,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18736–18745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4, 3853 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7101007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, P.

Liñares, J.

Lingle, R.

Liu, C.

Liu, J.

Lu, C.

Luo, Y.

Magaa-Loaiza, O. S.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Malik, M.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Man Chung, K.

Mari, E.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

Mateo, E.

McCurdy, A. H.

McLaren, M.

R. Brüning, B. Ndagano, M. McLaren, S. Schröter, J. Kobelke, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link,” J. Opt. 18(3), 03LT01 (2016).
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A. Trichili, T. Mhlanga, Y. Ismail, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, M. Zghal, and A. Forbes, “Detection of Bessel beams with digital axicons,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17553–17560 (2014).
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Messaddeq, Y.

Mhlanga, T.

Milione, G.

Mirhosseini, M.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, Q.

Molisch, A. F.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Mumtaz, S.

Ndagano, B.

R. Brüning, B. Ndagano, M. McLaren, S. Schröter, J. Kobelke, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link,” J. Opt. 18(3), 03LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
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Nolan, D. A.

O’Sullivan, M. N.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Padget, M. J.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
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Padgett, M. J.

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pas’ko, V.

Peckham, D. W.

Peng, G.

Peng, G.-D.

Prieto, X.

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Randel, S.

Ren, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

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D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
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M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaa-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padget, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

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F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
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Rusch, L. A.

Ryf, R.

Scheidl, T.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schröter, S.

R. Brüning, B. Ndagano, M. McLaren, S. Schröter, J. Kobelke, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link,” J. Opt. 18(3), 03LT01 (2016).
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Shibata, T.

H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, T. Kitoh, and T. Shibata, “12.5 GHz spaced 1.28 Tb/s (512-channel x 2.5 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission over 320 km SMF using multiwavelength generation technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 405–407 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shubochkin, R.

Sierra, A.

Sponselli, A.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
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Sun, Y.

Suzuki, H.

H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, T. Kitoh, and T. Shibata, “12.5 GHz spaced 1.28 Tb/s (512-channel x 2.5 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission over 320 km SMF using multiwavelength generation technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 405–407 (2002).
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Takachio, N.

H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, T. Kitoh, and T. Shibata, “12.5 GHz spaced 1.28 Tb/s (512-channel x 2.5 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission over 320 km SMF using multiwavelength generation technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 405–407 (2002).
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Tamburini, F.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
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Thidé, B.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
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Trichili, A.

Tse, V.

Tur, M.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Ursin, R.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
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A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
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J. Liu and J. Wang, “Polarization-insensitive PAM-4-carrying free-space orbital angular momentum (OAM) communications,” Opt. Express 24(4), 4258–4269 (2016).
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A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

S. Li and J. Wang, “Supermode fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) transmission,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18736–18745 (2015).
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Y. Zhao and J. Wang, “High-base vector beam encoding/decoding for visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4843–4846 (2015).
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J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4827–4830 (2015).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4, 3853 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7101007 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Wang, Z.

Willner, A. E.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, A. M.

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
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Yoo, S. J. B.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, and M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishii, “69.1-Tb/s (432 x 171-Gb/s) C- and extended L-band transmission over 240 Km using PDM-16-QAM modulation and digital coherent detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDPB7.

J. Cai, Y. Cai, C. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, Al. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Bergano, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB4.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept and principle of spatial modes encoding/decoding for image transfer. (a) Grayscale images convert into quaternary numbers and binary numbers; (b) Principle of 4 spatial modes encoding/decoding in FMF
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of spatial modes encoding/decoding for image transmission in 1.1-km FMF. Col.: collimator; Pol.: polarizer; HWP: half-wave plate; SLM: spatial light modulator; L1: f = 100 mm lens; L2: f = 100 mm lens; OL: Objective Lens; FMF-PC: few-mode fiber polarization controller.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured fiber modes transmission matrix for 4 spatial modes encoding/decoding case.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Cross-section view of the FMF. (b) Relative refractive index profile of the FMF. (c) Supported six eigenmodes in two mode groups of the FMF.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental results for image transmission using 4 spatial modes (LP01, LP11a, LP11b and OAM-1) in 1.1-km FMF. From left side to right side, it depicts the transmitted data, phase patterns for mode generation, generated mode intensity profiles, detected mode intensity profiles, x/y intensity distribution of the detected mode, and the receiced data.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The transmitted and received 3 grayscale images using 4 modes (LP01, LP11a, LP11b and OAM-1) encoding/decoding. (a)-(c) Transmitted images. (d)-(f) Received images. (a)(d) 64X64 pixels. (b)(e) 64X48 pixels. (c)(f) 64X26 pixels.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental results for image transmission using two OAM modes (OAM+1 and OAM-1) in 1.1-km FMF. (a) Phase pattern for mode generation; (b) Intensity profiles of the transmitted modes. (c) Interferograms for the transmitted modes with Gaussian mode. (d) and (e) Intensity distribution in two line of the interferograms.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental results for image transmission using two OAM modes (OAM+1 and OAM-1) in 1.1-km FMF.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental results of 4 modes encoding/decoding in 10-km FMF.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Experimental results of 4 modes encoding/decoding when the polarization controllers were not aligned correctly.

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